MySQL 8.0 Reference Manual Including MySQL NDB Cluster 8.0

5.1.7 Server Command Options

When you start the mysqld server, you can specify program options using any of the methods described in Section 4.2.2, “Specifying Program Options”. The most common methods are to provide options in an option file or on the command line. However, in most cases it is desirable to make sure that the server uses the same options each time it runs. The best way to ensure this is to list them in an option file. See Section 4.2.2.2, “Using Option Files”. That section also describes option file format and syntax.

mysqld reads options from the [mysqld] and [server] groups. mysqld_safe reads options from the [mysqld], [server], [mysqld_safe], and [safe_mysqld] groups. mysql.server reads options from the [mysqld] and [mysql.server] groups.

mysqld accepts many command options. For a brief summary, execute this command:

mysqld --help

To see the full list, use this command:

mysqld --verbose --help

Some of the items in the list are actually system variables that can be set at server startup. These can be displayed at runtime using the SHOW VARIABLES statement. Some items displayed by the preceding mysqld command do not appear in SHOW VARIABLES output; this is because they are options only and not system variables.

The following list shows some of the most common server options. Additional options are described in other sections:

Some options control the size of buffers or caches. For a given buffer, the server might need to allocate internal data structures. These structures typically are allocated from the total memory allocated to the buffer, and the amount of space required might be platform dependent. This means that when you assign a value to an option that controls a buffer size, the amount of space actually available might differ from the value assigned. In some cases, the amount might be less than the value assigned. It is also possible that the server will adjust a value upward. For example, if you assign a value of 0 to an option for which the minimal value is 1024, the server will set the value to 1024.

Values for buffer sizes, lengths, and stack sizes are given in bytes unless otherwise specified.

Some options take file name values. Unless otherwise specified, the default file location is the data directory if the value is a relative path name. To specify the location explicitly, use an absolute path name. Suppose that the data directory is /var/mysql/data. If a file-valued option is given as a relative path name, it will be located under /var/mysql/data. If the value is an absolute path name, its location is as given by the path name.

You can also set the values of server system variables at server startup by using variable names as options. To assign a value to a server system variable, use an option of the form --var_name=value. For example, --sort_buffer_size=384M sets the sort_buffer_size variable to a value of 384MB.

When you assign a value to a variable, MySQL might automatically correct the value to stay within a given range, or adjust the value to the closest permissible value if only certain values are permitted.

To restrict the maximum value to which a system variable can be set at runtime with the SET statement, specify this maximum by using an option of the form --maximum-var_name=value at server startup.

You can change the values of most system variables at runtime with the SET statement. See Section 13.7.5.1, “SET Syntax for Variable Assignment”.

Section 5.1.8, “Server System Variables”, provides a full description for all variables, and additional information for setting them at server startup and runtime. For information on changing system variables, see Section 5.1.1, “Configuring the Server”.