Manage VM Clusters

Learn how to manage your VM clusters on Exadata Cloud Infrastructure.

Scaling an Exadata Cloud Infrastructure Instance

This topic describes the scaling options available for Exadata Cloud Infrastructure instances.

Scaling CPU cores within an Exadata Cloud Infrastructure instance

If an Exadata Cloud Infrastructure instance requires more compute node processing power, you can scale up the number of enabled CPU cores symmetrically across all the nodes in the system as follows:

The options for each of the shapes are:

X8M or X9M flexible infrastructure systems: You can scale CPU cores in multiples of the number of database servers currently provisioned for the cloud VM cluster. For example, if you have 6 database servers provisioned, you can add CPU cores in multiples of 6. At the time of provisioning, X8M systems have as few as 2 database servers or up to 32 database servers.. For more information on adding compute and storage resources to an X8M or X9M system, see Scaling Exadata X8M and X9M Compute and Storage .

Non-X8M fixed-shape systems: For a base system or an X7 or X8 quarter rack, you can scale in multiples of 2 across the 2 database compute nodes. For an X7 or X8 half rack, you can scale in multiples of 4 across the 4 database compute nodes. For an X7 or X8 full rack, you can scale in multiples of 8 across the 8 database compute nodes.

For a non-metered service instances, you can temporarily modify the compute node processing power (bursting) or add compute node processing power on a more permanent basis. For a metered service instance, you can simply modify the number of enabled CPU cores.

You can provision an Exadata Cloud Infrastructure instance with zero CPU cores, or scale the service instance down to zero cores after you provision it. With zero cores, you are billed only for the infrastructure until you scale up the system. For detailed information about pricing, see Exadata Cloud Service Pricing.

Note

OCPU scaling activities are done online with no downtime.

For information on CPU cores per configuration, see Exadata Shape Configurations. To learn how to scale a system, see To scale CPU cores in an Exadata Cloud Infrastructure cloud VM cluster or DB system .

To scale CPU cores in an Exadata Cloud Infrastructure cloud VM cluster or DB system

Scaling Exadata X8M and X9M Compute and Storage

The flexible X8M and X9M system model is designed to be easily scaled in place, with no need to migrate the database using a backup or Data Guard

You can scale an X8M or X9M Exadata cloud infrastructure instance in the Console on the cloud Exadata infrastructure details page. After adding additional database or storage servers to your cloud Exadata infrastructure resource, you must add the increased capacity to the associated cloud VM cluster to utilize the newly-provisioned CPU or storage resources. After adding additional database servers to a VM cluster, you can then allocate the new CPU cores as described in see To scale CPU cores in an Exadata Cloud Infrastructure cloud VM cluster or DB system. After adding additional storage servers to your VM cluster, you do not need to take any further action to utilize the new storage.

Note

  • Neither the Exadata X8M nor the X9M shapes support removing storage or database servers from an existing cloud infrastructure instance.
To add compute and storage resources to a flexible cloud Exadata infrastructure resource

This task describes how to use the Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Console to scale a flexible cloud Exadata infrastructure resource.

Currently, only Exadata X8M and X9M systems in Oracle Cloud Infrastructure have the ability to add database (compute) and storage servers to an existing service instance.

  1. Open the navigation menu. Under Oracle Database, click Exadata at Oracle Cloud.
  2. Under Oracle Exadata Database Service on Dedicated Infrastructure, click Exadata Infrastructure.
  3. In the list of cloud Exadata infrastructure resources, click the name of the resource you want to scale.
  4. Click Scale Infrastructure.
  5. Add either Database servers or Storage Servers by selecting the proper radio button
    1. Adding database servers: To add compute servers to the infrastructure resource, select the Database Servers radio button, then enter the number of servers you want to add in the Database servers field.
    2. Adding storage servers: To add storage servers to the infrastructure resource, select the Storage Servers radio button, then enter the number of servers you want to add in the Storage servers field.
  6. Click Scale.
Note

After scaling your infrastructure, you must add the new capacity to the cloud VM cluster before you can use the additional CPU and storage resources in the Exadata Cloud Infrastructure instance.

To add database server or storage server capacity to a cloud VM cluster

This topic describes how to use the Oracle Cloud Infrastructure (OCI) Console to add the new capacity to your cloud VM cluster.

If you have used the task To add compute and storage resources to a flexible cloud Exadata infrastructure resource by adding additional database (compute) or storage servers to the service instance, you must add the additional capacity to the cloud VM cluster to utilize the additional resources.

  1. Open the navigation menu. Under Oracle Database, click Bare Metal, VM, and Exadata.
  2. Under Exadata at Oracle Cloud, click Exadata VM Clusters.
  3. In the list of cloud VM clusters, click the name of the cluster to which you want to add capacity.
  4. On the VM Cluster Details page, click Scale VM Cluster.
  5. If you have additional capacity available as a result of scaling the cloud Exadata infrastructure resource, a banner at the top of the Scale VM Cluster panel provides a message telling you the type and amount of additional capacity available to the VM cluster. Check the Add Capacity box.
  6. Select either the Add Database Server or the Add Storage radio button, depending on which type of capacity you want to add to the cloud VM cluster.
  7. Click Update. The cloud VM cluster goes into the Updating state. When the capacity has been successfully added, the cluster returns to the Available state.
Note

If you have added additional database servers to the cluster, you can allocate the new CPU cores once the cluster is in the Available state by clicking the Scale VM Cluster button again. See To scale CPU cores in an Exadata Cloud Service cloud VM cluster or DB system for more information on adding CPU cores to your cloud VM cluster.

Scaling X6, X7 and X8 Exadata DB System Configurations

Scaling an Exadata X6, X7, or X8 Exadata Cloud Infrastructure instance by moving to a shape with more capacity enables you meet the needs of your growing workload.

This is useful when a database deployment requires:

  • Processing power that is beyond the capacity of the current system configuration.
  • Storage capacity that is beyond the capacity of the current system configuration.
  • A performance boost that can be delivered by increasing the number of available compute nodes.
  • A performance boost that can be delivered by increasing the number of available Exadata Storage Servers.

You can move you workloads to a larger fixed shape (X7 and X8 hardware shapes), or move to the flexible X8M shape that allows for easy expansion of compute and storage resources as your workloads grow.

To assist with moving your database deployments between Exadata Cloud Infrastructuree instances, you can restore a backup to a different service instance that has more capacity, or create a Data Guard association for your database in a service instance with more capacity, and then perform a switchover so that your new standby database assumes the primary role. To start the process, contact Oracle and request a service limit increase so that you can provision the larger service instance needed by your database.

Using the Console to Manage VM Clusters on Exadata Cloud Infrastructure

Learn how to use the console to create, edit, and manage your VM Clusters on Oracle Exadata Database Service on Dedicated Infrastructure.

Note

To create a cloud VM cluster in an Exadata Cloud Infrastructure instance, you must have first created a Cloud Exadata infrastructure resource. Exadata Cloud Infrastructure instances currently support creating a single cloud VM cluster.

  1. Open the navigation menu. Click Oracle Database, then click Exadata at Oracle Cloud.
  2. Under Exadata at Oracle Cloud, click Exadata VM Clusters.
  3. Click Create Exadata VM Cluster.

    The Create Exadata VM Cluster page is displayed. Provide the required information to configure the VM cluster.

  4. Compartment: Select a compartment for the VM cluster resource.
  5. Display name: Enter a user-friendly display name for the VM cluster. The name doesn't need to be unique. An Oracle Cloud Identifier (OCID) will uniquely identify the DB system. Avoid entering confidential information.
  6. Select Exadata infrastructure: Select the infrastructure resource that will contain the VM cluster. Currently, cloud Exadata infrastructure resources support only one VM cluster, so you must choose an infrastructure resource that does not have an existing VM cluster. Click Change Compartment and pick a different compartment from the one you are working in to view infrastructure resources in other compartments.
  7. Configure the VM cluster: Specify the number of OCPU cores you want to allocate to each of the VM cluster's virtual machine compute nodes. The read-only Requested OCPU count for the Exadata VM cluster field displays the total number of OCPU cores you are allocating.
  8. Configure Exadata storage: Specify the following:

    Allocate storage for Exadata sparse snapshots: Select this configuration option if you intend to use snapshot functionality within your VM cluster. If you select this option, the SPARSE disk group is created, which enables you to use VM cluster snapshot functionality for PDB sparse cloning. If you do not select this option, the SPARSE disk group is not created and snapshot functionality will not be available on any database deployments that are created in the environment.

    Allocate storage for local backups: Select this option if you intend to perform database backups to the local Exadata storage within your Exadata Cloud Infrastructure instance. If you select this option, more space is allocated to the RECO disk group, which is used to store backups on Exadata storage. If you do not select this option, more space is allocated to the DATA disk group, which enables you to store more information in your databases.

  9. Add SSH key: Add the public key portion of each key pair you want to use for SSH access to the DB system.

    Upload SSH key files: Select this radio button to browse or drag and drop .pub files.

    Paste SSH keys: Select this radio button to paste in individual public keys. To paste multiple keys, click + Another SSH Key, and supply a single key for each entry.

  10. Configure the network settings: Specify the following:

    Note

    IP addresses (100.64.0.0/10) are used for Exadata Cloud Infrastructure X8M interconnect.
    • Virtual cloud network: The VCN in which you want to create the VM cluster. Click Change Compartment to select a VCN in a different compartment.
    • Client subnet: The subnet to which the VM cluster should attach. Click Change Compartment to select a subnet in a different compartment.

      Do not use a subnet that overlaps with 192.168.16.16/28, which is used by the Oracle Clusterware private interconnect on the database instance. Specifying an overlapping subnet causes the private interconnect to malfunction.

    • Backup subnet: The subnet to use for the backup network, which is typically used to transport backup information to and from Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Object Storage, and for Data Guard replication. Click Change Compartment to select a subnet in a different compartment, if applicable.

      Do not use a subnet that overlaps with 192.168.128.0/20. This restriction applies to both the client subnet and backup subnet.

      If you plan to back up databases to Object Storage, see the network prerequisites in Managing Exadata Database Backups.

    • Network Security Groups: Optionally, you can specify one or more network security groups (NSGs);for both the client and backup networks. NSGs function as virtual firewalls, allowing you to apply a set of ingress and egress security rules to your Exadata Cloud Infrastructure VM cluster. A maximum of five NSGs can be specified. For more information, see Network Security Groups and Network Setup for Exadata Cloud Infrastructure Instances.

      Note that if you choose a subnet with a isecurity list, the security rules for the VM cluster will be a union of the rules in the security list and the NSGs.

      To use network security groups:

      • Check the Use network security groups to control traffic check box. This box appears under both the selector for the client subnet and the backup subnet. You can apply NSGs to either the client or the backup network, or to both networks. Note that you must have a virtual cloud network selected to be able to assign NSGs to a network.
      • Specify the NSG to use with the network. You might need to use more than one NSG. If you're not sure, contact your network administrator.
      • To use additional NSGs with the network, click +;Another Network Security Group.
    • Hostname prefix: Your choice of host name for the Exadata DB system. The host name must begin with an alphabetic character, and can contain only alphanumeric characters and hyphens (-). The maximum number of characters allowed for an Exadata DB system is 12.

      Caution:

      The host name must be unique within the subnet. If it is not unique, the VM cluster will fail to provision.
    • Host domain name: The domain name for the VM cluster. If the selected subnet uses the Oracle-provided Internet and VCN Resolver for DNS name resolution, this field displays the domain name for the subnet and it can't be changed. Otherwise, you can provide your choice of a domain name. Hyphens (-) are not permitted.

      If you plan to store database backups in Object Storage, Oracle recommends that you use a VCN Resolver for DNS name resolution for the client subnet because it automatically resolves the Swift endpoints used for backups.

    • Host and domain URL: This read-only field combines the host and domain names to display the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) for the database. The maximum length is 64 characters.
  11. Choose a license type: The type of license you want to use for the VM cluster. Your choice affects metering for billing.

    • License Included means the cost of the cloud service includes a license for the Database service.
    • Bring Your Own License (BYOL) means you are an Oracle Database customer with an Unlimited License Agreement or Non-Unlimited License Agreement and want to use your license with Oracle Cloud Infrastructure. This removes the need for separate on-premises licenses and cloud licenses.
  12. Diagnostics Notification:

    Select the Enable option. Enabling diagnostic notification will allow you and Oracle Support to identify, investigate, track, and resolve guest VM issues quickly and effectively. For more information, see Overview of Database Service Events.

  13. Click Show Advanced Options to specify advanced options for the VM cluster:

    • Time zone: This option is located in the Management tab. The default time zone for the DB system is UTC, but you can specify a different time zone. The time zone options are those supported in both the Java.util.TimeZone class and the Oracle Linux operating system. For more information, see . DB System Time Zone .

      Note

      If you want to set a time zone other than UTC or the browser-detected time zone, and if you do not see the time zone you want, try selecting the Select another time zone, option, then selecting "Miscellaneous" in the Region or country list and searching the additional Time zone selections.

    • SCAN Listener Port: This option is located in the Network tab. You can assign a SCAN listener port (TCP/IP) in the range between 1024 and 8999. The default is 1521
      Note

      Manually changing the SCAN listener port of a VM cluster after provisioning using the backend software is not supported. This change can cause Data Guard provisioning to fail.
      .
    • Tags: If you have permissions to create a resource, then you also have permissions to apply free-form tags to that resource. To apply a defined tag, you must have permissions to use the tag namespace. For more information about tagging, see Resource Tags . If you are not sure whether to apply tags, skip this option (you can apply tags later) or ask your administrator.
  14. Click Create Exadata VM Cluster.

WHAT NEXT?

After your VM cluster is successfully created and in the Available state, you can view the VM Cluster Details page by clicking the name of the VM cluster in the list of clusters. From the VM Cluster Details page, you can create your first database in the cluster by clicking Create Database.

Using the Console to Enable or Disable Diagnostics Notification

You can enable or disable diagnostics collection for your Guest VMs after provisioning the VM cluster.

Enabling diagnostics collection at the VM cluster level applies the configuration to all the resources such as DB home, Database, and so on under the VM cluster.

  1. Open the navigation menu. Under Database, click Exadata at Oracle Cloud.
  2. Choose the Region that contains your Exadata infrastructure.
  3. Click VM Clusters.
  4. Click the name of the VM cluster you want to enable or disable diagnostic data collection.
  5. On the VM Cluster Details page, under General Information, enable or disable Diagnostic Notification.

Using the Console to Update the License Type on a VM Cluster

To modify licensing, be prepared to provide values for the fields required for modifying the licensing information.

  1. Open the navigation menu. Under Oracle Database, click Exadata Cloud Infrastructure.
  2. Choose the Region and Compartment that contains the VM cluster for which you want to update the license type.
  3. Click VM Clusters.
  4. Click the name of the VM cluster for which you want to update the license type.

    The VM Cluster Details page displays information about the selected VM cluster.

  5. Click Update License Type.
  6. In the dialog box, choose one of the following license types and then click Save Changes.
    • Bring Your Own License (BYOL): Select this option if your organization already owns Oracle Database software licenses that you want to use on the VM cluster.
    • License Included: Select this option to subscribe to Oracle Database software licenses as part of Exadata Cloud Infrastructure.

    Updating the license type does not change the functionality or interrupt the operation of the VM cluster.

To add SSH keys to a VM cluster

The VM cluster exists, and you wish to add a another user which requires another SSH key.

  1. Open the navigation menu. Click Oracle Database, then click Exadata at Oracle Cloud.
  2. Choose your Compartment.
  3. Click Exadata VM Clusters.
  4. In the list of VM clusters, find the cluster you want to manage and click its highlighted name.
  5. Click Add SSH Keys.
  6. Select one of the following options:
    • Generate SSH key pair: Use this option to create a new SSH key pair. Click both Save Private Key and Save Public Key when using this option. The private key is downloaded to your local machine, and should be stored in a safe location. You cannot download another copy of the private key generated during this operation after completing the operation.

    • Upload SSH key files: Select this option to browse or drag and drop .pub files.

    • Paste SSH keys: Select this option to paste in individual public keys. To paste multiple keys, click + Another SSH Key, and supply a single key for each entry.

  7. Click Save Changes.

Using the Console to Add SSH Keys After Creating a VM Cluster

  1. Open the navigation menu. Under Oracle Database, click Exadata at Oracle Cloud.
  2. Click VM Clusters.
  3. Click the name of the VM cluster that you want to add SSH key(s).
  4. In the VM Cluster Details page, click Add SSH Keys.
  5. In the ADD SSH Keys dialog, choose any one of the methods:
    • Generate SSH key pair: Select this option if you want the Control Plane to generate public/private key pairs for you.

      Click Save Private Key and Save Public Key to download and save SSH Key pair.

    • Upload SSH key files: Select this option to upload the file that contains SSH Key pair.
    • Paste SSH keys: Select this option to paste the SSH key string.

      To provide multiple keys, click Another SSH Key. For pasted keys, ensure that each key is on a single, continuous line. The length of the combined keys cannot exceed 10,000 characters.

  6. Click Save Changes.

Using the Console to Stop, Start, or Reboot a VM Cluster Virtual Machine

Use the console to stop, start, or reboot a virtual machine.

  1. Open the navigation menu. Under Oracle Database, click Exadata at Oracle Cloud.
  2. Choose the Region and Compartment that is associated with the VM cluster that contains the virtual machine that you want to stop, start, or reboot.
  3. Click VM Clusters.
  4. Click the name of the VM cluster that contains the virtual machine that you want to stop, start, or reboot.

    The VM Cluster Details page displays information about the selected VM cluster.

  5. In the Resources list, click Virtual Machines.

    The list of virtual machines is displayed.

  6. In the list of nodes, click the Actions icon (three dots) for a node, and then click one of the following actions:
    1. Start: Restarts a stopped node. After the node is restarted, the Stop action is enabled.
    2. Stop: Shuts down the node. After the node is stopped, the Start action is enabled.
    3. Reboot: Shuts down the node, and then restarts it.

Using the Console to Check the Status of a VM Cluster Virtual Machine

Review the health status of a VM cluster virtual machine.

  1. Open the navigation menu. Under Oracle Database, click Exadata at Oracle Cloud.
  2. Choose the Region and Compartment that is associated with the VM cluster that contains the virtual machine that you are interested in.
  3. Click VM Clusters.
  4. Click the name of the VM cluster that contains the virtual machine that you are interested in.

    The VM Cluster Details page displays information about the selected VM cluster.

  5. In the Resources list, click Virtual Machines.

    The list of virtual machines displays. For each virtual machine in the VM cluster, the name, state, and client IP address are displayed.

  6. In the node list, find the virtual machine that you are interested in and check its state.

    The color of the icon and the associated text it indicates its status.

    • Available: Green icon. The node is operational.
    • Starting: Yellow icon. The node is starting because of a start or reboot action in the Console or API.
    • Stopping: Yellow icon. The node is stopping because of a stop or reboot action in the Console or API.
    • Stopped: Yellow icon. The node is stopped.
    • Failed: Red icon. An error condition prevents the continued operation of the virtual machine.

Using the Console to Move a VM Cluster to Another Compartment

To change the compartment that contains your VM cluster on Exadata Cloud Infrastructure, use this procedure.

When you move a VM cluster, the compartment change is also applied to the virtual machines and databases that are associated with the VM cluster. However, the compartment change does not affect any other associated resources, such as the Exadata infrastructure, which remains in its current compartment.

  1. Open the navigation menu. Under Oracle Database, click Exadata at Oracle Cloud.
  2. Choose the Region and Compartment that contains the VM cluster that you want to move.
  3. Click VM Clusters.
  4. Click the name of the VM cluster that you want to move.

    The VM Cluster Details page displays information about the selected VM cluster.

  5. Click Move Resource.
  6. In the resulting dialog, choose the new compartment for the VM cluster, and click Move Resource.

To change the VM cluster display name

Using the Console to Terminate a VM Cluster

Before you can terminate a VM cluster, you must first terminate the databases that it contains.

Terminating a VM cluster removes it from the Cloud Control Plane. In the process, the virtual machines and their contents are destroyed.
  1. Open the navigation menu. Under Oracle Database, click Exadata Cloud Infrastructure.
  2. Choose the Region and Compartment that contains the VM cluster that you want to terminate.
  3. Click VM Clusters.
  4. Click the name of the VM cluster that you want to terminate.

    The VM Cluster Details page displays information about the selected VM cluster.

  5. Click Terminate.
  6. In the resulting dialog, enter the name of the VM cluster, and click Terminate VM Cluster to confirm the action.

To Detach a Virtual IP Address

Procedure to remove a Virtual IP address from a VM cluster

This is the start of your topic.

Using the API to Manage Exadata Cloud Infrastructure Instance

For information about using the API and signing requests, see REST APIs and Security Credentials. For information about SDKs, see Software Development Kits and Command Line Interface.

Use these API operations to manage Exadata Cloud Infrastructure instance components.

Cloud Exadata infrastructure resource (new resource model):

Cloud VM cluster (new resource model)

DB systems (old resource model):

Virtual machines nodes (all Exadata Cloud Infrastructure instances):