C H A P T E R  B

Troubleshooting and Tuning Tips

This appendix contains the following sections:

Note - For the latest information regarding Sun Ray Server Software patches, check:

Understanding OSD

Sun Ray Server Software on-screen displays (OSD) to help administrators and others identify problems visually. The most important information about the Sun Ray DTU and its current state is displayed on the screen.

OSD Icon Topography

The original OSD supplied with earlier versions of Sun Ray Server Software and DTU firmware have now been replaced with larger icons that provide the same information in an easier to read format. It is always a good idea to make sure that you are using the latest firmware. See Managing Firmware Versions. Both sets of OSD icons are composited live, based on the current state of connectivity at a given moment. Examples of the original OSD are shown at left in the figures below, with equivalent or similar examples of the newer OSD at the right.

FIGURE B-1 Layout of Old (left) and New (right) OSD Icons

Old and new versions of the 31D icon (only graphical layout has changed)

The OSD icons display:

To help you locate problems, the OSD icons display a numeric icon code followed by an alphabetic DHCP state code. You can look up the meaning of the numeric OSD message codes in TABLE B-1 and the alphabetic DHCP state codes in TABLE B-2, and firmware download error codes in TABLE B-4. Encryption and authentication information is also displayed when appropriate.

Sun Ray DTUs can function in a private interconnect or in a simple LAN environment with only an IP address, but additional basic parameters and Sun Ray-specific vendor options are needed for more complex LAN operations, such as when a DTU is located several hops away from the Sun Ray Server’s subnet.

OSD icon messages and codes are summarized in the following tables:

TABLE B-1 Icon Messages

Icon Code



Sun Ray DTU is starting up and is waiting for ethernet link


Sun Ray DTU is downloading new firmware


Sun Ray DTU is storing new firmware in its flash memory


Either the download or storage of new firmware has failed


There is no session to connect with the Sun Ray


The server is denying access to the Sun Ray


Local pin entry to the smart card has failed


In local smart card pin entry mode


There is an over current condition on the USB bus, i.e., the total number of devices draws too much current. Consider using a powered hub.


Server is authenticated by the Sun Ray DTU and the graphic/keyboard network connection is encrypted


The Sun Ray DTU cannot authenticate the server but the graphic/keyboard network connection is still being encrypted


Server authenticated to the Sun Ray; network connection between Sun Ray and server not encrypted


Server not authenticated to the Sun Ray; graphic/keyboard network connection is not encrypted


the Sun Ray DTU is refusing to talk to the server due to the server’s refusal or inability to authenticate or encrypt the network connection


The Sun Ray USB bus is temporarily busy servicing a high-speed device, and the keyboard or mouse may not be responsive to user input.


The Sun Ray DTU is booting up and is waiting on DHCP IP address and parameter assignment.


The Sun Ray DTU is booting up and is now waiting for the initial connection to a Sun Ray server.


The connection between the Sun Ray DTU and the network is down. Check the network drop cable and (if the network drop cable is okay) the network switch.


The Sun Ray DTU has disconnected from the previous server.


The Sun Ray DTU is being redirected to a new server.


The Sun Ray DTU has connected to the server and is waiting for graphics traffic.


The Sun Ray DTU is broadcasting to locate a Sun Ray server since either it was not provided with Sun Ray specific DHCP parameters or all of the specified servers are not responding.


VPN connection being attempted


VPN connection established


VPN connection error


Icons 31 through 34 display network status when the three audio keys are pressed simultaneously.


The network link is up, the server is authenticated, and graphics/keyboard network connections are not encrypted.


The network link is up, the server is not authenticated, and graphics/keyboard network connections are encrypted.


The network link is up, the server is authenticated and graphics/keyboard are encrypted.


The network link is up, the server is not authenticated and graphics/keyboard are not encrypted.


The server is refusing to talk to the Sun Ray DTU due to the Sun Ray’s refusal or inability to authenticate or encrypt the network connection

TABLE B-2 DCHP State Codes

DCHP State Code



DCHP only provided IP address with no additional parameters.


DCHP provided IP address, subnet mask, and router, but Sun Ray vendor-specific parameters are missing.


DHCP provided IP address and Sun Ray vendor-specific parameters, but subnet mask and router are missing.


DHCP provided all expected parameters.


Codes E, F, H, and I are valid only with OSD icon 28


VPN Phase 1 IKE initiated.


VPN Phase 1 IKE complete.


VPN Phase 2 initiated.


VPN Phase 2 complete.


DTU Hardware State

Action to Take


Check to see if the DTU is plugged in. Replace the DTU.


Hardware fault. Replace the DTU.


PROM is corrupted. Check that firmware downloads are properly configured and enabled, then power cycle the DTU.

Card reader LED remains on even when smart card is removed

Card reader hardware problem. Replace the DTU.

TABLE B-4 Firmware Download Error Codes and Messages

Error Code

Error Message


FW Load: No server


FW Load: Name too long


FW Load: Bad read


FW Load: Bad signature


FW Load: Failed decompression


FW Load: Invalid module type


FW Load: Version mismatch


FW Load: Not enough memory


FW Load: Prevented by barrier


FW Load: Invalid HW version


FW Load: Flash write error

Sun Ray Desktop Unit Startup

The first display a user should see is depicted below:


OSD shows a Sun Ray symbol and Ethernet address, and indicates no Ethernet signal.

This icon indicates that the DTU has passed the power-on self test but has not detected an Ethernet signal yet. This icon is displayed as part of the normal startup phase and is usually displayed for only a few seconds.

procedure icon  If this icon stays on for more than 10 seconds

1. Check that the Ethernet cable is correctly plugged into the DTU and the other end is plugged in to the correct hub, switch, or network outlet.

A link light on the switch or hub indicates that the connection is alive.

2. If the DTU is connected through a hub or a switch, make sure that the hub or switch is powered on and configured correctly.

After the Sun Ray DTU has verified its network connection, the user should see this OSD:

FIGURE B-3 Network Connection Verified

Sun Ray symbol, Ethernet address, double arrow next to 100H (connection speed), and an icon code 21

This icon indicates that the DTU has detected the Ethernet carrier but has not yet received its initial parameters or IP address from DHCP. This icon is displayed as part of the normal startup phase and is usually displayed for only a few seconds.

procedure icon  If this icon stays on for more than 10 seconds

1. Make sure that the DHCP server is configured correctly, is up and running, and has not run out of IP addresses to assign to clients.

2. Verify that your DHCP server is configured properly for network parameters.

After the DHCP server has allocated an IP address, the icon is updated with the unit’s IP address; if the response is inadequate, the Sun Ray DTU issues a DHCP inform request to attempt to obtain the Sun Ray vendor-specific parameters. The Sun Ray DTU continues all the way through booting with just a DHCP supplied IP address but usually functions better with some additional parameters.

At this point, depending on whether you have configured your Sun Ray servers to run on a LAN or a dedicated interconnect, OSD 21A or 21B may display.

Code 21 A indicates that the DTU got an IP address and is waiting for a DHCP inform response to other parameters.

Code 21 B indicates that the DTU got an IP address and IP router and is waiting for Sun Ray vendor-specific options from DHCP inform.

Note - If you see a 21 A or 21 B with a DTU IP address in a LAN deployment, the Sun Ray DTU is trying to use DHCP_INFORM to get Sun Ray-specific parameters.

procedure icon  Actions to Take

1. For LAN configurations with other (non-Sun Ray) DHCP services but no bootp proxy agent, verify the DHCP server and the Sun Ray vendor tags.

2. For routed configurations, verify that the bootp proxy agent is configured correctly in the Sun Ray DTU’s subnet and that it points to one of the Sun Ray servers in the failover group.

3. For non-routed private interconnect configurations, the Sun Ray server also performs the functions of a DHCP server. Verify that it is configured properly for DHCP services.

When DHCP finishes, the Sun Ray DTU tries to connect to a Sun Ray server and the Authentication Manager running on it.

FIGURE B-4 Waiting to Connect to Authentication Manager

Ethernet address, DTU IP address, connection speed, server IP address, and the code 22D.

This icon indicates that the DTU has received its initial parameters from DHCP but has not yet connected to the Sun Ray Authentication Manager. This icon is displayed as part of the normal startup phase and is usually displayed for only a few seconds.

procedure icon  If the icon displays for more than a few seconds or if the DTU continues to reset after the icon is displayed

1. Make sure that Sun Ray services, including the Authentication Manager, are up and running on the Sun Ray server.

In a LAN configuration or other routed environment:

2. Make sure that the Authentication Manager can be reached from the IP address assigned to the DTU.

3. Verify that the routing information the DTU receives is correct.

4. Run utquery for the DTU’s IP address.

The utquery command displays the parameters a Sun Ray DTU has received. If utquery fails to display an AuthSrvr parameter, the DHCP server for Sun Ray parameters may not be reachable or may not be configured properly. Confirm that the DHCPServer and INFORMServer values are appropriate. If not, look at your bootp relay configurations and DHCP server configurations for network and Sun Ray parameters. For details of these parameters, see the utquery man page.

FIGURE B-5 Redirection OSD

DTU and server with broken 100F arrow and “redirected” curved arrow

This OSD indicates that the DTU is being redirected to a new server. This can occur for any of several reasons, including load balancing.

FIGURE B-6 Wait for Session OSD

Ethernet address, DTU IP address with 100H next to an hour-glass symbol (meaning “wait”).

This OSD represents the transition state for the Sun Ray DTU. If it is displayed for an extended period, there is probably no X Window server running.

Note - The current wait icon is a white “X” cursor. In earlier releases, the wait icon was displayed as a green newt cursor.


procedure icon  To Identify a Hung Session

single-step bullet  As superuser, type:

# /opt/SUNWut/sbin/utdesktop -l -w

procedure icon  To Kill a Hung Session

single-step bullet  As superuser, type:

# /opt/SUNWut/sbin/utsession -k -t token

procedure icon  Actions to Take

1. Check the messages file /var/opt/SUNWut/log/messages to verify the version number.

2. Correct, if necessary, with utadm -l.

FIGURE B-7 Bus Busy

A horizontal plug symbol suggests there may be an input problem. Code 16D.

This icon indicates that the Sun Ray USB bus is temporarily busy servicing a high-speed device, and the keyboard or mouse may not be responsive to user input.

This icon typically appears only during an unusually long print job and disappears when the job is done. This is an informational OSD; there is no particular action to take unless it is necessary to kill the print job.

FIGURE B-8 No Ethernet Signal

The yellow triangle and yellow X through the horizontal double arrow indicate there is no connection.

This icon indicates that the DTU has an Ethernet address and an IP address but has lost the Ethernet signal. This icon is displayed only after the DTU successfully boots and receives an IP address, but then loses its Ethernet signal.

procedure icon  Actions to Take

1. Check that the Ethernet cable is correctly plugged in to the back of the DTU and the other end is plugged into the correct switch or network outlet.

2. If the DTU is connected through a hub or switch, make sure that the hub or switch is on and configured correctly.

FIGURE B-9 Ethernet Address

It also shows the Sun Ray symbol, a green check mark, and an open lock.

This OSD shows the Ethernet address, currently assigned IP address, currently connected server, encryption status, DHCP state, and link speed and mode. 10 stands for 10 Mbps, and 100 for 100 Mbps. F stands for full duplex, H stands for half-duplex mode.To display this OSD with current information, press the three audio volume keys simultaneously.

Tip - To get the same effect on non-Sun keyboard, disconnect and reconnect the Ethernet cable.

FIGURE B-10 Ethernet Address OSD with Different Encryption and Authentication States

New and old OSD contain identical iformation; only the layout has changed.

Session Connection Failures

The following icons are displayed in the event of a possible security breach.

FIGURE B-11 Session Refused by Client

A large red X drawn through a lock symbol next indicates that the client refuses to connect.

Icon 15D indicates that the client is refusing to connect to a server because it is unable to verify the validity of the Sun Ray server. This error can occur only if an unknown Sun Ray server intercepts the messages and tries to emulate a valid Sun Ray server. This is a session security breach.

A graphically similar icon displaying the number 50 indicates that the server is refusing to grant a session to the client because the client is unable to fulfill the server’s security requirements.

procedure icon  Actions to Take

1. Check the client’s firmware version.

This error may occur with firmware versions earlier than 2.0 if the server is configured for hard security mode.

2. Upgrade the firmware.

As an alternative, confirm whether your site requires hard security mode. If not, the session can be enabled with soft security mode.

The following icon is displayed if the DTU is broadcasting to locate a server and either no servers respond or Sun Ray specific DHCP parameters have not been supplied correctly.

FIGURE B-12 DHCP Broadcast Failure

The following icon is displayed while a DTU is trying to establish a VPN connection.

FIGURE B-13 Establishing a VPN Connection

When the VPN connection is established, the following icon is displayed.

FIGURE B-14 VPN Connection Established

Firmware Download Diagnostics

When firmware download error occurs, OSD icon 4 (see FIGURE B-15) displays the appropriate error code and a descriptive text string. These error codes are listed in TABLE B-4.

Note - These error messages appear in English even in localized versions of Sun Ray Server Software.

FIGURE B-15 OSD Icon 4 Displays Firmware Download Error Messages

OSD icon 4 displays firmware download error messages

Firmware Download OSD

The following OSD are typical of those that may display when new firmware is downloaded to a DTU from a Sun Ray server.

FIGURE B-16 Firmware Download in Progress

Firmware download is indicated by an arrow pointing from the server to the DTU.

This icon indicates that the DTU is currently downloading new flash PROM software from the Sun Ray server.

procedure icon  Actions to Take

1. Wait until the download is complete.

Downloading and saving the new PROM software usually takes less than a minute. If you interrupt the download, the DTU has to download new PROM software the next time it reboots.

If the firmware download fails, the following syslog message indicates that the barrier level has been set to prevent Sun Ray DTUs with SRSS 4.0 firmware from automatically downloading an earlier version of the firmware:

Firmware upgrade/downgrade not allowed! Barrier is 310 Firmware level is 0

2. Check /var/opt/SUNWut/log/messages to confirm that your configuration is set up properly.

FIGURE B-17 Saving PROM Software

Ethernet address, DTU IP address, 100H indicator, server IP address, and code 3D.

This icon indicates that the DTU has just downloaded new PROM software from the Sun Ray server and is saving it to the DTU’s PROM.

procedure icon  Actions to Take

single-step bullet  Wait until the download is done.

Downloading and saving the new PROM software usually takes less than a minute. If you interrupt the download, the DTU has to download new PROM software the next time it reboots.

FIGURE B-18 Firmware Download Failed

OSD 4 now displays error messages, in this case, “FW Load: Bad read”.

This icon indicates that the DTU has failed to download new firmware. OSD 4 now includes error code text, as shown above.

Token Reader Icons

When a site policy disallows pseudo-sessions, DTUs configured as token readers display the Card Reader icon instead of the Login Dialog box card.

Note - The token reader was called the card reader in earlier releases. The smart card token itself is an integrated circuit embedded in or printed on the card, and it is data on the token that is read when a user inserts a card. In practice, the terms card reader and token reader are used interchangeably.

FIGURE B-19 Card Reader OSD

This icon shows a Sun Ray DTU with a card inserted in its card reader.

FIGURE B-20 Card Read Error OSD

Sun Ray symbol connected to an alert sign (yellow triangle with a black exclamation point).

This icon indicates that the Card Read Error OSD icon appears whenever the firmware is unable to read the card due to one of the following causes:

procedure icon  Actions to Take

1. Upgrade the firmware.

2. Replace the card.

FIGURE B-21 Prompt for Card Insertion OSD

The OSD shows a card symbol next to a green arrow pointing toward a Sun Ray DTU.

If the current authentication policy allows access only by card, this OSD icon appears and prompts the user to insert a card.

FIGURE B-22 Access Denied OSD

Red circle, crossed by a horizontal bar, indicating that access is denied

This icon indicates that the Access Denied OSD icon appears when the current authentication policy denies access to the presented token. Specifically, this icon is displayed if a disabled card has been inserted into a DTU.

The Sun Ray administration model has seven user session types:

The first three session types have normal login processes. When there is a problem, the administrator should examine:

caution icon Caution - Sun Ray Server Software modifies certain system configuration files. In most cases, these changes are identified with SRSS-specific comments. Please do not change these modifications.

Although the last four session types display icons on the Sun Ray DTU, they do not have login processes at all. The icons indicate that the user must take steps before a successful login is possible. If the user immediately removes and reinserts the smart card, the icon disappears, but the Wait for Session OSD remains.

These last four session types and their OSDs should not cause alarm. The user can:

Authentication Manager Errors

Authentication Manager errors can be found in the following error logs:

The general format of the log messages is:

timestamp   thread_name    message_class     message

For example:

May  7 15:01:57 e47c utauthd: [ID 293833 user.info] Worker3 NOTICE: SESSION_OK pseudo.080020f8a5ee

Message components are defined as follows:

year.month.day hours:minutes:seconds

There are several different types of threads. The most common thread handles DTU authentication, access control, and session monitoring. These threads are named “worker” plus number. The Worker# thread names are reused when a connection terminates. Other threads are:

Messages with the same thread name are related. The exception occurs when a Worker# thread disconnects a DTU and then purges the connection information from memory. After a Worker# DESTROY message, the next use of that Worker# thread name has no relation to previous uses of the thread name (in other words, the thread names are reused).

Troubleshooting USB Mass Storage Devices

The most common problems encountered with USB mass storage devices on Sun Ray DTUs are described in the following sections.

Device Nodes Are Not Created

Some mass storage device types are not supported on Sun Ray. Inspect the log file /var/opt/SUNWut/log/utstoraged.log for an indication as to why device nodes were not created.

Device Is Not Automatically Mounted

If the storage medium does not have a OS-recognizable file system, it will not get automatically mounted. An error message will be logged to: /var/opt/SUNWut/log/utmountd.log

Device Is Not Automatically Unmounted

If the device is unplugged, or if the user’s session is disconnected from the DTU, all mount points for that DTU are automatically unmounted unless the user has open references to the mount point. In that case, the mount point becomes stale. A stale mount point persists until the administrator unmounts it manually or until the system is rebooted.

Run the following command to find stale mount points.

# /opt/SUNWut/bin/utdiskadm -s

Note - Close all references to the mount point or terminate all processes that refer to the mount before running the umount command.


Each time a user logs in to a Sun Ray DTU, a script automatically assigns the $AUDIODEV environment variable to that session. One utaudio(1)real-time process is assigned to each session. Refer to the audio(7i)man page for more information.

Audio Device Emulation

The emulated audio device follows the user session during hotdesking. The device name appears in the $AUDIODEV environment variable but is transparently interpreted by audio programs for Sun systems. Device nodes are created in the /tmp/SUNWut/dev/utaudio directory. The directory tree is completely recreated at boot time.

caution icon Caution - Do not remove the /tmp/SUNWut/dev/utaudiodirectory. Deleting this directory prevents existing users with utaudiosessions from using their audio pseudo device nodes.

If your application uses /dev/audio, the Sun Ray server software reroutes the audio signal appropriately.

Audio Malfunction

If audio features are malfunctioning:

1. To confirm whether audio is working, run the following command on the DTU:

% cat <audio file> >/$AUDIODEV

2. Bring up utsettings:

% utsettings

3. Verify that audio output is selected properly, for example, for headphones or speakers.

4. Check the volume level.

5. Verify that Mute is not selected.

Some applications are hard-coded to use /dev/audio for output. Sun Ray System Software provides a redirection library that you can use to correct this behavior.

procedure icon  To Activate the Redirection Library

1. Set the environment variable LD_PRELOAD to libc_ut.so in the shell or wrapper from which you started the audio player:

# setenv LD_PRELOAD libc_ut.so

2. Restart the application.

Performance Tuning

Some applications, such as intensive 3-D visual simulations, may run very slowly on Sun Ray. Other applications, such as pseudo-stereo viewers using double-buffering, or high-frequency dynamic color table flips on 8-bit visuals, do not produce the expected visual result.


Placing the user’s interactive applications, such as Netscape or StarOffice, or PC interoperability tools, such as Citrix or Tarantella, on the Sun Ray server usually helps performance by reducing network load. The applications benefit from faster transport of commands to the Sun Ray’s X server.

Applications that can be configured to use shared memory instead of DGA or openGL usually perform better on Sun Ray when they used shared memory.

Sluggish Performance

Sluggish Sun Ray server performance or excessive disk swapping is an indication that the Sun Ray server is under-provisioned. Under these circumstances, there is not enough virtual memory available to start an X Window server instance for a user’s session.

The solution in this situation is to add more memory or increase the size of the swap partition. In other situations, network load or packet loss may be too high. In very rare cases, network cables or switch equipment may be defective.

1. To determine whether there is excessive swapping, use vmstat 5.

# vmstat 5

If there is excessive swapping, the system may be undersized or overutilized.

2. Verify that network connections are 100F.

3. Use utcapture to assess network latency and packet loss.

As latency and packet loss increase, performance suffers.

Screensaver Resource Consumption

Many graphics-intensive screensaver programs consume large amounts of CPU, memory, and network bandwidth. To avoid excessive resource consumption, they should be disabled on Sun Ray servers.

procedure icon  To Disable Screensaver Hacks on Linux Systems

It is slightly more complicated to perform the equivalent procedure on Linux systems because the screensaver hacks all reside in one RPM with the xscreensaver executables. Thus, instead of removing all the hacks with a single command, it may be necessary to rename the directory or directories that contain the screensavers or restrict their permissions.

Multihead Displays

For information on multihead displays, please see Multihead Administration.

Note - The Sun Ray 2FS is designed to run a single display across two screens without additional configuration. It utilizes a single frame buffer for two displays, always treating two attached heads as a single, unified display surface to be controlled with a single mouse and keyboard, and always presenting itself to the X server as a single screen.

Monitor Display Resolution Defaults to 640 x 480

First, eliminate the most obvious possible causes:

If the Sun Ray DTU is unable to read DDC data from the monitor, then it defaults to 640 x 480 pixels.

procedure icon  To Correct or Reset the Screen Resolution

1. Replace the cable

2. Restart the Sun Ray DTU after powering the monitor on

3. Replace the monitor

4. Use the utresadm to set persistent display setting to override the default.

Old Icons (Hourglass with Dashes Underneath) Appear on Display

If the old icons appear on the display, either the DTU’s firmware has not been upgraded or it is failing.

1. Upgrade the firmware to SRSS 4.0.

2. Follow the procedure to upgrade the firmware. See the Sun Ray Software 4.0 Installation and Configuration Guide.

You may need to use a dedicated private network.

Port Currently Owned by Another Application

If this message displays, use the following procedure to correct it:

1. Download the latest Java Communications API (javax.comm API version 2.0.2 and above)

2. Make sure that the supported USB-Serial Adapter is used.

The supported USB devices list is available at


3. Click the Change Synchronization Settings icon and select the appropriate port (to which the Palm cradle should be connected), then click OK.

4. If the ports are not correctly shown in the Serial Port drop down menu, close the application and hot plug the device.

5. Start the application again.

Design Tips

This SunMC panel lists modules by name and indicates whether each is loaded, scheduled, and enabled.