The RESTRICT_REFERENCES pragma asserts that a user-defined subprogram does not read or write database tables or package variables.


The RESTRICT_REFERENCES pragma is deprecated. Oracle recommends using DETERMINISTIC and PARALLEL_ENABLE instead of RESTRICT_REFERENCES.

Subprograms that read or write database tables or package variables are difficult to optimize, because any invocation of the subprogram might produce different results or encounter errors. If a statement in a user-defined subprogram violates an assertion made by RESTRICT_REFERENCES, then the PL/SQL compiler issues an error message when it parses that statement, unless you specify TRUST.

Typically, this pragma is specified for functions. If a function invokes procedures, then specify this pragma for those procedures also.

Restrictions on RESTRICT_REFERENCES Pragma

  • This pragma can appear only in a package specification or ADT specification.

  • Only one RESTRICT_REFERENCES pragma can reference a given subprogram.





Name of a user-defined subprogram, typically a function. If subprogram is overloaded, the pragma applies only to the most recent subprogram declaration.


Name of a MEMBER subprogram. See "CREATE TYPE Statement"for more information.


Applies the pragma to all subprograms in the package specification or ADT specification (including the system-defined constructor for ADTs).

If you also declare the pragma for an individual subprogram, it overrides the DEFAULT pragma for that subprogram.


Asserts that the subprogram reads no database state (does not query database tables).


Asserts that the subprogram writes no database state (does not modify tables).


Asserts that the subprogram reads no package state (does not reference the values of package variables)

Restriction on RNPS

You cannot specify RNPS if the subprogram invokes the SQLCODE or SQLERRM function.


Asserts that the subprogram writes no package state (does not change the values of package variables).

Restriction on WNPS

You cannot specify WNPS if the subprogram invokes the SQLCODE or SQLERRM function.


Asserts that the subprogram can be trusted not to violate the other specified assertions and prevents the PL/SQL compiler from checking the subprogram body for violations. Skipping these checks can improve performance.

If your PL/SQL subprogram invokes a C or Java subprogram, then you must specify TRUST for either the PL/SQL subprogram or the C or Java subprogram, because the PL/SQL compiler cannot check a C or Java subprogram for violations at run time.


To invoke a subprogram from a parallelized DML statement, you must specify all four constraints—RNDS, WNDS, RNPS, and WNPS. No constraint implies another.

See Also:

Oracle Database Development Guide for information about using PRAGMA RESTRICT_REFERENCES in existing applications