MySQL 6.0 Reference Manual

Copyright © 1997, 2010, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

This software and related documentation are provided under a license agreement containing restrictions on use and disclosure and are protected by intellectual property laws. Except as expressly permitted in your license agreement or allowed by law, you may not use, copy, reproduce, translate, broadcast, modify, license, transmit, distribute, exhibit, perform, publish, or display any part, in any form, or by any means. Reverse engineering, disassembly, or decompilation of this software, unless required by law for interoperability, is prohibited.

The information contained herein is subject to change without notice and is not warranted to be error-free. If you find any errors, please report them to us in writing.

If this software or related documentation is delivered to the U.S. Government or anyone licensing it on behalf of the U.S. Government, the following notice is applicable:

U.S. GOVERNMENT RIGHTS Programs, software, databases, and related documentation and technical data delivered to U.S. Government customers are "commercial computer software" or "commercial technical data" pursuant to the applicable Federal Acquisition Regulation and agency-specific supplemental regulations. As such, the use, duplication, disclosure, modification, and adaptation shall be subject to the restrictions and license terms set forth in the applicable Government contract, and, to the extent applicable by the terms of the Government contract, the additional rights set forth in FAR 52.227-19, Commercial Computer Software License (December 2007). Oracle USA, Inc., 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood City, CA 94065.

This software is developed for general use in a variety of information management applications. It is not developed or intended for use in any inherently dangerous applications, including applications which may create a risk of personal injury. If you use this software in dangerous applications, then you shall be responsible to take all appropriate fail-safe, backup, redundancy, and other measures to ensure the safe use of this software. Oracle Corporation and its affiliates disclaim any liability for any damages caused by use of this software in dangerous applications.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its affiliates. MySQL is a trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its affiliates, and shall not be used without Oracle's express written authorization. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners.

This software and documentation may provide access to or information on content, products, and services from third parties. Oracle Corporation and its affiliates are not responsible for and expressly disclaim all warranties of any kind with respect to third-party content, products, and services. Oracle Corporation and its affiliates will not be responsible for any loss, costs, or damages incurred due to your access to or use of third-party content, products, or services.

This documentation is in prerelease status and is intended for demonstration and preliminary use only. It may not be specific to the hardware on which you are using the software. Oracle Corporation and its affiliates are not responsible for and expressly disclaim all warranties of any kind with respect to this documentation and will not be responsible for any loss, costs, or damages incurred due to the use of this documentation.

The information contained in this document is for informational sharing purposes only and should be considered in your capacity as a customer advisory board member or pursuant to your beta trial agreement only. It is not a commitment to deliver any material, code, or functionality, and should not be relied upon in making purchasing decisions. The development, release, and timing of any features or functionality described in this document remains at the sole discretion of Oracle.

This document in any form, software or printed matter, contains proprietary information that is the exclusive property of Oracle. Your access to and use of this material is subject to the terms and conditions of your Oracle Software License and Service Agreement, which has been executed and with which you agree to comply. This document and information contained herein may not be disclosed, copied, reproduced, or distributed to anyone outside Oracle without prior written consent of Oracle or as specifically provided below. This document is not part of your license agreement nor can it be incorporated into any contractual agreement with Oracle or its subsidiaries or affiliates.

This documentation is NOT distributed under a GPL license. Use of this documentation is subject to the following terms:

You may create a printed copy of this documentation solely for your own personal use. Conversion to other formats is allowed as long as the actual content is not altered or edited in any way. You shall not publish or distribute this documentation in any form or on any media, except if you distribute the documentation in a manner similar to how Oracle disseminates it (that is, electronically for download on a Web site with the software) or on a CD-ROM or similar medium, provided however that the documentation is disseminated together with the software on the same medium. Any other use, such as any dissemination of printed copies or use of this documentation, in whole or in part, in another publication, requires the prior written consent from an authorized representative of Oracle. Oracle and/or its affiliates reserve any and all rights to this documentation not expressly granted above.

For more information on the terms of this license, for details on how the MySQL documentation is built and produced, or if you are interested in doing a translation, please visit MySQL Contact & Questions.

For additional licensing information, including licenses for libraries used by MySQL products, see Preface, Notes, Licenses.

If you want help with using MySQL, please visit either the MySQL Forums or MySQL Mailing Lists where you can discuss your issues with other MySQL users.

For additional documentation on MySQL products, including translations of the documentation into other languages, and downloadable versions in variety of formats, including HTML and PDF formats, see the MySQL Documentation Library.


This is the MySQL™ Reference Manual. It documents MySQL 6.0 through 6.0.14.

MySQL Cluster is currently not supported in MySQL 6.0. For information about MySQL Cluster, please see MySQL Cluster NDB 6.X/7.X.

MySQL 6.0 features. This manual describes features that are not included in every edition of MySQL 6.0; such features may not be included in the edition of MySQL 6.0 licensed to you. If you have any questions about the features included in your edition of MySQL 6.0, refer to your MySQL 6.0 license agreement or contact your Oracle sales representative.

Document generated on: 2010-06-09 (revision: 21148)

Table of Contents

Preface, Notes, Licenses
1. regex Library License
2. libedit License
3. Netlib License
4. Unicode Terms of Use
1. General Information
1.1. About This Manual
1.2. Typographical and Syntax Conventions
1.3. Overview of the MySQL Database Management System
1.3.1. What is MySQL?
1.3.2. History of MySQL
1.3.3. The Main Features of MySQL
1.4. MySQL Development History
1.5. What Is New in MySQL 6.0
1.6. MySQL Information Sources
1.6.1. MySQL Mailing Lists
1.6.2. MySQL Community Support at the MySQL Forums
1.6.3. MySQL Community Support on Internet Relay Chat (IRC)
1.6.4. MySQL Enterprise
1.7. How to Report Bugs or Problems
1.8. MySQL Standards Compliance
1.8.1. What Standards MySQL Follows
1.8.2. Selecting SQL Modes
1.8.3. Running MySQL in ANSI Mode
1.8.4. MySQL Extensions to Standard SQL
1.8.5. MySQL Differences from Standard SQL
1.8.6. How MySQL Deals with Constraints
1.9. Credits
1.9.1. Contributors to MySQL
1.9.2. Documenters and translators
1.9.3. Packages that support MySQL
1.9.4. Tools that were used to create MySQL
1.9.5. Supporters of MySQL
2. Installing and Upgrading MySQL
2.1. General Installation Guidance
2.1.1. Operating Systems Supported by MySQL Community Server
2.1.2. Choosing Which MySQL Distribution to Install
2.1.3. How to Get MySQL
2.1.4. Verifying Package Integrity Using MD5 Checksums or GnuPG
2.1.5. Installation Layouts
2.1.6. Compiler-Specific Build Characteristics
2.2. Standard MySQL Installation Using a Binary Distribution
2.3. Installing MySQL on Windows
2.3.1. Choosing An Installation Package
2.3.2. Installing MySQL with the Automated Installer
2.3.3. Using the MySQL Installation Wizard
2.3.4. MySQL Server Instance Configuration Wizard
2.3.5. Installing MySQL from a Noinstall Zip Archive
2.3.6. Extracting the Install Archive
2.3.7. Creating an Option File
2.3.8. Selecting a MySQL Server Type
2.3.9. Starting the Server for the First Time
2.3.10. Starting MySQL from the Windows Command Line
2.3.11. Starting MySQL as a Windows Service
2.3.12. Testing The MySQL Installation
2.3.13. Troubleshooting a MySQL Installation Under Windows
2.3.14. Upgrading MySQL on Windows
2.3.15. MySQL on Windows Compared to MySQL on Unix
2.4. Installing MySQL from RPM Packages on Linux
2.5. Installing MySQL on Mac OS X
2.6. Installing MySQL on Solaris
2.7. Installing MySQL on NetWare
2.8. Installing MySQL from tar.gz Packages on Other Unix-Like Systems
2.9. MySQL Installation Using a Source Distribution
2.9.1. Source Installation Overview
2.9.2. Typical configure Options
2.9.3. Installing from the Development Source Tree
2.9.4. Dealing with Problems Compiling MySQL
2.9.5. MIT-pthreads Notes
2.9.6. Installing MySQL from Source on Windows
2.9.7. Compiling MySQL Clients on Windows
2.10. Post-Installation Setup and Testing
2.10.1. Windows Post-Installation Procedures
2.10.2. Unix Post-Installation Procedures
2.10.3. Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts
2.11. Upgrading or Downgrading MySQL
2.11.1. Upgrading MySQL
2.11.2. Downgrading MySQL
2.11.3. Checking Whether Tables or Indexes Must Be Rebuilt
2.11.4. Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes
2.11.5. Copying MySQL Databases to Another Machine
2.12. Operating System-Specific Notes
2.12.1. Linux Notes
2.12.2. Mac OS X Notes
2.12.3. Solaris Notes
2.12.4. BSD Notes
2.12.5. Other Unix Notes
2.13. Environment Variables
2.14. Perl Installation Notes
2.14.1. Installing Perl on Unix
2.14.2. Installing ActiveState Perl on Windows
2.14.3. Problems Using the Perl DBI/DBD Interface
3. Tutorial
3.1. Connecting to and Disconnecting from the Server
3.2. Entering Queries
3.3. Creating and Using a Database
3.3.1. Creating and Selecting a Database
3.3.2. Creating a Table
3.3.3. Loading Data into a Table
3.3.4. Retrieving Information from a Table
3.4. Getting Information About Databases and Tables
3.5. Using mysql in Batch Mode
3.6. Examples of Common Queries
3.6.1. The Maximum Value for a Column
3.6.2. The Row Holding the Maximum of a Certain Column
3.6.3. Maximum of Column per Group
3.6.4. The Rows Holding the Group-wise Maximum of a Certain Column
3.6.5. Using User-Defined Variables
3.6.6. Using Foreign Keys
3.6.7. Searching on Two Keys
3.6.8. Calculating Visits Per Day
3.7. Queries from the Twin Project
3.7.1. Find All Nondistributed Twins
3.7.2. Show a Table of Twin Pair Status
3.8. Using MySQL with Apache
4. MySQL Programs
4.1. Overview of MySQL Programs
4.2. Using MySQL Programs
4.2.1. Invoking MySQL Programs
4.2.2. Connecting to the MySQL Server
4.2.3. Specifying Program Options
4.2.4. Setting Environment Variables
4.3. MySQL Server and Server-Startup Programs
4.3.1. mysqld — The MySQL Server
4.3.2. mysqld_safe — MySQL Server Startup Script
4.3.3. mysql.server — MySQL Server Startup Script
4.3.4. mysqld_multi — Manage Multiple MySQL Servers
4.4. MySQL Installation-Related Programs
4.4.1. comp_err — Compile MySQL Error Message File
4.4.2. make_win_bin_dist — Package MySQL Distribution as ZIP Archive
4.4.3. mysqlbug — Generate Bug Report
4.4.4. mysql_fix_privilege_tables — Upgrade MySQL System Tables
4.4.5. mysql_install_db — Initialize MySQL Data Directory
4.4.6. mysql_secure_installation — Improve MySQL Installation Security
4.4.7. mysql_tzinfo_to_sql — Load the Time Zone Tables
4.4.8. mysql_upgrade — Check Tables for MySQL Upgrade
4.5. MySQL Client Programs
4.5.1. mysql — The MySQL Command-Line Tool
4.5.2. mysqladmin — Client for Administering a MySQL Server
4.5.3. mysqlcheck — A Table Maintenance Program
4.5.4. mysqldump — A Database Backup Program
4.5.5. mysqlimport — A Data Import Program
4.5.6. mysqlshow — Display Database, Table, and Column Information
4.5.7. mysqlslap — Load Emulation Client
4.6. MySQL Administrative and Utility Programs
4.6.1. innochecksum — Offline InnoDB File Checksum Utility
4.6.2. myisam_ftdump — Display Full-Text Index information
4.6.3. myisamchk — MyISAM Table-Maintenance Utility
4.6.4. myisamlog — Display MyISAM Log File Contents
4.6.5. myisampack — Generate Compressed, Read-Only MyISAM Tables
4.6.6. mysqlaccess — Client for Checking Access Privileges
4.6.7. mysqlbackup — Display Backup Information
4.6.8. mysqlbinlog — Utility for Processing Binary Log Files
4.6.9. mysqldumpslow — Summarize Slow Query Log Files
4.6.10. mysqlhotcopy — A Database Backup Program
4.6.11. mysql_convert_table_format — Convert Tables to Use a Given Storage Engine
4.6.12. mysql_find_rows — Extract SQL Statements from Files
4.6.13. mysql_fix_extensions — Normalize Table File Name Extensions
4.6.14. mysql_setpermission — Interactively Set Permissions in Grant Tables
4.6.15. mysql_waitpid — Kill Process and Wait for Its Termination
4.6.16. mysql_zap — Kill Processes That Match a Pattern
4.7. MySQL Program Development Utilities
4.7.1. msql2mysql — Convert mSQL Programs for Use with MySQL
4.7.2. mysql_config — Get Compile Options for Compiling Clients
4.7.3. my_print_defaults — Display Options from Option Files
4.7.4. resolve_stack_dump — Resolve Numeric Stack Trace Dump to Symbols
4.8. Miscellaneous Programs
4.8.1. perror — Explain Error Codes
4.8.2. replace — A String-Replacement Utility
4.8.3. resolveip — Resolve Host name to IP Address or Vice Versa
5. MySQL Server Administration
5.1. The MySQL Server
5.1.1. Server Option and Variable Reference
5.1.2. Server Command Options
5.1.3. Server Options for Loading Plugins
5.1.4. Server System Variables
5.1.5. Using System Variables
5.1.6. Server Status Variables
5.1.7. Server SQL Modes
5.1.8. Server-Side Help
5.1.9. Server Response to Signals
5.1.10. The Shutdown Process
5.2. MySQL Server Logs
5.2.1. Selecting General Query and Slow Query Log Output Destinations
5.2.2. The Error Log
5.2.3. The General Query Log
5.2.4. The Binary Log
5.2.5. The Slow Query Log
5.2.6. Server Log Maintenance
5.3. General Security Issues
5.3.1. General Security Guidelines
5.3.2. Password Security in MySQL
5.3.3. Making MySQL Secure Against Attackers
5.3.4. Security-Related mysqld Options
5.3.5. Security Issues with LOAD DATA LOCAL
5.3.6. How to Run MySQL as a Normal User
5.4. The MySQL Access Privilege System
5.4.1. Privileges Provided by MySQL
5.4.2. Privilege System Grant Tables
5.4.3. Specifying Account Names
5.4.4. Access Control, Stage 1: Connection Verification
5.4.5. Access Control, Stage 2: Request Verification
5.4.6. When Privilege Changes Take Effect
5.4.7. Causes of Access-Denied Errors
5.5. MySQL User Account Management
5.5.1. User Names and Passwords
5.5.2. Adding User Accounts
5.5.3. Removing User Accounts
5.5.4. Setting Account Resource Limits
5.5.5. Assigning Account Passwords
5.5.6. Using SSL for Secure Connections
5.5.7. Connecting to MySQL Remotely from Windows with SSH
5.5.8. Auditing MySQL Account Activity
5.6. Running Multiple MySQL Servers on the Same Machine
5.6.1. Running Multiple Servers on Windows
5.6.2. Running Multiple Servers on Unix
5.6.3. Using Client Programs in a Multiple-Server Environment
5.7. Tracing mysqld Using DTrace
5.7.1. mysqld DTrace Probe Reference
6. Backup and Recovery
6.1. Backup and Recovery Types
6.2. Database Backup Methods
6.3. Example Backup and Recovery Strategy
6.3.1. Backup Policy
6.3.2. Using Backups for Recovery
6.3.3. Backup Strategy Summary
6.4. Using mysqldump for Backups
6.4.1. Dumping Data in SQL Format with mysqldump
6.4.2. Reloading SQL-Format Backups
6.4.3. Dumping Data in Delimited-Text Format with mysqldump
6.4.4. Reloading Delimited-Text Format Backups
6.4.5. mysqldump Tips
6.5. Using MySQL Backup
6.5.1. Quick Guide to MySQL Backup
6.5.2. How MySQL Backup Works
6.5.3. MySQL Backup Status Reporting and Monitoring
6.6. Point-in-Time (Incremental) Recovery Using the Binary Log
6.6.1. Point-in-Time Recovery Using Event Times
6.6.2. Point-in-Time Recovery Using Event Positions
6.7. MyISAM Table Maintenance and Crash Recovery
6.7.1. Using myisamchk for Crash Recovery
6.7.2. How to Check MyISAM Tables for Errors
6.7.3. How to Repair MyISAM Tables
6.7.4. MyISAM Table Optimization
6.7.5. Setting Up a MyISAM Table Maintenance Schedule
7. Optimization
7.1. Optimization Overview
7.1.1. MySQL Design Limitations and Tradeoffs
7.1.2. Designing Applications for Portability
7.1.3. The MySQL Benchmark Suite
7.1.4. Using Your Own Benchmarks
7.2. Optimizing SELECT and Other Statements
7.2.1. Optimizing Queries with EXPLAIN
7.2.2. Estimating Query Performance
7.2.3. Speed of SELECT Queries
7.2.4. WHERE Clause Optimization
7.2.5. Range Optimization
7.2.6. Index Merge Optimization
7.2.7. Condition Pushdown Optimization
7.2.8. Index Condition Pushdown Optimization
7.2.9. IS NULL Optimization
7.2.10. LEFT JOIN and RIGHT JOIN Optimization
7.2.11. Nested-Loop Join Algorithms
7.2.12. Nested Join Optimization
7.2.13. Outer Join Simplification
7.2.14. Multi-Range Read Optimization
7.2.15. Block Nested-Loop and Batched Key Access Joins
7.2.16. Semi-Join Strategies
7.2.17. ORDER BY Optimization
7.2.18. GROUP BY Optimization
7.2.19. DISTINCT Optimization
7.2.20. Optimizing IN/=ANY Subqueries
7.2.21. LIMIT Optimization
7.2.22. Using optimizer_switch to Control the Optimizer
7.2.23. How to Avoid Table Scans
7.2.24. INFORMATION_SCHEMA Optimization
7.2.25. Speed of INSERT Statements
7.2.26. Speed of UPDATE Statements
7.2.27. Speed of DELETE Statements
7.2.28. Other Optimization Tips
7.3. Locking Issues
7.3.1. Internal Locking Methods
7.3.2. Table Locking Issues
7.3.3. Concurrent Inserts
7.3.4. Metadata Locking Within Transactions
7.3.5. External Locking
7.4. Optimizing Database Structure
7.4.1. Make Your Data as Small as Possible
7.4.2. Column Indexes
7.4.3. Multiple-Column Indexes
7.4.4. How MySQL Uses Indexes
7.4.5. The MyISAM Key Cache
7.4.6. The InnoDB Buffer Pool
7.4.7. MyISAM Index Statistics Collection
7.4.8. How MySQL Opens and Closes Tables
7.4.9. Disadvantages of Creating Many Tables in the Same Database
7.5. Optimizing the MySQL Server
7.5.1. How Compiling and Linking Affects the Speed of MySQL
7.5.2. System Factors and Startup Parameter Tuning
7.5.3. Tuning Server Parameters
7.5.4. Controlling Query Optimizer Performance
7.5.5. The MySQL Query Cache
7.5.6. Examining Thread Information
7.5.7. How MySQL Uses Threads for Client Connections
7.5.8. How MySQL Uses Memory
7.5.9. Enabling Large Page Support
7.5.10. How MySQL Uses Internal Temporary Tables
7.5.11. How MySQL Uses DNS
7.6. Disk Issues
7.6.1. Using Symbolic Links
8. Language Structure
8.1. Literal Values
8.1.1. Strings
8.1.2. Numbers
8.1.3. Date and Time Values
8.1.4. Hexadecimal Values
8.1.5. Boolean Values
8.1.6. Bit-Field Values
8.1.7. NULL Values
8.2. Schema Object Names
8.2.1. Identifier Qualifiers
8.2.2. Identifier Case Sensitivity
8.2.3. Mapping of Identifiers to File Names
8.2.4. Function Name Parsing and Resolution
8.3. Reserved Words
8.4. User-Defined Variables
8.5. Comment Syntax
9. Internationalization and Localization
9.1. Character Set Support
9.1.1. Character Sets and Collations in General
9.1.2. Character Sets and Collations in MySQL
9.1.3. Specifying Character Sets and Collations
9.1.4. Connection Character Sets and Collations
9.1.5. Configuring the Character Set and Collation for Applications
9.1.6. Character Set for Error Messages
9.1.7. Collation Issues
9.1.8. String Repertoire
9.1.9. Operations Affected by Character Set Support
9.1.10. Unicode Support
9.1.11. Upgrading from Previous to Current Unicode Support
9.1.12. UTF-8 for Metadata
9.1.13. Column Character Set Conversion
9.1.14. Character Sets and Collations That MySQL Supports
9.2. Setting the Error Message Language
9.3. Adding a New Character Set
9.3.1. The Character Definition Arrays
9.3.2. String Collating Support
9.3.3. Multi-Byte Character Support
9.4. How to Add a New Collation to a Character Set
9.4.1. Collation Implementation Types
9.4.2. Choosing a Collation ID
9.4.3. Adding a Simple Collation to an 8-Bit Character Set
9.4.4. Adding a UCA Collation to a Unicode Character Set
9.5. Character Set Configuration
9.6. MySQL Server Time Zone Support
9.6.1. Staying Current with Time Zone Changes
9.6.2. Time Zone Leap Second Support
9.7. MySQL Server Locale Support
10. Data Types
10.1. Data Type Overview
10.1.1. Overview of Numeric Types
10.1.2. Overview of Date and Time Types
10.1.3. Overview of String Types
10.1.4. Data Type Default Values
10.2. Numeric Types
10.3. Date and Time Types
10.3.1. The DATETIME, DATE, and TIMESTAMP Types
10.3.2. The TIME Type
10.3.3. The YEAR Type
10.3.4. Year 2000 Issues and Date Types
10.4. String Types
10.4.1. The CHAR and VARCHAR Types
10.4.2. The BINARY and VARBINARY Types
10.4.3. The BLOB and TEXT Types
10.4.4. The ENUM Type
10.4.5. The SET Type
10.5. Data Type Storage Requirements
10.6. Choosing the Right Type for a Column
10.7. Using Data Types from Other Database Engines
11. Functions and Operators
11.1. Operator and Function Reference
11.2. Operators
11.2.1. Operator Precedence
11.2.2. Type Conversion in Expression Evaluation
11.2.3. Comparison Functions and Operators
11.2.4. Logical Operators
11.3. Control Flow Functions
11.4. String Functions
11.4.1. String Comparison Functions
11.4.2. Regular Expressions
11.5. Numeric Functions
11.5.1. Arithmetic Operators
11.5.2. Mathematical Functions
11.6. Date and Time Functions
11.7. What Calendar Is Used By MySQL?
11.8. Full-Text Search Functions
11.8.1. Natural Language Full-Text Searches
11.8.2. Boolean Full-Text Searches
11.8.3. Full-Text Searches with Query Expansion
11.8.4. Full-Text Stopwords
11.8.5. Full-Text Restrictions
11.8.6. Fine-Tuning MySQL Full-Text Search
11.9. Cast Functions and Operators
11.10. XML Functions
11.11. Other Functions
11.11.1. Bit Functions
11.11.2. Encryption and Compression Functions
11.11.3. Information Functions
11.11.4. Miscellaneous Functions
11.12. Functions and Modifiers for Use with GROUP BY Clauses
11.12.1. GROUP BY (Aggregate) Functions
11.12.2. GROUP BY Modifiers
11.12.3. GROUP BY and HAVING with Hidden Columns
11.13. Spatial Extensions
11.13.1. Introduction to MySQL Spatial Support
11.13.2. The OpenGIS Geometry Model
11.13.3. Supported Spatial Data Formats
11.13.4. Creating a Spatially Enabled MySQL Database
11.13.5. Analyzing Spatial Information
11.13.6. Optimizing Spatial Analysis
11.13.7. MySQL Conformance and Compatibility
11.14. Precision Math
11.14.1. Types of Numeric Values
11.14.2. DECIMAL Data Type Changes
11.14.3. Expression Handling
11.14.4. Rounding Behavior
11.14.5. Precision Math Examples
12. SQL Statement Syntax
12.1. Data Definition Statements
12.1.1. ALTER DATABASE Syntax
12.1.2. ALTER EVENT Syntax
12.1.3. ALTER FUNCTION Syntax
12.1.4. ALTER PROCEDURE Syntax
12.1.5. ALTER SERVER Syntax
12.1.6. ALTER TABLE Syntax
12.1.7. ALTER VIEW Syntax
12.1.8. CREATE DATABASE Syntax
12.1.9. CREATE EVENT Syntax
12.1.10. CREATE FUNCTION Syntax
12.1.11. CREATE INDEX Syntax
12.1.13. CREATE SERVER Syntax
12.1.14. CREATE TABLE Syntax
12.1.15. CREATE TRIGGER Syntax
12.1.16. CREATE VIEW Syntax
12.1.17. DROP DATABASE Syntax
12.1.18. DROP EVENT Syntax
12.1.19. DROP FUNCTION Syntax
12.1.20. DROP INDEX Syntax
12.1.22. DROP SERVER Syntax
12.1.23. DROP TABLE Syntax
12.1.24. DROP TRIGGER Syntax
12.1.25. DROP VIEW Syntax
12.1.26. RENAME TABLE Syntax
12.2. Data Manipulation Statements
12.2.1. CALL Syntax
12.2.2. DELETE Syntax
12.2.3. DO Syntax
12.2.4. HANDLER Syntax
12.2.5. INSERT Syntax
12.2.6. LOAD DATA INFILE Syntax
12.2.7. LOAD XML Syntax
12.2.8. REPLACE Syntax
12.2.9. SELECT Syntax
12.2.10. Subquery Syntax
12.2.11. TRUNCATE TABLE Syntax
12.2.12. UPDATE Syntax
12.3. MySQL Transactional and Locking Statements
12.3.2. Statements That Cannot Be Rolled Back
12.3.3. Statements That Cause an Implicit Commit
12.3.6. SET TRANSACTION Syntax
12.3.7. XA Transactions
12.4. Database Administration Statements
12.4.1. Account Management Statements
12.4.2. Table Maintenance Statements
12.4.3. Backup and Restore Statements
12.4.4. Plugin and User-Defined Function Statements
12.4.5. SET Syntax
12.4.6. SHOW Syntax
12.4.7. Other Administrative Statements
12.5. Replication Statements
12.5.1. SQL Statements for Controlling Master Servers
12.5.2. SQL Statements for Controlling Slave Servers
12.6. SQL Syntax for Prepared Statements
12.6.1. PREPARE Syntax
12.6.2. EXECUTE Syntax
12.6.4. Automatic Prepared Statement Repreparation
12.7. MySQL Compound-Statement Syntax
12.7.1. BEGIN ... END Compound Statement Syntax
12.7.2. DECLARE Syntax
12.7.3. Variables in Stored Programs
12.7.4. Conditions and Handlers
12.7.5. Cursors
12.7.6. Flow Control Constructs
12.7.7. RETURN Syntax
12.8. MySQL Utility Statements
12.8.1. DESCRIBE Syntax
12.8.2. EXPLAIN Syntax
12.8.3. HELP Syntax
12.8.4. USE Syntax
13. Storage Engines
13.1. Comparing Transaction and Nontransaction Engines
13.2. Other Storage Engines
13.3. Setting the Storage Engine
13.4. Overview of MySQL Storage Engine Architecture
13.4.1. The Common Database Server Layer
13.4.2. Pluggable Storage Engine Architecture
13.5. The MyISAM Storage Engine
13.5.1. MyISAM Startup Options
13.5.2. Space Needed for Keys
13.5.3. MyISAM Table Storage Formats
13.5.4. MyISAM Table Problems
13.6. The Maria Storage Engine
13.6.1. Maria Configuration
13.6.2. Maria Table Options
13.6.3. Maria Transaction Log
13.6.4. Maria Recovery
13.6.5. Maria Usage Notes
13.6.6. Maria Statement Concurrency
13.6.7. Maria Design Notes
13.6.8. Maria Command-line Tools
13.6.9. Maria Open Bugs
13.6.10. Maria FAQ
13.7. The InnoDB Storage Engine
13.7.1. InnoDB Contact Information
13.7.2. InnoDB Configuration
13.7.3. InnoDB Startup Options and System Variables
13.7.4. Creating and Using InnoDB Tables
13.7.5. Adding, Removing, or Resizing InnoDB Data and Log Files
13.7.6. Backing Up and Recovering an InnoDB Database
13.7.7. Moving an InnoDB Database to Another Machine
13.7.8. The InnoDB Transaction Model and Locking
13.7.9. InnoDB Multi-Versioning
13.7.10. InnoDB Table and Index Structures
13.7.11. InnoDB Disk I/O and File Space Management
13.7.12. InnoDB Error Handling
13.7.13. InnoDB Performance Tuning and Troubleshooting
13.7.14. Restrictions on InnoDB Tables
13.8. The Falcon Storage Engine
13.8.1. Falcon Features
13.8.2. Configuration Parameters
13.8.3. Creating the Falcon Tablespace
13.8.4. Creating Tables and Indexes within Falcon
13.8.5. Obtaining Performance Diagnostics
13.8.6. Principles and Terminology
13.8.7. Notes and Limits
13.9. The IBMDB2I Storage Engine
13.9.1. Installation
13.9.2. Configuration Options
13.9.3. Creating schemas and tables
13.9.4. Database/metadata management
13.9.5. Transaction behavior
13.9.6. Principles and Terminology
13.9.7. Notes and Limitations
13.9.8. Character sets and collations
13.9.9. Error codes and trouble-shooting information
13.10. The MERGE Storage Engine
13.10.1. MERGE Table Advantages and Disadvantages
13.10.2. MERGE Table Problems
13.11. The MEMORY (HEAP) Storage Engine
13.12. The EXAMPLE Storage Engine
13.13. The FEDERATED Storage Engine
13.13.1. FEDERATED Storage Engine Overview
13.13.2. How to Create FEDERATED Tables
13.13.3. FEDERATED Storage Engine Notes and Tips
13.13.4. FEDERATED Storage Engine Resources
13.14. The ARCHIVE Storage Engine
13.15. The CSV Storage Engine
13.15.1. Repairing and Checking CSV Tables
13.15.2. CSV Limitations
13.16. The BLACKHOLE Storage Engine
14. High Availability and Scalability
14.1. Using MySQL with DRBD
14.1.1. Configuring the DRBD Environment
14.1.2. Configuring MySQL for DRBD
14.1.3. Optimizing Performance and Reliability
14.2. Using Linux HA Heartbeat
14.2.1. Heartbeat Configuration
14.2.2. Using Heartbeat with MySQL and DRBD
14.2.3. Using Heartbeat with DRBD and dopd
14.2.4. Dealing with System Level Errors
14.3. MySQL and Virtualization
14.3.1. Common Issues with Virtualization
14.3.2. Using MySQL within an Amazon EC2 Instance
14.3.3. Virtualization Resources
14.4. Using ZFS Replication
14.4.1. Using ZFS for Filesystem Replication
14.4.2. Configuring MySQL for ZFS Replication
14.4.3. Handling MySQL Recovery with ZFS
14.5. Using MySQL with memcached
14.5.1. Installing memcached
14.5.2. Using memcached
14.5.3. memcached Interfaces
14.5.4. Getting memcached Statistics
14.5.5. memcached FAQ
14.6. MySQL Proxy
14.6.1. MySQL Proxy Supported Platforms
14.6.2. Installing MySQL Proxy
14.6.3. MySQL Proxy Configuration Options
14.6.4. MySQL Proxy Scripting
14.6.5. Using MySQL Proxy
14.6.6. MySQL Proxy FAQ
15. MySQL Enterprise Monitor
15.1. An Overview of the Service
15.1.1. The Service Architecture
15.1.2. Service Features
15.1.3. Security
15.2. Conventions Used in This Document
15.3. Installation and Upgrades
15.3.1. User Roles
15.3.2. Service Manager Installation
15.3.3. Monitor Agent Installation
15.3.4. Unattended Installation
15.3.5. Post-Installation Considerations
15.3.6. Upgrading, Re-Installing or Changing Your Installation
15.3.7. Uninstalling the MySQL Enterprise Monitor
15.4. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard
15.4.1. The Server Tree
15.4.2. The Server Graphs and Critical Events
15.4.3. The Heat Chart
15.5. The Settings Page
15.5.1. Global Settings
15.5.2. User Preferences
15.5.3. Manage Servers
15.5.4. Managing Users
15.5.5. Manage Notification Groups
15.5.6. Logs
15.5.7. The Product Information Screen
15.6. The What's New Page
15.6.1. Setting What's New Configuration
15.7. The Advisors Page
15.7.1. Installing and Updating Advisors
15.7.2. Scheduling Rules
15.7.3. Editing Built-in Rules
15.7.4. Creating Advisors and Rules
15.7.5. Creating a Custom Data Collection Item
15.7.6. Disabling and Unscheduling Rules
15.7.7. Advisor Blackout Periods
15.8. The Events Page
15.8.1. Closing an Event
15.8.2. Notification of Events
15.9. The Graphs Page
15.9.1. Displaying Graphs
15.9.2. Setting an Interval
15.9.3. Setting a Time Span
15.10. The Query Analyzer Page
15.10.1. Enabling Query Analyzer
15.10.2. Getting Detailed Query Information
15.10.3. Using Graphs to Identify Queries
15.10.4. Filtering Query Analyzer Data
15.10.5. Using Query Analyzer Data
15.10.6. Troubleshooting Query Analyzer
15.10.7. Query Analyzer Settings
15.11. The Replication Page
15.11.1. Replication Page Details
15.12. MySQL Enterprise Monitor Reference
15.12.1. MySQL Enterprise Monitor Limitations
15.12.2. Supported Browsers
15.12.3. Installation Requirements
15.12.4. Creating a new SSL KeyStore
15.12.5. Choosing Suitable MySQL Enterprise Service Manager Hardware Configurations
15.12.6. MySQL Enterprise Monitor Agent Reference
15.12.7. Configuring Tomcat Parameters
15.12.8. Backing up MySQL Enterprise Service Manager
15.12.9. Migrating 1.3.x Historical Data to MySQL Enterprise Monitor 2.0
15.12.10. Regular MySQL Enterprise Monitor Maintenance
15.12.11. Advisor/Graph Reference
15.13. MySQL Enterprise Monitor Frequently Asked Questions
16. Replication
16.1. Replication Configuration
16.1.1. How to Set Up Replication
16.1.2. Replication Formats
16.1.3. Replication and Binary Logging Options and Variables
16.1.4. Common Replication Administration Tasks
16.2. Replication Implementation
16.2.1. Replication Implementation Details
16.2.2. Replication Relay and Status Files
16.2.3. How Servers Evaluate Replication Filtering Rules
16.3. Replication Solutions
16.3.1. Using Replication for Backups
16.3.2. Using Replication with Different Master and Slave Storage Engines
16.3.3. Using Replication for Scale-Out
16.3.4. Replicating Different Databases to Different Slaves
16.3.5. Improving Replication Performance
16.3.6. Switching Masters During Failover
16.3.7. Upgrading Multi-Master Replication
16.3.8. Setting Up Replication Using SSL
16.3.9. Semisynchronous Replication
16.4. Replication Notes and Tips
16.4.1. Replication Features and Issues
16.4.2. Replication Compatibility Between MySQL Versions
16.4.3. Upgrading a Replication Setup
16.4.4. Replication FAQ
16.4.5. Troubleshooting Replication
16.4.6. How to Report Replication Bugs or Problems
17. Partitioning
17.1. Overview of Partitioning in MySQL
17.2. Partition Types
17.2.1. RANGE Partitioning
17.2.2. LIST Partitioning
17.2.3. COLUMNS Partitioning
17.2.4. HASH Partitioning
17.2.5. KEY Partitioning
17.2.6. Subpartitioning
17.2.7. How MySQL Partitioning Handles NULL
17.3. Partition Management
17.3.1. Management of RANGE and LIST Partitions
17.3.2. Management of HASH and KEY Partitions
17.3.3. Maintenance of Partitions
17.3.4. Obtaining Information About Partitions
17.4. Partition Pruning
17.5. Restrictions and Limitations on Partitioning
17.5.1. Partitioning Keys, Primary Keys, and Unique Keys
17.5.2. Partitioning Limitations Relating to Storage Engines
17.5.3. Partitioning Limitations Relating to Functions
18. Stored Programs and Views
18.1. Defining Stored Programs
18.2. Using Stored Routines (Procedures and Functions)
18.2.1. Stored Routine Syntax
18.2.2. Stored Routines and MySQL Privileges
18.2.3. Stored Routine Metadata
18.2.4. Stored Procedures, Functions, Triggers, and LAST_INSERT_ID()
18.3. Using Triggers
18.3.1. Trigger Syntax
18.3.2. Trigger Metadata
18.4. Using the Event Scheduler
18.4.1. Event Scheduler Overview
18.4.2. Event Scheduler Configuration
18.4.3. Event Syntax
18.4.4. Event Metadata
18.4.5. Event Scheduler Status
18.4.6. The Event Scheduler and MySQL Privileges
18.5. Using Views
18.5.1. View Syntax
18.5.2. View Processing Algorithms
18.5.3. Updatable and Insertable Views
18.5.4. View Metadata
18.6. Access Control for Stored Programs and Views
18.7. Binary Logging of Stored Programs
19.29. Other INFORMATION_SCHEMA Tables
19.30. Extensions to SHOW Statements
20. MySQL Performance Schema
20.1. Performance Schema Quick Start
20.2. Performance Schema Configuration
20.2.1. Performance Schema Build Configuration
20.2.2. Performance Schema Startup and Runtime Configuration
20.2.3. Event Collection Pre-Filtering and Post-Filtering
20.3. Performance Schema Status Monitoring
20.4. Performance Schema Event Timing
20.5. Performance Schema Event Instrument Naming Conventions
20.6. Performance Schema Table General Characteristics
20.7. Performance Schema Table Descriptions
20.7.1. Performance Schema Setup Tables
20.7.2. Performance Schema Current-Events Table
20.7.3. Performance Schema History Tables
20.7.4. Performance Schema Summary Tables
20.7.5. Performance Schema Instance Tables
20.7.6. Performance Schema Miscellaneous Tables
20.8. Performance Schema and Plugins
20.9. Performance Schema System Variables
20.10. Performance Schema Status Variables
20.11. Using Performance Schema to Diagnose Problems
21. Connectors and APIs
21.1. MySQL Connector/ODBC
21.1.1. Connector/ODBC Versions
21.1.2. Connector/ODBC Introduction
21.1.3. Connector/ODBC Installation
21.1.4. Connector/ODBC Configuration
21.1.5. Connector/ODBC Examples
21.1.6. Connector/ODBC Reference
21.1.7. Connector/ODBC Notes and Tips
21.1.8. Connector/ODBC Support
21.2. MySQL Connector/NET
21.2.1. Connector/NET Versions
21.2.2. Connector/NET Installation
21.2.3. Connector/NET Visual Studio Integration
21.2.4. Connector/NET Tutorials
21.2.5. Connector/NET Programming
21.2.6. Connector/NET Connection String Options Reference
21.2.7. Connector/NET API Reference
21.2.8. Connector/NET Support
21.2.9. Connector/NET FAQ
21.3. MySQL Connector/J
21.3.1. Connector/J Versions
21.3.2. Connector/J Installation
21.3.3. Connector/J Examples
21.3.4. Connector/J (JDBC) Reference
21.3.5. Connector/J Notes and Tips
21.3.6. Connector/J Support
21.4. MySQL Connector/MXJ
21.4.1. Connector/MXJ Overview
21.4.2. Connector/MXJ Versions
21.4.3. Connector/MXJ Installation
21.4.4. Connector/MXJ Configuration
21.4.5. Connector/MXJ Reference
21.4.6. Connector/MXJ Notes and Tips
21.4.7. Connector/MXJ Support
21.5. MySQL Connector/C++
21.5.1. MySQL Connector/C++ Binary Installation
21.5.2. MySQL Connector/C++ Source Installation
21.5.3. MySQL Connector/C++ Building Windows applications with Microsoft Visual Studio
21.5.4. MySQL Connector/C++ Building Linux applications with NetBeans
21.5.5. MySQL Connector/C++ Getting Started: Usage Examples
21.5.6. MySQL Connector/C++ Tutorials
21.5.7. MySQL Connector/C++ Debug Tracing
21.5.8. MySQL Connector/C++ Usage Notes
21.5.9. MySQL Connector/C++ Known Bugs and Issues
21.5.10. MySQL Connector/C++ Feature requests
21.5.11. MySQL Connector/C++ Support
21.5.12. MySQL Connector/C++ FAQ
21.6. MySQL Connector/C
21.6.1. Building MySQL Connector/C from the Source Code
21.6.2. Testing MySQL Connector/C
21.6.3. MySQL Connector/C FAQ
21.7. MySQL Connector/
21.7.1. Installation
21.7.2. Getting Started: Connecting to MySQL
21.7.3. Getting Started: Usage Examples
21.7.4. References
21.7.5. Known Bugs
21.7.6. Contact
21.8. libmysqld, the Embedded MySQL Server Library
21.8.1. Compiling Programs with libmysqld
21.8.2. Restrictions When Using the Embedded MySQL Server
21.8.3. Options with the Embedded Server
21.8.4. Embedded Server Examples
21.8.5. Licensing the Embedded Server
21.9. MySQL C API
21.9.1. C API Data Types
21.9.2. C API Function Overview
21.9.3. C API Function Descriptions
21.9.4. C API Prepared Statements
21.9.5. C API Prepared Statement Data Types
21.9.6. C API Prepared Statement Function Overview
21.9.7. C API Prepared Statement Function Descriptions
21.9.8. C API Threaded Function Descriptions
21.9.9. C API Embedded Server Function Descriptions
21.9.10. Common Questions and Problems When Using the C API
21.9.11. Controlling Automatic Reconnection Behavior
21.9.12. C API Support for Multiple Statement Execution
21.9.13. C API Prepared Statement Problems
21.9.14. C API Prepared Statement Handling of Date and Time Values
21.9.15. C API Support for Prepared CALL Statements
21.9.16. Building Client Programs
21.10. MySQL PHP API
21.10.1. MySQL
21.10.2. MySQL Improved Extension (Mysqli)
21.10.3. MySQL Native Driver (Mysqlnd)
21.10.4. MySQL Functions (PDO_MYSQL)
21.10.5. Connector/PHP
21.10.6. Common Problems with MySQL and PHP
21.10.7. Enabling Both mysql and mysqli in PHP
21.11. MySQL Perl API
21.12. MySQL C++ API
21.13. MySQL Python API
21.14. MySQL Ruby APIs
21.14.1. The MySQL/Ruby API
21.14.2. The Ruby/MySQL API
21.15. MySQL Tcl API
21.16. MySQL Eiffel Wrapper
22. Extending MySQL
22.1. MySQL Internals
22.1.1. MySQL Threads
22.1.2. MySQL Test Suite
22.2. The MySQL Plugin API
22.2.1. Plugin API Characteristics
22.2.2. Plugin API Components
22.2.3. Types of Plugins
22.2.4. Plugin Data Structures and Functions
22.2.5. Writing Plugins
22.2.6. MySQL Services for Plugins
22.3. Adding New Functions to MySQL
22.3.1. Features of the User-Defined Function Interface
22.3.2. Adding a New User-Defined Function
22.3.3. Adding a New Native Function
22.4. Adding New Procedures to MySQL
22.4.2. Writing a Procedure
22.5. Debugging and Porting MySQL
22.5.1. Debugging a MySQL Server
22.5.2. Debugging a MySQL Client
22.5.3. The DBUG Package
22.5.4. Comments about RTS Threads
22.5.5. Differences Between Thread Packages
A. MySQL 6.0 Frequently Asked Questions
A.1. MySQL 6.0 FAQ: General
A.2. MySQL 6.0 FAQ: Storage Engines
A.3. MySQL 6.0 FAQ: Server SQL Mode
A.4. MySQL 6.0 FAQ: Stored Procedures and Functions
A.5. MySQL 6.0 FAQ: Triggers
A.6. MySQL 6.0 FAQ: Views
A.8. MySQL 6.0 FAQ: Migration
A.9. MySQL 6.0 FAQ: Security
A.10. MySQL 6.0 FAQ: MySQL Cluster
A.11. MySQL 6.0 FAQ: MySQL Chinese, Japanese, and Korean Character Sets
A.12. MySQL 6.0 FAQ: Connectors & APIs
A.13. MySQL 6.0 FAQ: Replication
A.14. MySQL 6.0 FAQ: MySQL, DRBD, and Heartbeat
A.14.1. Distributed Replicated Block Device (DRBD)
A.14.2. Linux Heartbeat
A.14.3. DRBD Architecture
A.14.4. DRBD and MySQL Replication
A.14.5. DRBD and File Systems
A.14.6. DRBD and LVM
A.14.7. DRBD and Virtualization
A.14.8. DRBD and Security
A.14.9. DRBD and System Requirements
A.14.10. DBRD and Support and Consulting
B. Errors, Error Codes, and Common Problems
B.1. Sources of Error Information
B.2. Types of Error Values
B.3. Server Error Codes and Messages
B.4. Client Error Codes and Messages
B.5. Problems and Common Errors
B.5.1. How to Determine What Is Causing a Problem
B.5.2. Common Errors When Using MySQL Programs
B.5.3. Installation-Related Issues
B.5.4. Administration-Related Issues
B.5.5. Query-Related Issues
B.5.6. Optimizer-Related Issues
B.5.7. Table Definition-Related Issues
B.5.8. Known Issues in MySQL
C. MySQL Change History
C.1. Changes in Release 6.0.x (Development)
C.1.1. Changes in MySQL 6.0.14 (Not yet released)
C.1.2. Changes in MySQL 6.0.13 (Not released)
C.1.3. Changes in MySQL 6.0.12 (Not yet released)
C.1.4. Changes in MySQL 6.0.11 (11 May 2009)
C.1.5. Changes in MySQL 6.0.10 (03 March 2009)
C.1.6. Changes in MySQL 6.0.9 (10 January 2009)
C.1.7. Changes in MySQL 6.0.8 (03 November 2008)
C.1.8. Changes in MySQL 6.0.7 (29 September 2008)
C.1.9. Changes in MySQL 6.0.6 (11 August 2008)
C.1.10. Changes in MySQL 6.0.5 (12 June 2008)
C.1.11. Changes in MySQL 6.0.4 (12 February 2008)
C.1.12. Changes in MySQL 6.0.3 (16 November 2007)
C.1.13. Changes in MySQL 6.0.2 (04 September 2007)
C.1.14. Changes in MySQL 6.0.1 (Not released)
C.1.15. Changes in MySQL 6.0.0 (30 April 2007 Alpha)
C.2. Changes in Release 5.2.x (Development)
C.2.1. Changes in MySQL 5.2.5 (08 August 2007)
C.2.2. Changes in MySQL 5.2.4 (Not released)
C.2.3. Changes in MySQL 5.2.3 (15 February 2007)
C.2.4. Changes in MySQL 5.2.2 (Not released)
C.2.5. Changes in MySQL 5.2.1 (Not released Alpha)
C.3. MySQL Enterprise Monitor Change History
C.3.1. Changes in MySQL Enterprise Monitor 2.1.2 (26 May 2010)
C.3.2. Changes in MySQL Enterprise Monitor 2.1.1 (10th February 2010)
C.3.3. Changes in MySQL Enterprise Monitor 2.1.0 (8th September 2009)
C.4. MySQL Connector/ODBC (MyODBC) Change History
C.4.1. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 5.1.7 (Not yet released)
C.4.2. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 5.1.6 (09 November 2009)
C.4.3. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 5.1.5 (18 August 2008)
C.4.4. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 5.1.4 (15 April 2008)
C.4.5. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 5.1.3 (26 March 2008)
C.4.6. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 5.1.2 (13 February 2008)
C.4.7. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 5.1.1 (13 December 2007)
C.4.8. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 5.1.0 (10 September 2007)
C.4.9. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 5.0.12 (Never released)
C.4.10. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 5.0.11 (31 January 2007)
C.4.11. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 5.0.10 (14 December 2006)
C.4.12. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 5.0.9 (22 November 2006)
C.4.13. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 5.0.8 (17 November 2006)
C.4.14. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 5.0.7 (08 November 2006)
C.4.15. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 5.0.6 (03 November 2006)
C.4.16. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 5.0.5 (17 October 2006)
C.4.17. Changes in Connector/ODBC 5.0.3 (Connector/ODBC 5.0 Alpha 3) (20 June 2006)
C.4.18. Changes in Connector/ODBC 5.0.2 (Never released)
C.4.19. Changes in Connector/ODBC 5.0.1 (Connector/ODBC 5.0 Alpha 2) (05 June 2006)
C.4.20. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 3.51.28 (Not yet released)
C.4.21. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 3.51.27 (20 November 2008)
C.4.22. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 3.51.26 (07 July 2008)
C.4.23. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 3.51.25 (11 April 2008)
C.4.24. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 3.51.24 (14 March 2008)
C.4.25. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 3.51.23 (09 January 2008)
C.4.26. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 3.51.22 (13 November 2007)
C.4.27. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 3.51.21 (08 October 2007)
C.4.28. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 3.51.20 (10 September 2007)
C.4.29. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 3.51.19 (10 August 2007)
C.4.30. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 3.51.18 (08 August 2007)
C.4.31. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 3.51.17 (14 July 2007)
C.4.32. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 3.51.16 (14 June 2007)
C.4.33. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 3.51.15 (07 May 2007)
C.4.34. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 3.51.14 (08 March 2007)
C.4.35. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 3.51.13 (Never released)
C.4.36. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 3.51.12 (11 February 2005)
C.4.37. Changes in MySQL Connector/ODBC 3.51.11 (28 January 2005)
C.5. MySQL Connector/NET Change History
C.5.1. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 6.3.x
C.5.2. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 6.2.x
C.5.3. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 6.1.x
C.5.4. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 6.0.x
C.5.5. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 5.3.x
C.5.6. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 5.2.x
C.5.7. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 5.1.x
C.5.8. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 5.0.x
C.5.9. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 1.0.x
C.5.10. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 0.9.0 (30 August 2004)
C.5.11. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 0.76
C.5.12. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 0.75
C.5.13. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 0.74
C.5.14. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 0.71
C.5.15. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 0.70
C.5.16. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 0.68
C.5.17. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 0.65
C.5.18. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 0.60
C.5.19. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 0.50
C.6. MySQL Visual Studio Plugin Change History
C.6.1. Changes in MySQL Visual Studio Plugin 1.0.3 (Not yet released)
C.6.2. Changes in MySQL Visual Studio Plugin 1.0.2 (Not yet released)
C.6.3. Changes in MySQL Visual Studio Plugin 1.0.1 (4 October 2006)
C.6.4. Changes in MySQL Visual Studio Plugin 1.0.0 (4 October 2006)
C.7. MySQL Connector/J Change History
C.7.1. Changes in MySQL Connector/J 5.1.x
C.7.2. Changes in MySQL Connector/J 5.0.x
C.7.3. Changes in MySQL Connector/J 3.1.x
C.7.4. Changes in MySQL Connector/J 3.0.x
C.7.5. Changes in MySQL Connector/J 2.0.x
C.7.6. Changes in MySQL Connector/J 1.2b (04 July 1999)
C.7.7. Changes in MySQL Connector/J 1.2.x and lower
C.8. MySQL Connector/MXJ Change History
C.8.1. Changes in MySQL Connector/MXJ 5.0.11 (24th November 2009)
C.8.2. Changes in MySQL Connector/MXJ 5.0.10 (Never released)
C.8.3. Changes in MySQL Connector/MXJ 5.0.9 (19 August 2008)
C.8.4. Changes in MySQL Connector/MXJ 5.0.8 (06 August 2007)
C.8.5. Changes in MySQL Connector/MXJ 5.0.7 (27 May 2007)
C.8.6. Changes in MySQL Connector/MXJ 5.0.6 (04 May 2007)
C.8.7. Changes in MySQL Connector/MXJ 5.0.5 (14 March 2007)
C.8.8. Changes in MySQL Connector/MXJ 5.0.4 (28 January 2007)
C.8.9. Changes in MySQL Connector/MXJ 5.0.3 (24 June 2006)
C.8.10. Changes in MySQL Connector/MXJ 5.0.2 (15 June 2006)
C.8.11. Changes in MySQL Connector/MXJ 5.0.1 (Never released)
C.8.12. Changes in MySQL Connector/MXJ 5.0.0 (09 December 2005)
C.9. MySQL Connector/C++ Change History
C.9.1. Changes in MySQL Connector/C++ 1.1.x
C.9.2. Changes in MySQL Connector/C++ 1.0.x
C.10. MySQL Proxy Change History
C.10.1. Changes in MySQL Proxy 0.8.1 (Not yet released)
C.10.2. Changes in MySQL Proxy 0.8.0 (21 Jan 2010)
C.10.3. Changes in MySQL Proxy 0.7.2 (30 June 2009)
C.10.4. Changes in MySQL Proxy 0.7.1 (15 May 2009)
C.10.5. Changes in MySQL Proxy 0.7.0 (Never Released)
C.10.6. Changes in MySQL Proxy 0.6.1 (06 February 2008)
C.10.7. Changes in MySQL Proxy 0.6.0 (11 September 2007)
C.10.8. Changes in MySQL Proxy 0.5.1 (30 June 2007)
C.10.9. Changes in MySQL Proxy 0.5.0 (19 June 2007)
D. Restrictions and Limits
D.1. Restrictions on Stored Routines, Triggers, and Events
D.2. Restrictions on Signals
D.3. Restrictions on Server-Side Cursors
D.4. Restrictions on Subqueries
D.5. Restrictions on Views
D.6. Restrictions on XA Transactions
D.7. Restrictions on Character Sets
D.8. Performance Schema Restrictions
D.9. Restrictions on BACKUP DATABASE and RESTORE
D.10. Limits in MySQL
D.10.1. Limits of Joins
D.10.2. The Maximum Number of Columns Per Table
D.10.3. Windows Platform Limitations
Standard Index
C Function Index
Command Index
Function Index
Transaction Isolation Level Index
JOIN Types Index
Operator Index
Option Index
Privileges Index
SQL Modes Index
Status Variable Index
Statement/Syntax Index
System Variable Index

List of Figures

5.1. The MySQL Architecture Using Pluggable Storage Engines
13.1. The MySQL Architecture Using Pluggable Storage Engines
13.2. FEDERATED Table Structure
14.1. DRBD Architecture Overview
14.2. DRBD Architecture Using Separate Network Interfaces
14.3. Heartbeat Architecture
14.4. memcached Architecture Overview
14.5. memcached Hash Selection
14.6. memcached Hash Selection with New memcached instance
14.7. Memory Allocation in memcached
14.8. Typical memcached Application Flowchart
15.1. MySQL Enterprise Monitor Architecture
15.2. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Installing Monitor on Windows: Language Selection
15.3. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Installing Monitor on Windows: Installation Directory
15.4. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Installing Monitor on Windows: Tomcat Server Options
15.5. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Installing Monitor on Windows: Repository Configuration
15.6. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Installing Monitor on OS X: Language Selection
15.7. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Installing Monitor on OS X: Java Selection
15.8. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Installing Monitor on OS X: Installation Directory
15.9. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Installing Monitor on OS X: Tomcat Server Options
15.10. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Installing Monitor on OS X: Repository Configuration
15.11. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Initial Dashboard Log-In
15.12. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Outgoing Email Settings
15.13. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Installing Agent on Windows: Language Selection
15.14. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Installing Agent on Windows: Installation Directory
15.15. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Installing Agent on Windows: Monitored Database Information
15.16. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Installing Agent on Windows: Query Analyzer Configuration
15.17. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Installing Agent on Windows: MySQL Enterprise Service Manager Options
15.18. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Installing Agent on Mac OS X: Language Selection
15.19. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Installing Agent on Mac OS X: Installation Directory
15.20. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Installing Agent on Mac OS X: Monitored Database Information
15.21. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Installing Agent on Mac OS X: Monitored Database Information
15.22. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Installing Agent on Mac OS X: Query Analyzer Configuration
15.23. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Installing Agent on Mac OS X: MySQL Enterprise Service Manager Options
15.24. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Server Update: Language Selection
15.25. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Server Update: Previous Installation
15.26. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Server Update: Backup of Previous Installation
15.27. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Server Update: Completed installing files
15.28. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Server Update: Final Setup
15.29. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard: The Graphs Screen
15.30. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard: The Heat Chart
15.31. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard: The Heat Chart Legend
15.32. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard: Settings
15.33. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard: User Preferences
15.34. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard: Manage Servers
15.35. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard: Server Renaming
15.36. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard: Manage Users
15.37. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard: Manage Notification Groups
15.38. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard: Edit Notification Groups
15.39. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard: Logs
15.40. The What's New Tab
15.41. What's New Configuration
15.42. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard: Scheduling Dialog
15.43. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard: Editing Rules
15.44. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard: Events Screen
15.45. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard: Query Analyzer
15.46. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard: Standard Agent/Monitor Topology
15.47. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard: Query Analyzer Agent/Monitor Topology
15.48. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard: Canonical Query Tab for a Query
15.49. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard: Example Query Tab for a Query
15.50. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard: Explain Query Tab for a Query
15.51. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard: Correlated Graphs
15.52. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard: Query Analyzer Configuration
15.53. MySQL Enterprise Dashboard: Replication Groups
15.54. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Historical Data Migration Availability
15.55. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Confirming Historical Data Migration
15.56. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Historical Data Migration Progress
16.1. Using Replication to Improve Performance During Scale-Out
16.2. Using Replication to Replicate Databases to Separate Replication Slaves
16.3. Using an Additional Replication Host to Improve Performance
16.4. Redundancy Using Replication, Initial Structure
16.5. Redundancy Using Replication, After Master Failure
21.1. Add Connection Context Menu
21.2. Choose Data Source
21.3. Add Connection Dialog
21.4. New Data Connection
21.5. Editing New Table
21.6. Choose Table Name
21.7. Newly Created Table
21.8. Table Designer Main Menu
21.9. Indexes Dialog
21.10. Foreign Key Relationships Dialog
21.11. Table Properties Menu Item
21.12. Table Properties
21.13. Editing View SQL
21.14. View SQL Added
21.15. View SQL Saved
21.16. Edit Stored Procedure SQL
21.17. Stored Procedure SQL Saved
21.18. MySQL Website Configuration Tool
21.19. MySQL Website Configuration Tool - Membership
21.20. MySQL Website Configuration Tool - Connection String Editor
21.21. MySQL Website Configuration Tool - Advanced Options
21.22. MySQL Website Configuration Tool - Roles
21.23. MySQL Website Configuration Tool - Profiles
21.24. MySQL Website Configuration Tool - Session State
21.25. MySQL Website Configuration Tool - Tables
21.26. MySQL SQL Editor - New File
21.27. MySQL SQL Editor - Query
21.28. World Database Application
21.29. Authentication Type
21.30. Select Membership and Role Provider
21.31. Membership and Role Provider Tables
21.32. Security Tab
21.33. Create User
21.34. Membership and Roles Table Contents
21.35. Simple Profile Application
21.36. Add Entity Data Model
21.37. Entity Data Model Wizard Screen 1
21.38. Entity Data Model Wizard Screen 2
21.39. Entity Data Model Wizard Screen 3
21.40. Entity Data Model Diagram
21.41. Entity Data Source Configuration Wizard Screen 1
21.42. Entity Data Source Configuration Wizard Screen 2
21.43. Entity Data Source Configuration Wizard Screen 3
21.44. Data Sources
21.45. Data Form Designer
21.46. Adding Code to the Form
21.47. The Populated Grid Control
21.48. Save Button Enabled
21.49. Adding Save Code to the Form
21.50. The Design Tab
21.51. Drop Down List
21.52. Enable AutoPostBack
21.53. Grid View Control
21.54. Placed Grid Vew Control
21.55. Source Code
21.56. The Working Web Site
21.57. Windows Installer Welcome Screen
21.58. Windows Installer Overview Screen
21.59. Windows Installer Custom Setup Screen
21.60. Creating a New Project
21.61. The New Project Dialog Box
21.62. The Win32 Application Wizard
21.63. Selecting the Release Build
21.64. Selecting Project Properties from the Main Menu
21.65. Setting Properties
21.66. MySQL Include Directory
21.67. Select Directory Dialog
21.68. Typical Contents of MySQL lib/opt Directory
21.69. Additional Library Directories
21.70. Additional Library Directories Dialog
21.72. Adding Additional Dependencies
21.73. Setting the CPPCONN_PUBLIC_FUNC Define
21.74. The NetBeans IDE
21.75. Setting the Header Include Directory
21.76. Setting the Static Library Directories and File Names
21.77. Setting the Dynamic Library Directory and File Name
21.78. The Example Application Running
21.79. Adding an Extension
21.80. Selecting the Database
21.81. Selecting the connection type
21.82. Entering Connection Settings
21.83. Setting Up User Authentication
21.84. After Connecting to the Database
21.85. Entering the Database File Name
21.86. Listing Tables
A.1. Active-Master MySQL Server

List of Tables

2.1. Build (configure) options
4.1. mysqld_safe Options
4.2. mysql Options
4.3. mysqladmin Options
4.4. mysqlcheck Options
4.5. mysqldump Options
4.6. mysqlimport Options
4.7. mysqlshow Options
4.8. mysqlslap Options
4.9. myisamchk Options
4.10. mysqlaccess Options
4.11. mysqlbackup Options
4.12. mysqlbinlog Options
4.13. mysqldumpslow Options
4.14. mysqlhotcopy Options
5.1. Option/Variable Summary
5.2. System Variable Summary
5.3. Dynmaic Variable Summary
5.4. Status Variable Summary
5.5. Security Option/Variable Summary
5.6. SSL Option/Variable Summary
5.7. MySQL DTrace Probes
11.1. Operators/Functions
11.2. Operators
11.3. Comparison Operators
11.4. Logical Operators
11.5. Flow Control Operators
11.6. String Operators
11.7. String Comparison Operators
11.8. String Regular Expression Operators
11.9. Numeric Functions
11.10. Arithmetic Functions
11.11. Mathematical Functions
11.12. Date/Time Functions
11.13. Cast Functions
11.14. XML Functions
11.15. Other Functions
11.16. Bitwise Functions
11.17. Encryption Functions
11.18. Information Functions
11.19. Miscellaneous Functions
11.20. Aggregate (GROUP BY) Functions
13.1. Storage Engines Feature Summary
13.2. MyISAM Storage Engine Features
13.3. MyISAM Option/Variable Reference
13.4. Maria Option/Variable Reference
13.5. InnoDB Storage Engine Features
13.6. InnoDB Option/Variable Reference
13.7. Falcon Storage Engine Features
13.8. Falcon Option/Variable Reference
13.9. Falcon INFORMATION_SCHEMA performance diagnostic tables
13.10. IBMDB2I Options and Variables
13.11. Naming Behavior in DB2 Storage Engine
13.12. IBMDB2I Isolation Levels
13.13. Data Type Restrictions in IBMDB2I
13.14. Collation Compatibility in IBMDB2I and MySQL
13.15. Error Codes from IBMDB2I
13.16. Error Codes and Messages in IBMDB2I
13.17. MEMORY Storage Engine Features
13.18. ARCHIVE Storage Engine Features
14.1. memcached Command Reference
14.2. memcached Protocol Responses
14.3. mysql-proxy Help Options
14.4. mysql-proxy Admin Options
14.5. mysql-proxy Proxy Options
14.6. mysql-proxy Applications Options
15.1. MySQL Enterprise Monitor: Wiki Formatting
15.2. mysql-monitor-agent Help Options
15.3. mysql-monitor-agent Admin Options
15.4. mysql-monitor-agent Agent Options
15.5. mysql-monitor-agent Monitor Options
15.6. mysql-monitor-agent Proxy Options
15.7. mysql-monitor-agent Application Options
16.1. Replication Option/Variable Summary
16.2. Binary Logging Option/Variable Summary
20.1. Performance Schema Variable Reference
21.1. MySQL APIs and Interfaces
21.2. MySQL Connector Versions and MySQL Server Versions
21.3. Mapping of MySQL Error Numbers to SQLStates
21.4. MySQL Configuration Options
21.5. MySQL client constants
21.6. MySQL fetch constants
21.7. MySQLi Configuration Options
21.8. Possible mysqli_info return values
21.9. Valid options
21.10. Supported flags
21.11. Attribute values
21.12. Type specification chars
21.13. Return Values
21.14. Object attributes
21.15. Object properties
21.16. Object properties
21.17. Supported flags

List of Examples

21.1. Connector/J: Obtaining a connection from the DriverManager
21.2. Connector/J: Using java.sql.Statement to execute a SELECT query
21.3. Connector/J: Calling Stored Procedures
21.4. Connector/J: Using Connection.prepareCall()
21.5. Connector/J: Registering output parameters
21.6. Connector/J: Setting CallableStatement input parameters
21.7. Connector/J: Retrieving results and output parameter values
21.8. Connector/J: Retrieving AUTO_INCREMENT column values using Statement.getGeneratedKeys()
21.9. Connector/J: Retrieving AUTO_INCREMENT column values using SELECT LAST_INSERT_ID()
21.10. Connector/J: Retrieving AUTO_INCREMENT column values in Updatable ResultSets
21.11. Connector/J: Using a connection pool with a J2EE application server
21.12. Connector/J: Example of transaction with retry logic
21.13. MySQL extension overview example
21.14. mysql_affected_rows example
21.15. mysql_affected_rows example using transactions
21.16. mysql_client_encoding example
21.17. mysql_close example
21.18. mysql_connect example
21.19. mysql_connect example using hostname:port syntax
21.20. mysql_connect example using ":/path/to/socket" syntax
21.21. mysql_create_db alternative example
21.22. mysql_data_seek example
21.23. mysql_db_name example
21.24. mysql_db_query alternative example
21.25. mysql_drop_db alternative example
21.26. mysql_errno example
21.27. mysql_error example
21.28. mysql_escape_string example
21.29. Query with aliased duplicate field names
21.30. mysql_fetch_array with MYSQL_NUM
21.31. mysql_fetch_array with MYSQL_ASSOC
21.32. mysql_fetch_array with MYSQL_BOTH
21.33. An expanded mysql_fetch_assoc example
21.34. mysql_fetch_field example
21.35. A mysql_fetch_lengths example
21.36. mysql_fetch_object example
21.37. mysql_fetch_object example
21.38. Fetching one row with mysql_fetch_row
21.39. A mysql_field_flags example
21.40. mysql_field_len example
21.41. mysql_field_name example
21.42. A mysql_field_table example
21.43. mysql_field_type example
21.44. A mysql_free_result example
21.45. mysql_get_client_info example
21.46. mysql_get_host_info example
21.47. mysql_get_proto_info example
21.48. mysql_get_server_info example
21.49. Relevant MySQL Statements
21.50. mysql_insert_id example
21.51. mysql_list_dbs example
21.52. Alternate to deprecated mysql_list_fields
21.53. mysql_list_processes example
21.54. mysql_list_tables alternative example
21.55. A mysql_num_fields example
21.56. mysql_num_rows example
21.57. A mysql_ping example
21.58. Invalid Query
21.59. Valid Query
21.60. Simple mysql_real_escape_string example
21.61. An example SQL Injection Attack
21.62. mysql_result example
21.63. mysql_select_db example
21.64. mysql_stat example
21.65. Alternative mysql_stat example
21.66. mysql_tablename example
21.67. mysql_thread_id example
21.68. Object oriented style
21.69. Procedural style
21.70. Object oriented style
21.71. Procedural style
21.72. Object oriented style
21.73. Procedural style
21.74. Object oriented style
21.75. Procedural style
21.76. mysqli_get_client_info
21.77. mysqli_get_client_version
21.78. Object oriented style
21.79. Procedural style
21.80. Object oriented style
21.81. Procedural style
21.82. Object oriented style
21.83. Procedural style
21.84. Object oriented style
21.85. Object oriented style when extending mysqli class
21.86. Procedural style
21.87. Generating a Trace File
21.88. Object oriented style
21.89. Procedural style
21.90. Object oriented style
21.91. Procedural style
21.92. Object oriented style
21.93. Procedural style
21.94. Object oriented style
21.95. Procedural style
21.96. mysqli_get_client_info
21.97. mysqli_get_client_version
21.98. A mysqli_get_connection_stats example
21.99. Object oriented style
21.100. Procedural style
21.101. Object oriented style
21.102. Procedural style
21.103. Object oriented style
21.104. Procedural style
21.105. Object oriented style
21.106. Procedural style
21.107. Object oriented style
21.108. Procedural style
21.109. Object oriented style
21.110. Procedural style
21.111. Object oriented style
21.112. Procedural style
21.113. Object oriented style
21.114. Procedural style
21.115. Object oriented style
21.116. Procedural style
21.117. A mysqli_poll example
21.118. Object oriented style
21.119. Procedural style
21.120. Object oriented style
21.121. Procedural style
21.122. Object oriented style
21.123. Object oriented style when extending mysqli class
21.124. Procedural style
21.125. Object oriented style
21.126. Procedural style
21.127. Object oriented style
21.128. Procedural style
21.129. Object oriented style
21.130. Procedural style
21.131. Object oriented style
21.132. Procedural style
21.133. Object oriented style
21.134. Procedural style
21.135. Object oriented style
21.136. Procedural style
21.137. Object oriented style
21.138. Procedural style
21.139. Object oriented style
21.140. Procedural style
21.141. Object oriented style
21.142. Procedural style
21.143. Object oriented style
21.144. Procedural style
21.145. Object oriented style
21.146. Procedural style
21.147. Object oriented style
21.148. Procedural style
21.149. Object oriented style
21.150. Procedural style
21.151. Object oriented style
21.152. Procedural style
21.153. Object oriented style
21.154. Procedural style
21.155. Object oriented style
21.156. Procedural style
21.157. Object oriented style
21.158. Procedural style
21.159. Object oriented style
21.160. Procedural style
21.161. Object oriented style
21.162. Procedural style
21.163. Object oriented style
21.164. Procedural style
21.165. Object oriented style
21.166. Procedural style
21.167. Object oriented style
21.168. Procedural style
21.169. Object oriented style
21.170. Object oriented style
21.171. Procedural style
21.172. Object oriented style
21.173. Procedural style
21.174. Object oriented style
21.175. Procedural style
21.176. Object oriented style
21.177. Procedural style
21.178. Object oriented style
21.179. Procedural style
21.180. Object oriented style
21.181. Procedural style
21.182. Object oriented style
21.183. Procedural style
21.184. Object oriented style
21.185. Procedural style
21.186. Object oriented style
21.187. Procedural style
21.188. Object oriented style
21.189. Procedural style
21.190. Object oriented style
21.191. Procedural style
21.192. Object oriented style
21.193. Procedural style
21.194. Object oriented style
21.195. Procedural style
21.196. Object oriented style
21.197. Procedural style
21.198. Object oriented style
21.199. Procedural style
21.200. A mysqli_get_cache_stats example
21.201. A mysqli_get_client_stats example
21.202. Object oriented style
21.203. Forcing queries to be buffered in mysql
21.204. PDO_MYSQL DSN examples