Changes in This Release for Oracle Grid Infrastructure

This new release of Oracle Grid Infrastructure provides improvements to the installation process, performance, and automation.

Changes in Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2)

The following are changes in Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide for Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2):

New Features

Following are the new features for Oracle Clusterware 12c Release 2 (12.2) and Oracle Automatic Storage Management 12c Release 2 (12.2):

New Features for Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2)

  • Simplified Image-based Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation

    Starting with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2), Oracle Grid Infrastructure software is available as an image file for download and installation.

    This feature greatly simplifies and enables quicker installation of Oracle Grid Infrastructure.

    Note:

    You must extract the image software into the directory where you want your Grid home to be located, and then run the gridSetup.sh script to start Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
  • Support for Oracle Domain Services Clusters and Oracle Member Clusters

    Starting with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2), Oracle Grid Infrastructure installer supports the option of deploying Oracle Domain Services Clusters and Oracle Member Clusters.

    Note:

    Oracle Domain Services Clusters and Oracle Member Clusters are not supported on IBM: Linux on System z.
  • Support for Oracle Extended Clusters

    Starting with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2), Oracle Grid Infrastructure installer supports the option of configuring cluster nodes in different locations as an Oracle Extended Cluster. An Oracle Extended Cluster consists of nodes that are located in multiple locations called sites.

  • Global Grid Infrastructure Management Repository

    Oracle Grid Infrastructure deployment now supports a global off-cluster Grid Infrastructure Management Repository (GIMR). This repository is a multitenant database with a pluggable database (PDB) for the GIMR of each cluster. The global GIMR runs in an Oracle Domain Services Cluster. A global GIMR frees the local cluster from dedicating storage in its disk groups for this data and permitting longer term historical data storage for diagnostic and performance analysis.

    Note:

    This feature is not supported on IBM: Linux on System z.
  • Rapid Home Provisioning of Oracle Software

    Rapid Home Provisioning enables you to create clusters, and provision, patch, and upgrade Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle Database homes. You can also provision Oracle Database on 11.2 clusters.

    Rapid Home Provisioning leverages a new file system capability for separation of gold image software from the site-specific configuration changes. This separation ensures that the home path remains unchanged throughout updates. This feature combines the benefits of in-place and out-of-place patching. This capability is available with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2).

    Note:

    Rapid Home Provisioning is not supported on IBM: Linux on System z.
  • Parallel NFS Support in Oracle Direct NFS Client

    Starting with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2), Oracle Direct NFS Client supports parallel NFS. Parallel NFS is an NFSv4.1 option that allows direct client access to file servers, enabling scalable distributed storage.

  • Direct NFS Dispatcher Support

    Starting with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2), Oracle Direct NFS Client supports adding a dispatcher or I/O slave infrastructure. For very large database deployments running Oracle Direct NFS Client, this feature facilitates scaling of sockets and TCP connections to multi-path and clustered NFS storage.

  • Kerberos Authentication for Direct NFS

    Oracle Database now supports Kerberos implementation with Direct NFS communication. This feature solves the problem of authentication, message integrity, and optional encryption over unsecured networks for data exchange between Oracle Database and NFS servers using Direct NFS protocols.

    See Also:

    Creating an oranfstab File for Direct NFS Client for information about setting up Kerberos authentication for Direct NFS Client
  • Support for IPv6 Based IP Addresses for the Oracle Cluster Interconnect

    Starting with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2), you can use either IPv4 or IPv6 based IP addresses to configure cluster nodes on the private network. You can use more than one private network for the cluster.

  • Shared Grid Naming Service (GNS) High Availability

    Shared GNS High Availability provides high availability of lookup and other services to the clients by running multiple instances of GNS with primary and secondary roles.

  • Cluster Health Advisor

    The Cluster Health Advisor provides system administrators and database administrators early warning of pending performance issues and root causes and corrective actions for Oracle RAC databases and cluster nodes. This advanced proactive diagnostic capability enhances availability and performance management.

    Note:

    Cluster Health Advisor is not supported on IBM: Linux on System z.
  • Enhancements to Cluster Verification Utility

    Cluster Verification Utility (CVU) assists in the installation and configuration of Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC). CVU performs a range of tests, covering all intermediate stages during the installation and configuration of a complete Oracle RAC stack. In this release, CVU provides several enhancements, such as information about the progress of each check and allowing you to specify an output format such as XML or HTML on request.

  • Postinstallation Configuration of Oracle Software using the -executeConfigTools option

    Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2), you can perform postinstallation configuration of Oracle products by running the Oracle Database or Oracle Grid Infrastructure installer with the -executeConfigTools option. You can use the same response file created during installation to complete postinstallation configuration.

  • Separation of Duty for Administering Oracle Real Application Clusters

    Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2), Oracle Database provides support for separation of duty best practices when administering Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) by introducing the SYSRAC administrative privilege for the clusterware agent. This feature removes the need to use the powerful SYSDBA administrative privilege for Oracle RAC.

    SYSRAC, like SYSDG, SYSBACKUP and SYSKM, helps enforce separation of duties and reduce reliance on the use of SYSDBA on production systems. This administrative privilege is the default mode for connecting to the database by the clusterware agent on behalf of the Oracle RAC utilities such as srvctl.

  • SCAN Listener Supports HTTP Protocol

    Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2), SCAN listener enables connections for the recovery server coming over HTTP to be redirected to different machines based on the load on the recovery server machines.

  • Oracle Real Application Clusters Reader Nodes

    Oracle RAC Reader Nodes facilitate Oracle Flex Cluster architecture by allocating a set of read/write instances running Online Transaction Processing (OLTP) workloads and a set of read-only database instances across Hub Nodes and Leaf Nodes in the cluster. In this architecture, updates to the read-write instances are immediately propagated to the read-only instances on the Leaf Nodes, where they can be used for online reporting or instantaneous queries.

  • Service-Oriented Buffer Cache Access

    Cluster-managed services are used to allocate workloads across various Oracle RAC database instances running in a cluster. These services are used to access database objects cached in the buffer caches of the respective database instances. Service-oriented Buffer Cache Access optimization allows Oracle RAC to cache or pre-warm instances with data blocks for objects accessed through a service. This feature improves access time of Oracle RAC Database instances.

  • Server Weight-Based Node Eviction

    Server weight-based node eviction acts as a tie-breaker mechanism in situations where Oracle Clusterware needs to evict a particular node or a group of nodes from a cluster, in which all nodes represent an equal choice for eviction. The server weight-based node eviction mechanism helps to identify the node or the group of nodes to be evicted based on additional information about the load on those servers. Two principle mechanisms, a system inherent automatic mechanism and a user input-based mechanism exist to provide respective guidance.

  • Load-Aware Resource Placement

    Load-aware resource placement prevents overloading a server with more applications than the server is capable of running. The metrics used to determine whether an application can be started on a given server, either as part of the startup or as a result of a failover, are based on the anticipated resource consumption of the application as well as the capacity of the server in terms of CPU and memory.

New Features for Oracle Automatic Storage Management 12c Release 2 (12.2)

  • Automatic Configuration of Oracle ASM Filter Driver

    Oracle ASMFD simplifies the configuration and management of disk devices by eliminating the need to rebind disk devices used with Oracle ASM each time the system is restarted. The configuration for Oracle ASM Filter Driver (Oracle ASMFD) can now be enabled with a check box to be an automated process during Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.

    Note:

    Oracle ASMFD is supported on Linux x86–64 and Oracle Solaris operating systems.
  • Oracle IOServer

    Oracle IOServer (IOS) provides connectivity for Oracle Database instances on nodes of member clusters that do not have connectivity to Oracle ASM managed disks. Oracle IOServer provides network-based file access to Oracle ASM disk groups.

  • Oracle ASM Flex Disk Groups and File Groups

    Oracle ASM provides database-oriented storage management with flex disk groups. Flex disk groups support Oracle ASM file groups and quota groups.

  • Oracle ACFS Snapshot-Based Replication

    The new Oracle ACFS snapshot-based replication feature uses ACFS snapshot technology to transfer the differences between successive snapshots to the standby file system using standard ssh transport protocol. ACFS Snapshot-based replication is more efficient with higher performance,lower overhead, and ease of management.

  • Oracle ACFS Compression

    Oracle ACFS provides file system compression functionality reducing storage requirement, resulting in lowering cost. Oracle ACFS compression is managed using the new acfsutil compress commands and updates to the acfsutil info command.

  • Oracle ACFS Defragger

    Databases that share storage with snapshots or with the base of the file system can become fragmented under active online transaction processing (OLTP) workloads. This fragmentation can cause the location of the data in the volume to be discontiguous for sequential scans. Oracle ACFS automatically defragments these files in the background.

  • Oracle ACFS Support for 4K Sectors

    Oracle ACFS supports I/O requests in multiples of 4K logical sector sizes as well as continued support for 512-byte logical sector size I/O requests. The i 4096 option is provided with the acfsformat command on Windows and the mkfs command in Linux and Oracle Solaris environments.

  • Oracle ACFS Automatic Resize

    Oracle ACFS provides an automatic resize option with the acfsutil size command. This command enables you to specify an increment by which an Oracle ACFS file system grows automatically if the amount of available free space in the file system falls below a specified amount. There is also an option to specify the maxiOracle ACFS plugins support file content data collection. Both polling and interval based capture are supported with the file content collection.mum size allowed when using the automatic resize option. The output of the acfsutil info fs command displays the automatic resize increment and maximum amounts.

  • Oracle ACFS Metadata Acceleration

    Oracle ACFS supports accelerator metadata storage. This support enables many critical Oracle ACFS metadata structures, including extent metadata, storage bitmaps, volume logs, and some snapshot metadata to be placed on accelerator storage.

  • Oracle ACFS Plugins for File Content Data Collection

    Oracle ACFS plugins support file content data collection. Both polling and interval based capture are supported with the file content collection.

  • Oracle ACFS Sparse Files

    Oracle ACFS provides support for sparse files. Oracle ACFS sparse files greatly benefit NFS client write operations which are commonly received out of order by the NFS server and the associated Oracle ACFS file system.

  • Oracle ACFS Scrubbing Functionality

    Oracle ACFS provides scrubbing functionality with the acfsutil scrub command to check for and report any inconsistencies in the metadata or file data.

  • High Availability Common Internet File System (HACIFS)

    Oracle ACFS Common Internet File System (CIFS) features are enhanced to provide high availability for the exported file systems, with the Oracle ACFS NAS Maximum Availability eXtensions (NAS MAX) technology. High Availability Common Internet File System (HACIFS) and High Availability Network File System (HANFS) now both provide comprehensive Network Attach Storage solutions for Oracle ACFS customers.

Deprecated Features

The following feature is deprecated in this release, and may be desupported in another release. See Oracle Database Upgrade Guide for a complete list of deprecated features in this release.

  • Deprecation of configToolAllCommands script

    The configToolAllCommands script runs in the response file mode to configure Oracle products after installation and uses a separate password response file. Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2), the configToolAllCommands script is deprecated and is subject to desupport in a future release.

    To perform postinstallation configuration of Oracle products, you can now run the Oracle Database or Oracle Grid Infrastructure installer with the -executeConfigTools option. You can use the same response file created during installation to complete postinstallation configuration.

Desupported Features

The following feature is desupported in this release. See Oracle Database Upgrade Guide for a complete list of features desupported in this release.

  • Desupport of Direct File System Placement for Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) and Voting Files

    Starting with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 (12.2), the placement of Oracle Clusterware files: the Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR), and the Voting Files, directly on a shared file system is desupported in favor of having Oracle Clusterware files managed by Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM). You cannot place Oracle Clusterware files directly on a shared file system. If you need to use a supported shared file system, either a Network File System, or a shared cluster file system instead of native disk devices, then you must create Oracle ASM disks on supported network file systems that you plan to use for hosting Oracle Clusterware files before installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure. You can then use the Oracle ASM disks in an Oracle ASM disk group to manage Oracle Clusterware files.

    If your Oracle Database files are stored on a shared file system, then you can continue to use shared file system storage for database files, instead of moving them to Oracle ASM storage.

Changes in Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 1 (12.1)

The following are changes in Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide for Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 1 (12.1):

New Features for Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.2)

  • Automated Root Privilege Delegation to Scripts During Installation

    You can continue to run scripts as root manually during installation, or you can enable OUI to run root scripts as needed during installation, using one of three methods: 1) providing the root password to the installer; 2) configuring Sudo access to the Oracle installation owner; 3) configuring PowerBroker access to the Oracle Installation owner.

  • Oracle ASM Filter Driver

    The Oracle ASM filter driver (Oracle ASMFD) is a kernel module that resides in the I/O path of the Oracle ASM disks. It is used by Oracle ASM to specify the parameters to validate all I/O requests.

    The filter driver rejects any I/O requests that are not determined to be valid. This action eliminates accidental overwrites of Oracle ASM disks that would cause corruption in an Oracle ASM disk and files within the disk group. For example, the driver filters out all non-Oracle I/O requests that could cause accidental overwrites.

    See Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for more information about configuration and administration of Oracle ASMFD.

  • Rapid Home Provisioning

    Rapid Home Provisioning is a method of deploying software homes to nodes in a cloud computing environment from a single cluster where you store home images (called gold images) of Oracle software, such as databases, middleware, and applications. Rapid Home Provisioning Server clusters provide gold images to Rapid Home Provisioning Clients.

  • Cluster and Oracle RAC Diagnosability Tools Enhancements

    The Trace File Analyzer (TFA) Collector is installed automatically with Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation. The Trace File Analyzer Collector is a diagnostic collection utility to simplify diagnostic data collection on Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle RAC systems.

    See Also:

    Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for information about using Trace File Analyzer Collector

  • Automatic Installation of Grid Infrastructure Management Repository

    The Grid Infrastructure Management Repository is automatically installed with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.2).

  • Oracle RAC Cache Fusion Accelerator

    Oracle RAC uses its Cache Fusion protocol and Global Cache Service (GCS) to provide fast, reliable, and efficient inter-instance data communication in an Oracle RAC cluster, so that the individual memory buffer caches of multiple instances can function as one global cache for the database. Using Cache Fusion provides a nearly linear scalability for most applications. This release includes accelerations to the Cache Fusion protocol that provide enhanced scalability for all applications.

New Features for Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.1)

  • Automated Root Privilege Delegation to Scripts During Installation

    You can continue to run scripts as root manually during installation, or you can enable OUI to run root scripts as needed during installation, using one of three methods: 1) providing the root password to the installer; 2) configuring Sudo access to the Oracle installation owner; 3) configuring PowerBroker access to the Oracle Installation owner.

  • Database Upgrade Automation Using DBUA

    There are three areas that are being enhanced for upgrade ease-of-use. First, in the pre-upgrade phase, the existing manual steps are eliminated and give more explicit advice or even generate a fix-up script to find issues identified in the pre-upgrade phase. Second, in the post-upgrade phase, there is a post-upgrade health check that indicates that the upgrade was successful. Finally, partner documents (such as SAP) and major customer upgrade documents are used to further identify manual steps that may be automated and generalized to a wider customer base.

    Automating the upgrade process provides major improvements in usability and ease-of-use. There is also better integration of database upgrade with Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster and Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control.

    See Oracle Database Upgrade Guide.

  • DBCA Support for Multitenant Container Database and Pluggable Database Configurations

    Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1), Oracle Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) allows you to create either a multitenant container database (CDB) or a non-CDB. You can create the CDB with zero, one, or more pluggable databases (PDBs).

    You can also create a CDB with one PDB during the database installation.

    See Oracle Database Administrator's Guide.

  • Enhancements to Cluster Health Monitor (CHM)

    CHM has been enhanced to be more efficient to support Oracle Flex Clusters implementations. These enhancements ensure that Oracle Flex Clusters run smoothly while minimizing the required resources to monitor the stack.

  • Oracle Flex ASM Servers

    Oracle Flex ASM enables the Oracle ASM instance to run on a separate physical server from the database servers. Many Oracle ASM instances can be clustered to support a large number of database clients.

    Note that Oracle Flex ASM can apply to a collection of databases, each one a single instance but running in an Oracle Flex ASM Cluster.

    See Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide.

  • Oracle Flex Clusters

    Oracle Flex Cluster is a new concept, which joins together a traditional closely coupled cluster with a modest node count with a large number of loosely coupled nodes. To support various configurations that can be established using this new concept, SRVCTL provides new commands and command options to ease the installation and configuration.

    See Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide.

  • IPv6 Support for Public Networks

    Oracle Clusterware 12c Release 1 (12.1) supports IPv6-based public IP and VIP addresses.

    IPv6-based IP addresses have become the latest standard for the information technology infrastructure in today's data centers. With this release, Oracle RAC and Oracle Grid Infrastructure support this standard. You can configure cluster nodes during installation with either IPv4 or IPv6 addresses on the same network. Database clients can connect to either IPv4 or IPv6 addresses. The Single Client Access Name (SCAN) listener automatically redirects client connects to the appropriate database listener for the IP protocol of the client request.

    See Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide.

  • Multiprocess Multithreaded Oracle Database

    Starting with Oracle Database 12c, Oracle Database may use operating system threads to allow resource sharing and reduce resource consumption.

    See Oracle Database Concepts.

  • Oracle ACFS Auditing and Support for Importing Auditing Data into Oracle Audit Vault Server

    This feature provides auditing for Oracle ACFS security and encryption. In addition, this feature also generates an XML file containing Oracle ACFS audit trail data which can be imported by Oracle Audit Vault Server.

    See Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide.

  • Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express 12c

    Oracle Database 12c introduces Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express, a web management product built into Oracle Database without any need for special installation or management. Using Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express, you can perform administrative tasks such as managing user security, and managing database memory and storage. You can also view performance and status information about your database.

    Note that starting with Oracle Database 12c, Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control is deprecated.

    See Oracle Database 2 Day DBA.

  • Policy-Based Cluster Management and Administration

    Oracle Grid Infrastructure allows running multiple applications in one cluster. Using a policy-based approach, the workload introduced by these applications can be allocated across the cluster using a policy. In addition, a policy set enables different policies to be applied to the cluster over time as required. Policy sets can be defined using a web-based interface or a command-line interface.

    Hosting various workloads in the same cluster helps to consolidate the workloads into a shared infrastructure that provides high availability and scalability. Using a centralized policy-based approach allows for dynamic resource reallocation and prioritization as the demand changes.

    See Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide.

  • Simplified Oracle Database Vault Installation

    Starting with Oracle Database 12c, Oracle Database Vault is installed by default as part of the Oracle Database installation. However, you can configure, enable, or disable Oracle Database Vault after the Oracle Database installation, either using DBCA, or by running SQL statements.

    See Oracle Database Vault Administrator's Guide.

  • Support for Separation of Database Administration Duties

    Oracle Database 12c provides support for separation of administrative duties for Oracle Database by introducing task-specific and least-privileged administrative privileges that do not require the SYSDBA administrative privilege. These new privileges are: SYSBACKUP for backup and recovery, SYSDG for Oracle Data Guard, and SYSKM for encryption key management.

    See Oracle Database Security Guide.

  • Unified Database Audit Configuration

    Starting with Oracle Database 12c, you can create named audit policies. An audit policy contains a set of audit options, which is stored in the database as an object. The advantage of creating a named audit policy is that it reduces the number of commands that are required to create a database audit policy, and it simplifies the implementation of an audit configuration for security and compliance with conditional auditing. This new audit policy framework is included with the database installation.

    See Oracle Database Security Guide.

Deprecated Features

The following features are deprecated in this release, and may be desupported in another release. See Oracle Database Upgrade Guide for a complete list of deprecated features in this release.

  • Deprecation of single-letter SRVCTL command-line interface (CLI) options

    All SRVCTL commands have been enhanced to accept full-word options instead of the single-letter options. All new SRVCTL command options added in this release support full-word options, only, and do not have single-letter equivalents. The use of single-letter options with SRVCTL commands might be desupported in a future release.

  • Change for Standalone Deinstallation Tool

    The deinstallation tool is now integrated with the database installation media.

  • Deprecation of -cleanupOBase

    The -cleanupOBase flag of the deinstallation tool is deprecated in this release. There is no replacement for this flag.

  • Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control is replaced by Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express.

  • The deinstall standalone utility is replaced with a deinstall option using Oracle Universal Installer (OUI).

Desupported Features

The following features are no longer supported by Oracle. See Oracle Database Upgrade Guide for a complete list of features desupported in this release.

  • Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control

  • CLEANUP_ORACLE_BASE property removed and does not support an Oracle base removal during silent or response file mode deinstalls.