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Booting and Shutting Down Oracle Solaris on SPARC Platforms     Oracle Solaris 11 Information Library
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Document Information


1.  Booting and Shutting Down a SPARC Based System (Overview)

What's New in Booting and Shutting Down a System

Administratively Provided driver.conf Files

Fast Reboot on SPARC Platforms

Booting and Shutting Down a SPARC Based System (Topic Map)

Guidelines for Booting a System

Reasons to Boot a System

Service Management Facility and Booting

Changes in Behavior When Using SMF

How Run Levels Work

What Happens When a System Is Booted to a Multiuser State (Run Level 3)

When to Use Run Levels or Milestones

Overview of the Oracle Solaris Boot Architecture

Description of the SPARC Boot Process

SPARC Boot Phases

2.  Booting a SPARC Based System to a Specified State (Tasks)

3.  Shutting Down a System (Tasks)

4.  Rebooting a SPARC Based System (Tasks)

5.  Booting a SPARC Based System From the Network (Tasks)

6.  Modifying Boot Parameters on a SPARC Based System (Tasks)

7.  Creating, Administering, and Booting From ZFS Boot Environments on SPARC Platforms (Tasks)

8.  Keeping a SPARC Based System Bootable (Tasks)

9.  Troubleshooting Booting a SPARC Based System (Tasks)


How Run Levels Work

A system's run level (also known as an init state) defines what services and resources are available to users. A system can be in only one run level at a time.

Oracle Solaris has eight run levels, which are described in the following table. The default run level is specified in the /etc/inittab file as run level 3.

Table 1-3 Oracle Solaris Run Levels

Run Level
Init State
Power-down state
To shut down the operating system so that it is safe to turn off power to the system.
s or S
Single-user state
To run as a single user with some file systems mounted and accessible.
Administrative state
To access all available file systems. User logins are disabled.
Multiuser state
For normal operations. Multiple users can access the system and all file systems. All daemons are running except for the NFS server daemons.
Multiuser level with NFS resources shared
For normal operations with NFS resources shared. This is the default run level.
Alternative multiuser state
Not configured by default, but available for customer use.
Power-down state
To shut down the operating system so that it is safe to turn off power to the system. If possible, automatically turns off power on systems that support this feature.
Reboot state
To shut down the system to run level 0, and then reboot to a multiuser level with NFS resources shared (or whatever run level is the default in the inittab file).

In addition, the svcadm command can be used to change the run level of a system, by selecting a milestone at which to run. The following table shows which run level corresponds to each milestone.

Table 1-4 Run Levels and SMF Milestones

Run Level
SMF Milestone FMRI

What Happens When a System Is Booted to a Multiuser State (Run Level 3)

  1. The init process is started and reads the properties defined in the svc:/system/environment:init SMF service to set any environment variables. By default, only the TIMEZONE variable is set.

  2. Then, init reads the inittab file and does the following:

    1. Executes any process entries that have sysinit in the action field so that any special initializations can take place before users log in to the system.

    2. Passes the startup activities to svc.startd.

    For a detailed description of how the init process uses the inittab file, see the init(1M) man page.

When to Use Run Levels or Milestones

In general, changing milestones or run levels is an uncommon procedure. If it is necessary, using the init command to change to a run level will change the milestone as well and is the appropriate command to use. The init command is also good for shutting down a system.

However, booting a system using the none milestone can be very useful for debugging startup problems. There is no equivalent run level to the none milestone. For more information, see How to Boot a System Without Starting Any Services.