6 Coordinate Systems (Spatial Reference Systems)
This chapter describes in detail the Oracle Spatial and Graph coordinate system support.
This support was introduced in Coordinate System. You can store and manipulate SDO_GEOMETRY objects in a variety of coordinate systems.
For reference information about coordinate system transformation functions and procedures in the MDSYS.SDO_CS package, see SDO_CS Package (Coordinate System Transformation) .
Topics:
 Terms and Concepts
This topic explains important terms and concepts related to coordinate system support in Oracle Spatial and Graph.  Geodetic Coordinate Support
Effective with Oracle9i, Spatial and Graph provides a rational and complete treatment of geodetic coordinates.  Local Coordinate Support
Spatial and Graph provides a level of support for local coordinate systems.  EPSG Model and Spatial and Graph
The Oracle Spatial and Graph coordinate system support is based on, but is not always identical to, the European Petroleum Survey Group (EPSG) data model and dataset.  ThreeDimensional Coordinate Reference System Support
The Oracle Spatial and Graph support for threedimensional coordinate reference systems complies with the EPSG model.  TFM_PLAN Object Type
The object type TFM_PLAN is used is by several SDO_CS package subprograms to specify a transformation plan.  Coordinate Systems Data Structures
The coordinate systems functions and procedures use information provided in the tables and views supplied with Oracle Spatial and Graph. The tables and views are part of the MDSYS schema; however, public synonyms are defined, so you do not need to specify MDSYS. before the table or view name.  Legacy Tables and Views
In releases of Spatial and Graph before 10.2, the coordinate systems functions and procedures used information provided in the following tables, some of which have new names or are now views instead of tables.  Creating a UserDefined Coordinate Reference System
If the coordinate systems supplied by Oracle are not sufficient for your needs, you can create userdefined coordinate reference systems.  Notes and Restrictions with Coordinate Systems Support
The following notes and restrictions apply to coordinate systems support in the current release of Oracle Spatial and Graph.  U.S. National Grid Support
The U.S. National Grid is a point coordinate representation using a single alphanumeric coordinate (for example, 18SUJ2348316806479498).  Geohash Support
A geohash is a standard String encoding of a longitude/latitude point.  Google Maps Considerations
Google Maps uses spherical math in its projections, as opposed to the ellipsoidal math used by Oracle Spatial and Graph. This difference can lead to inconsistencies in applications, such as when overlaying a map based on Google Maps with a map based on an Oracle Spatial and Graph ellipsoidal projection.  Example of Coordinate System Transformation
This topic presents a simplified example that uses coordinate system transformation functions and procedures.
6.1 Terms and Concepts
This topic explains important terms and concepts related to coordinate system support in Oracle Spatial and Graph.
Topics:
6.1.1 Coordinate System (Spatial Reference System)
A coordinate system (also called a spatial reference system) is a means of assigning coordinates to a location and establishing relationships between sets of such coordinates. It enables the interpretation of a set of coordinates as a representation of a position in a real world space.
The term coordinate reference system has the same meaning as coordinate system for Spatial and Graph, and the terms are used interchangeably. European Petroleum Survey Group (EPSG) specifications and documentation typically use the term coordinate reference system. (EPSG has its own meaning for the term coordinate system, as noted in SDO_COORD_SYS Table.)
6.1.3 Geodetic Coordinates (Geographic Coordinates)
Geodetic coordinates (sometimes called geographic coordinates) are angular coordinates (longitude and latitude), closely related to spherical polar coordinates, and are defined relative to a particular Earth geodetic datum (described in Geodetic Datum). For more information about geodetic coordinate support, see Geodetic Coordinate Support.
6.1.5 Local Coordinates
Local coordinates are Cartesian coordinates in a nonEarth (nongeoreferenced) coordinate system. Local Coordinate Support describes local coordinate support in Spatial and Graph.
6.1.6 Geodetic Datum
A geodetic datum (or datum) is a means of shifting and rotating an ellipsoid to represent the figure of the Earth, usually as an oblate spheroid, that approximates the surface of the Earth locally or globally, and is the reference for the system of geodetic coordinates.
Each geodetic coordinate system is based on a datum.
6.1.7 Transformation
Transformation is the conversion of coordinates from one coordinate system to another coordinate system.
If the coordinate system is georeferenced, transformation can involve datum transformation: the conversion of geodetic coordinates from one geodetic datum to another geodetic datum, usually involving changes in the shape, orientation, and center position of the reference ellipsoid.
6.2 Geodetic Coordinate Support
Effective with Oracle9i, Spatial and Graph provides a rational and complete treatment of geodetic coordinates.
Before Oracle9i, spatial computations were based solely on flat (Cartesian) coordinates, regardless of the coordinate system specified for the layer of geometries. Consequently, computations for data in geodetic coordinate systems were inaccurate, because they always treated the coordinates as if they were on a flat surface, and they did not consider the curvature of the surface.
Now, ellipsoidal surface computations consider the curvatures of the Earth in the specified geodetic coordinate system and return correct, accurate results. In other words, spatial queries return the right answers all the time.
Topics:
6.2.1 Geodesy and TwoDimensional Geometry
A twodimensional geometry is a surface geometry, but the important question is: What is the surface? A flat surface (plane) is accurately represented by Cartesian coordinates. However, Cartesian coordinates are not adequate for representing the surface of a solid. A commonly used surface for spatial geometry is the surface of the Earth, and the laws of geometry there are different than they are in a plane. For example, on the Earth's surface there are no parallel lines: lines are geodesics, and all geodesics intersect. Thus, closed curved surface problems cannot be done accurately with Cartesian geometry.
Spatial and Graph provides accurate results regardless of the coordinate system or the size of the area involved, without requiring that the data be projected to a flat surface. The results are accurate regardless of where on the Earth's surface the query is focused, even in "special" areas such as the poles. Thus, you can store coordinates in any datum and projections that you choose, and you can perform accurate queries regardless of the coordinate system.
6.2.2 Choosing a Geodetic or Projected Coordinate System
For applications that deal with the Earth's surface, the data can be represented using a geodetic coordinate system or a projected plane coordinate system. In deciding which approach to take with the data, consider any needs related to accuracy and performance:

Accuracy
For many spatial applications, the area is sufficiently small to allow adequate computations on Cartesian coordinates in a local projection. For example, the New Hampshire State Plane local projection provides adequate accuracy for most spatial applications that use data for that state.
However, Cartesian computations on a plane projection will never give accurate results for a large area such as Canada or Scandinavia. For example, a query asking if Stockholm, Sweden and Helsinki, Finland are within a specified distance may return an incorrect result if the specified distance is close to the actual measured distance. Computations involving large areas or requiring very precise accuracy must account for the curvature of the Earth's surface.

Performance
Spherical computations use more computing resources than Cartesian computations. Some operations using geodetic coordinates may take longer to complete than the same operations using Cartesian coordinates.
It is important that you choose the correct type of coordinate system, because it affects the point at which anomalies related to floating point arithmetic are likely to appear.
6.2.3 Choosing NonEllipsoidal or Ellipsoidal Height
This section discusses guidelines for choosing the appropriate type of height for threedimensional data: nonellipsoidal or ellipsoidal. Although ellipsoidal height is widely used and is the default for many GPS applications, and although ellipsoidal computations incur less performance overhead in many cases, there are applications for which a nonellipsoidal height may be preferable or even necessary.
Also, after any initial decision, you can change the reference height type, because transformations between different height datums are supported.
6.2.3.1 NonEllipsoidal Height
Nonellipsoidal height is measured from some point other than the reference ellipsoid. Some common nonellipsoidal measurements of height are from ground level, mean sea level (MSL), or the reference geoid.

Ground level: Measuring height from the ground level is conceptually the simplest approach, and it is common in very local or informal applications. For example, when modeling a single building or a cluster of buildings, ground level may be adequate.
Moreover, if you ever need to integrate local ground height with a global height datum, you can achieve this with a transformation (EPSG method 9616) adding a local constant reference height. If you need to model local terrain undulations, you can achieve this with a transformation using an offset matrix (EPSG method 9635), just as you can between the geoid and the ellipsoid.

Mean sea level (MSL): MSL is a common variation of sea level that provides conceptual simplicity, ignoring local variations and changes over time in sea level. It can also be extrapolated to areas covered by land.
Height relative to MSL is useful for a variety of applications, such as those dealing with flooding risk, gravitational potential, and how thin the air is. MSL is commonly used for the heights of aircraft in flight.

Geoid: The geoid, the equipotential surface closest to MSL, provides the most precise measurements of height in terms of gravitational pull, factoring in such things as climate and tectonic changes. The geoid can deviate from MSL by approximately 2 meters (plus or minus).
If an application is affected more by purely gravitational effects than by actual local sea level, you may want to use the geoid as the reference rather than MSL. To perform transformations between MSL, geoid, or ellipsoid, you can use EPSG method 9635 and the appropriate timestamped offset matrix.
Because most nonellipsoidal height references are irregular and undulating surfaces, transformations between them are more complicated than with ellipsoidal heights. One approach is to use an offset grid file to define the transformation. This approach is implemented in EPSG method 9635. The grid file has to be acquired (often available publicly from government websites). Moreover, because most such nonellipsoidal height datums (including the geoid, sea level, and local terrain) change over time, the timestamp of an offset matrix may matter, even if not by much. (Of course, the same principle applies to ellipsoids as well, since they are not static in the long term. After all, they are intended to approximate the changing geoid, MSL, or terrain.)
Regarding performance and memory usage with EPSG method 9635, at runtime the grid must be loaded before the transformation of a dataset. This load operation temporarily increases the footprint in main memory and incurs onetime loading overhead. If an entire dataset is transformed, the overhead can be relatively insignificant; however, if frequent transformations are performed on single geometries, the cumulative overhead can become significant.
6.2.3.2 Ellipsoidal Height
Ellipsoidal height is measured from a point on the reference ellipsoid. The ellipsoid is a convenient and relatively faithful approximation of the Earth. Although using an ellipsoid is more complex than using a sphere to represent the Earth, using an ellipsoid is, for most applications, simpler than using a geoid or local heights (although with some sacrifice in precision). Moreover, geoidal and sealevel heights are often not well suited for mathematical analysis, because the undulating and irregular shapes would make certain computations prohibitively complex and expensive.
GPS applications often assume ellipsoidal height as a reference and use it as the default. Because the ellipsoid is chosen to match the geoid (and similar sea level), ellipsoidal height tends not to deviate far from MSL height. For example, the geoid diverges from the NAD83 ellipsoid by only up to 50 meters. Other ellipsoids may be chosen to match a particular country even more closely.
Even if different parties use different ellipsoids, a WKT can conveniently describe such differences. A simple datum transformation can efficiently and accurately perform transformations between ellipsoids. Because no offset matrix is involved, no loading overhead is required. Thus, interoperability is simplified with ellipsoidal height, although future requirements or analysis might necessitate the use of MSL, a geoid, or other nonellipsoidal height datums.
6.2.4 Geodetic MBRs
To create a query window for certain operations on geodetic data, use an MBR (minimum bounding rectangle) by specifying an SDO_ETYPE value of 1003 or 2003 (optimized rectangle) and an SDO_INTERPRETATION value of 3, as described in Table 22 in SDO_ELEM_INFO. A geodetic MBR can be used with the following operators: SDO_FILTER, SDO_RELATE with the ANYINTERACT
mask, SDO_ANYINTERACT, and SDO_WITHIN_DISTANCE.
Example 61 requests the names of all cola markets that are likely to interact spatially with a geodetic MBR.
Example 61 Using a Geodetic MBR
SELECT c.name FROM cola_markets_cs c WHERE SDO_FILTER(c.shape, SDO_GEOMETRY( 2003, 8307,  SRID for WGS 84 longitude/latitude NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1,1003,3), SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(6,5, 10,10)) ) = 'TRUE';
Example 61 produces the following output (assuming the data as defined in Example of Coordinate System Transformation):
NAME  cola_c cola_b cola_d
The following considerations apply to the use of geodetic MBRs:

Do not use a geodetic MBR with spatial objects stored in the database. Use it only to construct a query window.

The lowerleft Y coordinate (minY) must be less than the upperright Y coordinate (maxY). If the lowerleft X coordinate (minX) is greater than the upperright X coordinate (maxX), the window is assumed to cross the date line meridian (that is, the meridian "opposite" the prime meridian, or both 180 and 180 longitude). For example, an MBR of (10,10, 100, 20) with longitude/latitude data goes threefourths of the way around the Earth (crossing the date line meridian), and goes from latitude lines 10 to 20.

When an optimized rectangle spans more than 119 degrees in longitude, it is internally divided into three rectangles; and as a result, these three rectangles share an edge that is the common boundary between them. If you validate the geometry of such an optimized rectangle, error code 13351 is returned because the internal rectangles have a shared edge. You can use such an optimized rectangle for queries with only the following: SDO_ANYINTERACT operator, SDO_RELATE operator with the ANYINTERACT mask, or SDO_GEOM.RELATE function with the ANYINTERACT mask. (Any other queries on such an optimized rectangle may return incorrect results.)
The following additional examples show special or unusual cases, to illustrate how a geodetic MBR is interpreted with longitude/latitude data:

(10,0, 110,20) crosses the date line meridian and goes most of the way around the world, and goes from the equator to latitude 20.

(10,90, 40,90) is a band from the South Pole to the North Pole between longitudes 10 and 40.

(10,90, 40,50) is a band from the South Pole to latitude 50 between longitudes 10 and 40.

(180,10, 180,5) is a band that wraps the equator from 10 degrees south to 5 degrees north.

(180,90, 180,90) is the whole Earth.

(180,90, 180,50) is the whole Earth below latitude 50.

(180,50, 180,90) is the whole Earth above latitude 50.
6.2.5 Distance: Spherical versus Ellipsoidal with Geodetic Data
When using a geodetic coordinate system, the distance between spatial objects can be computed as spherical or ellipsoidal.
The ellipsoidal distance is more accurate that the spherical distance, but it takes longer to compute. With previous releases (12.1 and earlier), with geodetic data, Spatial and Graph always used ellipsoidal distance for points and multipoints, but spherical distance for other geometry types.
Effective with Release 12.2, you have the option to specify ellipsoidal distance regardless of geometry type. The default distance measurement behavior is still as it was for Release 12.1. However, for spatial operators and functions that determine the distance between geometries, the “nearest neighbor” geometries, or whether geometries are within a given distance, you can specify whether ellipsoidal distance is needed, through the use of a keyword or parameter named ellipsoidal
: true
causes ellipsoidal distance to be returned regardless of the geometry type; false
(the default) causes the preRelease 12.2 behavior to be applied (ellipsoidal distance for points and multipoints, but spherical distance for other geometry types).
The default value of false
prevents applications from returning different distance results after upgrading from Release 12.1 to 12.2, if that is a concern to you.
6.2.6 Other Considerations and Requirements with Geodetic Data
The following geometries are not permitted if a geodetic coordinate system is used or if any transformation is being performed (even if the transformation is from one projected coordinate system to another projected coordinate system):

Circles

Circular arcs
Geodetic coordinate system support is provided only for geometries that consist of points or geodesics (lines on the ellipsoid). If you have geometries containing circles or circular arcs in a projected coordinate system, you can densify them using the SDO_GEOM.SDO_ARC_DENSIFY function (documented in SDO_GEOM Package (Geometry)) before transforming them to geodetic coordinates, and then perform spatial operations on the resulting geometries.
The following size limits apply with geodetic data:

No polygon element can have an area larger than or equal to onehalf the surface of the Earth. Moreover, if the result of a union of two polygons is greater than onehalf the surface of the Earth, the operation will not produce a correct result. For example, if A union B results in a polygon that is greater than onehalf of the area of the Earth, the operations A difference B, A intersection B, and A XOR B are not supported, and only a relate operation with the ANYINTERACT mask is supported between those two polygons.

In a line, the distance between two adjacent coordinates cannot be greater than or equal to onehalf the perimeter (a great circle) of the Earth.
If you need to work with larger elements, first break these elements into multiple smaller elements and work with them. For example, you cannot create a geometry representing the entire ocean surface of the Earth; however, you can create multiple geometries, each representing part of the overall ocean surface. To work with a line string that is greater than or equal to onehalf the perimeter of the Earth, you can add one or more intermediate points on the line so that all adjacent coordinates are less than onehalf the perimeter of the Earth.
Tolerance is specified as meters for geodetic layers. If you use tolerance values that are typical for nongeodetic data, these values are interpreted as meters for geodetic data. For example, if you specify a tolerance value of 0.05 for geodetic data, this is interpreted as precise to 5 centimeters. If this value is more precise than your applications need, performance may be affected because of the internal computational steps taken to implement the specified precision. (For more information about tolerance, see Tolerance.)
For geodetic layers, you must specify the dimensional extents in the index metadata as 180,180 for longitude and 90,90 for latitude. The following statement (from Example of Coordinate System Transformation) specifies these extents (with a 10meter tolerance value in each dimension) for a geodetic data layer:
INSERT INTO user_sdo_geom_metadata (TABLE_NAME, COLUMN_NAME, DIMINFO, SRID) VALUES ( 'cola_markets_cs', 'shape', SDO_DIM_ARRAY( SDO_DIM_ELEMENT('Longitude', 180, 180, 10),  10 meters tolerance SDO_DIM_ELEMENT('Latitude', 90, 90, 10)  10 meters tolerance ), 8307  SRID for 'Longitude / Latitude (WGS 84)' coordinate system );
See Notes and Restrictions with Coordinate Systems Support for additional notes and restrictions relating to geodetic data.
6.3 Local Coordinate Support
Spatial and Graph provides a level of support for local coordinate systems.
Local coordinate systems are often used in CAD systems, and they can also be used in local surveys where the relationship between the surveyed site and the rest of the world is not important.
Several local coordinate systems are predefined and included with Spatial and Graph in the SDO_COORD_REF_SYS table (described in SDO_COORD_REF_SYS Table). These supplied local coordinate systems, whose names start with NonEarth, define nonEarth Cartesian coordinate systems based on different units of measurement (Meter, Millimeter, Inch, and so on).
In the current release, you cannot perform coordinate system transformation between local and Earthbased coordinate systems; and when transforming a geometry or layer of geometries between local coordinate systems, you can only to convert coordinates in a local coordinate system from one unit of measurement to another (for example, inches to millimeters). However, you can perform all other spatial operations (for example, using SDO_RELATE, SDO_WITHIN_DISTANCE, and other operators) with local coordinate systems.
6.4 EPSG Model and Spatial and Graph
The Oracle Spatial and Graph coordinate system support is based on, but is not always identical to, the European Petroleum Survey Group (EPSG) data model and dataset.
These are described in detail at http://www.epsg.org
, and the download for the EPSG geodetic parameter dataset includes a "Readme" that contains an entityrelationship (ER) diagram. The approach taken by Oracle Spatial and Graph provides the benefits of standardization, expanded support, and flexibility:

The EPSG model is a comprehensive and widely accepted standard for data representation, so users familiar with it can more easily understand Spatial and Graph storage and operations.

Support is provided for more coordinate systems and their associated datums, ellipsoids, and projections. For example, some of the EPSG geographic and projected coordinate systems had no counterpart among coordinate systems supported for previous Spatial and Graph releases. Their addition results in an expanded set of supported coordinate systems.

Data transformations are more flexible. Instead of there being only one possible Oracledefined transformation path between a given source and target coordinate system, you can specify alternative paths to be used for a specific area of applicability (that is, use case) or as the systemwide default.
The rest of this section describes this flexibility.
For data transformations (that is, transforming data from one coordinate system to another), you can now control which transformation rules are to be applied. In previous releases, and in the current release by default, Spatial and Graph performs transformations based only on the specified source and target coordinate systems, using predetermined intermediate transformation steps. The assumption behind that default approach is that there is a single correct or preferable transformation chain.
By default, then, Spatial and Graph applies certain transformation methods for each supported transformation between specific pairs of source and target coordinate systems. For example, there are over 500 supported transformations from specific coordinate systems to the WGS 84 (longitude/latitude) coordinate system, which has the EPSG SRID value of 4326. As one example, for a transformation from SRID 4605 to SRID 4326, Spatial and Graph can use the transformation method with the COORD_OP_ID value 1445, as indicated in the SDO_COORD_OPS table (described in SDO_COORD_OPS Table), which contains one row for each transformation operation between coordinate systems.
However, you can override the default transformation by specifying a different method (from the set of Oraclesupplied methods) for the transformation for any given source and target SRID combination. You can specify a transformation as the new systemwide default, or you can associate the transformation with a named use case that can be specified when transforming a layer of spatial geometries. (A use case is simply a name given to a usage scenario or area of applicability, such as Project XYZ or Mike's Favorite Transformations; there is no relationship between use cases and database users or schemas.)
To specify a transformation as either the systemwide default or associated with a use case, use the SDO_CS.ADD_PREFERENCE_FOR_OP procedure. To remove a previously specified preference, use the SDO_CS.REVOKE_PREFERENCE_FOR_OP procedure.
When it performs a coordinate system transformation, Spatial and Graph follows these general steps to determine the specific transformation to use:

If a use case has been specified, the transformation associated with that use case is applied.

If no use case has been specified and if a userdefined systemwide transformation has been created for the specified source and target coordinate system pair, that transformation is applied.

If no use case has been specified and if no userdefined transformation exists for the specified source and target coordinate system pair, the behavior depends on whether or not EPSG rules have been created, such as by the SDO_CS.CREATE_OBVIOUS_EPSG_RULES procedure:

If the EPSG rules have been created and if an EPSG rule is defined for this transformation, the EPSG transformation is applied.

If the EPSG rules have not been created, or if they have been created but no EPSG rule is defined for this transformation, the Oracle Spatial and Graph default transformation is applied.

To return the version number of the EPSG dataset used by Spatial and Graph, use the SDO_CS.GET_EPSG_DATA_VERSION function.
6.5 ThreeDimensional Coordinate Reference System Support
The Oracle Spatial and Graph support for threedimensional coordinate reference systems complies with the EPSG model.
The EPSG model (described in EPSG Model and Spatial and Graph) provides the following types of coordinate reference systems:

Geographic 2D

Projected 2D

Geographic 3D, which consists of Geographic 2D plus ellipsoidal height, with longitude, latitude, and height based on the same ellipsoid and datum

Compound, which consists of either Geographic 2D plus gravityrelated height or Projected 2D plus gravityrelated height
Thus, there are two categories of threedimensional coordinate reference systems: those based on ellipsoidal height (geographic 3D, described in Geographic 3D Coordinate Reference Systems) and those based on gravityrelated height (compound, described in Compound Coordinate Reference Systems).
Threedimensional computations are more accurate than their twodimensional equivalents, particularly when they are chained: For example, datum transformations internally always are performed in three dimensions, regardless of the dimensionality of the source and target CRS and geometries. When twodimensional geometries are involved, one or more of the following can occur:

When the input or output geometries and CRS are twodimensional, the (unspecified) input height defaults to zero (above the ellipsoid, depending on the CRS) for any internal threedimensional computations. This is a potential source of inaccuracy, unless the height was intended to be exactly zero. (Data can be twodimensional because height values were originally either unavailable or not considered important; this is different from representing data in two dimensions because heights are known to be exactly zero.

The transformation might then internally result in a nonzero height. Since the twodimensional target CRS cannot accommodate the height value, the height value must be truncated, resulting in further inaccuracy.

If further transformations are chained, the repeated truncation of height values can result in increasing inaccuracies. Note that an inaccurate input height can affect not only the output height of a transformation, but also the longitude and latitude.
However, if the source and target CRS are threedimensional, there is no repeated truncation of heights. Consequently, accuracy is increased, particularly for transformation chains.
For an introduction to support in Spatial and Graph for threedimensional geometries, see ThreeDimensional Spatial Objects.
Topics:
6.5.1 Geographic 3D Coordinate Reference Systems
A geographic threedimensional coordinate reference system is based on longitude and latitude, plus ellipsoidal height. The ellipsoidal height is the height relative to a reference ellipsoid, which is an approximation of the real Earth. All three dimensions of the CRS are based on the same ellipsoid.
Using ellipsoidal heights enables Spatial and Graph to perform internal operations with great mathematical regularity and efficiency. Compound coordinate reference systems, on the other hand, require more complex transformations, often based on offset matrixes. Some of these matrixes have to be downloaded and configured. Furthermore, they might have a significant footprint, on disk and in main memory.
The supported geographic 3D coordinate reference systems are listed in the SDO_CRS_GEOGRAPHIC3D view.
6.5.2 Compound Coordinate Reference Systems
A compound threedimensional coordinate reference system is based on a geographic or projected twodimensional system, plus gravityrelated height. Gravityrelated height is the height as influenced by the Earth's gravitational force, where the base height (zero) is often an equipotential surface, and might be defined as above or below "sea level."
Gravityrelated height is a more complex representation than ellipsoidal height, because of gravitational irregularities such as the following:

Orthometric height is also referred to as the height above the geoid. The geoid is an equipotential surface that most closely (but not exactly) matches mean sea level. An equipotential surface is a surface on which each point is at the same gravitational potential level. Such a surface tends to undulate slightly, because the Earth has regions of varying density. There are multiple equipotential surfaces, and these might not be parallel to each other due to the irregular density of the Earth.

Height relative to mean sea level, to sea level at a specific location, or to a vertical network warped to fit multiple tidal stations (for example, NGVD 29)
Sea level is close to, but not identical to, the geoid. The sea level at a given location is often defined based on the "average sea level" at a specific port.
The supported compound coordinate reference systems are listed in the SDO_CRS_COMPOUND view, described in SDO_CRS_COMPOUND View.
You can create a customized compound coordinate reference system, which combines a horizontal CRS with a vertical CRS. (The horizontal CRS contains two dimensions, such as X and Y or longitude and latitude, and the vertical CRS contains the third dimension, such as Z or height or altitude.) Creating a Compound CRS explains how to create a compound CRS.
6.5.3 ThreeDimensional Transformations
Spatial and Graph supports threedimensional coordinate transformations for SDO_GEOMETRY objects directly, and indirectly for point clouds and TINs. (For example, a point cloud must be transformed to a table with an SDO_GEOMETRY column.) The supported transformations include the following:

Threedimensional datum transformations

Transformations between ellipsoidal and gravityrelated height
For threedimensional datum transformations, the datum transformation between the two ellipsoids is essentially the same as for twodimensional coordinate reference systems, except that the third dimension is considered instead of ignored. Because height values are not ignored, the accuracy of the results increases, especially for transformation chains.
For transformations between ellipsoidal and gravityrelated height, computations are complicated by the fact that equipotential and other gravityrelated surfaces tend to undulate, compared to any ellipsoid and to each other. Transformations might be based on higherdegree polynomial functions or bilinear interpolation. In either case, a significant parameter matrix is required to define the transformation.
For transforming between gravityrelated and ellipsoidal height, the process usually involves a transformation, based on an offset matrix, between geoidal and ellipsoidal height. Depending on the source or target definition of the offset matrix, a common datum transformation might have to be appended or prefixed.
Example 62 ThreeDimensional Datum Transformation
Example 62 shows a threedimensional datum transformation.
set numwidth 9 CREATE TABLE source_geoms ( mkt_id NUMBER PRIMARY KEY, name VARCHAR2(32), GEOMETRY SDO_GEOMETRY); INSERT INTO source_geoms VALUES( 1, 'reference geom', SDO_GEOMETRY( 3001, 4985, SDO_POINT_TYPE( 4.0, 55.0, 1.0), NULL, NULL)); INSERT INTO USER_SDO_GEOM_METADATA VALUES ( 'source_geoms', 'GEOMETRY', SDO_DIM_ARRAY( SDO_DIM_ELEMENT('Longitude', 180, 180, 10), SDO_DIM_ELEMENT('Latitude', 90, 90, 10), SDO_DIM_ELEMENT('Height', 1000,1000, 10)), 4985); commit;  CALL SDO_CS.TRANSFORM_LAYER( 'source_geoms', 'GEOMETRY', 'GEO_CS_4979', 4979); INSERT INTO USER_SDO_GEOM_METADATA VALUES ( 'GEO_CS_4979', 'GEOMETRY', SDO_DIM_ARRAY( SDO_DIM_ELEMENT('Longitude', 180, 180, 10), SDO_DIM_ELEMENT('Latitude', 90, 90, 10), SDO_DIM_ELEMENT('Height', 1000,1000, 10)), 4979); set lines 210;  CALL SDO_CS.TRANSFORM_LAYER( 'GEO_CS_4979', 'GEOMETRY', 'source_geoms2', 4985); INSERT INTO USER_SDO_GEOM_METADATA VALUES ( 'source_geoms2', 'GEOMETRY', SDO_DIM_ARRAY( SDO_DIM_ELEMENT('Longitude', 180, 180, 10), SDO_DIM_ELEMENT('Latitude', 90, 90, 10), SDO_DIM_ELEMENT('Height', 1000,1000, 10)), 4985);  DELETE FROM USER_SDO_GEOM_METADATA WHERE table_name = 'GEO_CS_4979'; DELETE FROM USER_SDO_GEOM_METADATA WHERE table_name = 'SOURCE_GEOMS'; DELETE FROM USER_SDO_GEOM_METADATA WHERE table_name = 'SOURCE_GEOMS2'; drop table GEO_CS_4979; drop table source_geoms; drop table source_geoms2;
As a result of the transformation in Example 62, (4, 55, 1) is transformed to (4.0001539, 55.0000249, 4.218).
Example 63 Transformation Between Geoidal And Ellipsoidal Height
Example 63 configures a transformation between geoidal and ellipsoidal height, using a Hawaii offset grid. Note that without the initial creation of a rule (using the SDO_CS.CREATE_PREF_CONCATENATED_OP procedure), the grid would not be used.
 Create Sample operation: insert into mdsys.sdo_coord_ops ( COORD_OP_ID, COORD_OP_NAME, COORD_OP_TYPE, SOURCE_SRID, TARGET_SRID, COORD_TFM_VERSION, COORD_OP_VARIANT, COORD_OP_METHOD_ID, UOM_ID_SOURCE_OFFSETS, UOM_ID_TARGET_OFFSETS, INFORMATION_SOURCE, DATA_SOURCE, SHOW_OPERATION, IS_LEGACY, LEGACY_CODE, REVERSE_OP, IS_IMPLEMENTED_FORWARD, IS_IMPLEMENTED_REVERSE) values ( 1000000005, 'Test Bilinear Interpolation', 'CONVERSION', null, null, null, null, 9635, null, null, 'Oracle', 'Oracle', 1, 'FALSE', null, 1, 1, 1); Create sample parameters, pointing to the offset file (in this case reusing values from an existing operation): insert into mdsys.sdo_coord_op_param_vals ( coord_op_id, COORD_OP_METHOD_ID, PARAMETER_ID, PARAMETER_VALUE, PARAM_VALUE_FILE_REF, PARAM_VALUE_FILE, PARAM_VALUE_XML, UOM_ID) ( select 1000000005, 9635, 8666, PARAMETER_VALUE, PARAM_VALUE_FILE_REF, PARAM_VALUE_FILE, PARAM_VALUE_XML, UOM_ID from mdsys.sdo_coord_op_param_vals where coord_op_id = 999998 and parameter_id = 8666); Create a rule to use this operation between SRIDs 7406 and 4359: call sdo_cs.create_pref_concatenated_op( 300, 'CONCATENATED OPERATION', TFM_PLAN(SDO_TFM_CHAIN(7406, 1000000005, 4359)), NULL);  Now, actually perform the transformation: set numformat 999999.99999999  Create the source table CREATE TABLE source_geoms ( mkt_id NUMBER PRIMARY KEY, name VARCHAR2(32), GEOMETRY SDO_GEOMETRY); INSERT INTO source_geoms VALUES( 1, 'reference geom', SDO_GEOMETRY( 3001, 7406, SDO_POINT_TYPE( 161, 18, 0), NULL, NULL)); INSERT INTO USER_SDO_GEOM_METADATA VALUES ( 'source_geoms', 'GEOMETRY', SDO_DIM_ARRAY( SDO_DIM_ELEMENT('Longitude', 180, 180, 10), SDO_DIM_ELEMENT('Latitude', 90, 90, 10), SDO_DIM_ELEMENT('Height', 100, 100, 10)), 7406); commit; SELECT GEOMETRY "Source" FROM source_geoms;  Perform the transformation: CALL SDO_CS.TRANSFORM_LAYER( 'source_geoms', 'GEOMETRY', 'GEO_CS_4359', 4359); INSERT INTO USER_SDO_GEOM_METADATA VALUES ( 'GEO_CS_4359', 'GEOMETRY', SDO_DIM_ARRAY( SDO_DIM_ELEMENT('Longitude', 180, 180, 10), SDO_DIM_ELEMENT('Latitude', 90, 90, 10), SDO_DIM_ELEMENT('Height', 100, 100, 10)), 4359); set lines 210; SELECT GEOMETRY "Target" FROM GEO_CS_4359;  Transform back: CALL SDO_CS.TRANSFORM_LAYER( 'GEO_CS_4359', 'GEOMETRY', 'source_geoms2', 7406); INSERT INTO USER_SDO_GEOM_METADATA VALUES ( 'source_geoms2', 'GEOMETRY', SDO_DIM_ARRAY( SDO_DIM_ELEMENT('Longitude', 180, 180, 10), SDO_DIM_ELEMENT('Latitude', 90, 90, 10), SDO_DIM_ELEMENT('Height', 100, 100, 10)), 7406); SELECT GEOMETRY "Source2" FROM source_geoms2;  Clean up (regarding the transformation): DELETE FROM USER_SDO_GEOM_METADATA WHERE table_name = 'GEO_CS_4359'; DELETE FROM USER_SDO_GEOM_METADATA WHERE table_name = 'SOURCE_GEOMS'; DELETE FROM USER_SDO_GEOM_METADATA WHERE table_name = 'SOURCE_GEOMS2'; drop table GEO_CS_4359; drop table source_geoms; drop table source_geoms2; Clean up (regarding the rule): CALL sdo_cs.delete_op(300); delete from mdsys.sdo_coord_op_param_vals where coord_op_id = 1000000005; delete from mdsys.sdo_coord_ops where coord_op_id = 1000000005; COMMIT;
With the configuration in Example 63:

Without the rule, (161.00000000, 18.00000000, .00000000) is transformed to (161.00127699, 18.00043360, 62.03196364), based simply on a datum transformation.

With the rule, (161.00000000, 18.00000000, .00000000) is transformed to (161.00000000, 18.00000000, 6.33070000).
6.5.4 CrossDimensionality Transformations
You cannot directly perform a crossdimensionality transformation (for example, from a twodimensional geometry to a threedimensional geometry) using the SDO_CS.TRANSFORM function or the SDO_CS.TRANSFORM_LAYER procedure. However, you can use the SDO_CS.MAKE_3D function to convert a twodimensional geometry to a threedimensional geometry, or the SDO_CS.MAKE_2D function to convert a threedimensional geometry to a twodimensional geometry; and you can use the resulting geometry to perform a transformation into a geometry with the desired number of dimensions.
For example, transforming a twodimensional geometry into a threedimensional geometry involves using the SDO_CS.MAKE_3D function. This function does not itself perform any coordinate transformation, but simply adds a height value and sets the target SRID. You must choose an appropriate target SRID, which should be the threedimensional equivalent of the source SRID. For example, threedimensional WGS 84 (4327) is the equivalent of twodimensional WGS 84 (4326). If necessary, modify height values of vertices in the returned geometry.
There are many options for how to use the SDO_CS.MAKE_3D function, but the simplest is the following:

Transform from the twodimensional source SRID to twodimensional WGS 84 (4326).

Call SDO_CS.MAKE_3D to convert the geometry to threedimensional WGS 84 (4327)

Transform from threedimensional WGS 84 (4327) to the threedimensional target SRID.
Example 64 transforms a twodimensional point from SRID 27700 to twodimensional SRID 4326, converts the result of the transformation to a threedimensional point with SRID 4327, and transforms the converted point to threedimensional SRID 4327.
Example 64 CrossDimensionality Transformation
SELECT SDO_CS.TRANSFORM( SDO_CS.MAKE_3D( SDO_CS.TRANSFORM( SDO_GEOMETRY( 2001, 27700, SDO_POINT_TYPE(577274.984, 69740.4923, NULL), NULL, NULL), 4326), height => 0, target_srid => 4327), 4327) "27700 > 4326 > 4327 > 4327" FROM DUAL; 27700 > 4326 > 4327 > 4327(SDO_GTYPE, SDO_SRID, SDO_POINT(X, Y, Z), SDO_ELEM_INF  SDO_GEOMETRY(3001, 4327, SDO_POINT_TYPE(.498364058, 50.5006366, 0), NULL, NULL)
6.5.5 3D Equivalent for WGS 84?
There are two possible answers to the question What is 3D equivalent for the WGS 84 coordinate system? (that is, 2D Oracle SRID 8308 or EPSG SRID 4326):

4979 (in many or most cases), or

It depends on what you mean by height (for example, above ground level, above or below sea level, or something else).
There are many different height datums. Height can be relative to:

The ellipsoid, which requires the use of a coordinate system of type GEOGRAPHIC3d, for which SRID values 4327, 43229, and 4979 are predefined in Oracle Spatial and Graph.

A nonellipsoidal height datum, which requires the use of a coordinate system of type COMPOUND, for which a custom SRID must usually be defined. The nonellipsoidal height may be specified in relation to the geoid, to some local or mean sea level (or a network of local sea levels), or to some other definition of height (such as above ground surface).
To define a compound coordinate system (see Compound Coordinate Reference Systems) based on the two dimensions of the WGS 84 coordinate system, you must first select a predefined or custom vertical coordinate reference system (see Creating a Vertical CRS). To find the available vertical coordinate reference systems, enter the following statement:
SELECT srid, COORD_REF_SYS_NAME from sdo_coord_ref_sys WHERE COORD_REF_SYS_KIND = 'VERTICAL' order by srid; SRID COORD_REF_SYS_NAME   3855 EGM2008 geoid height 3886 Fao 1979 height 4440 NZVD2009 height 4458 DunedinBluff 1960 height 5600 NGPF height 5601 IGN 1966 height 5602 Moorea SAU 1981 height . . . 5795 Guadeloupe 1951 height 5796 Lagos 1955 height 5797 AIOC95 height 5798 EGM84 geoid height 5799 DVR90 height 123 rows selected.
After selecting a vertical coordinate reference system, create the compound SRID by entering a statement in the following form:
INSERT INTO sdo_coord_ref_system ( SRID, COORD_REF_SYS_NAME, COORD_REF_SYS_KIND, COORD_SYS_ID, DATUM_ID, GEOG_CRS_DATUM_ID, SOURCE_GEOG_SRID, PROJECTION_CONV_ID, CMPD_HORIZ_SRID, CMPD_VERT_SRID, INFORMATION_SOURCE, DATA_SOURCE, IS_LEGACY, LEGACY_CODE, LEGACY_WKTEXT, LEGACY_CS_BOUNDS, IS_VALID, SUPPORTS_SDO_GEOMETRY) values ( customSRID, 'customname', 'COMPOUND', NULL, NULL, 6326, NULL, NULL, 4326, verticalSRID, 'custominformationsource', 'customdatasource', 'FALSE', NULL, NULL, NULL, 'TRUE', 'TRUE');
You can check the definition, based on the generated WKT, by entering a statement in the following form:
SELECT wktext3d FROM cs_srs WHERE srid = customSRID;
WKTEXT3D

COMPD_CS[
"NTF (Paris) + NGF IGN69",
GEOGCS["NTF (Paris)",
DATUM["Nouvelle Triangulation Francaise (Paris)",
SPHEROID[
"Clarke 1880 (IGN)",
6378249.2,
293.4660212936293951,
AUTHORITY["EPSG", "7011"]],
TOWGS84[168.0, 60.0, 320.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0],
AUTHORITY["EPSG", "6807"]],
PRIMEM["Paris", 2.337229, AUTHORITY["EPSG","8903"]],
UNIT["grad", 0.015707963267949, AUTHORITY["EPSG", "9105"]],
AXIS["Lat", NORTH],
AXIS["Long", EAST],
AUTHORITY["EPSG", "4807"]],
VERT_CS["NGF IGN69",
VERT_DATUM["Nivellement general de la France  IGN69", 2005,
AUTHORITY["EPSG", "5119"]],
UNIT["metre", 1.0, AUTHORITY["EPSG", "9001"]],
AXIS["H", UP],
AUTHORITY["EPSG", "5720"]],
AUTHORITY["EPSG","7400"]]
When transforming between different height datums, you might use a VERTCON matrix. For example, between the WGS 84 ellipsoid and geoid, there is an offset matrix that allows height transformation. For more information, see the following:
6.6 TFM_PLAN Object Type
The object type TFM_PLAN is used is by several SDO_CS package subprograms to specify a transformation plan.
For example, to create a concatenated operation that consists of two operations specified by a parameter of type TFM_PLAN, use the SDO_CS.CREATE_CONCATENATED_OP procedure.
Oracle Spatial and Graph defines the object type TFM_PLAN as:
CREATE TYPE tfm_plan AS OBJECT ( THE_PLAN SDO_TFM_CHAIN);
The SDO_TFM_CHAIN type is defined as VARRAY(1048576) OF NUMBER
.
Within the SDO_TFM_CHAIN array:

The first element specifies the SRID of the source coordinate system.

Each pair of elements after the first element specifies an operation ID and the SRID of a target coordinate system.
6.7 Coordinate Systems Data Structures
The coordinate systems functions and procedures use information provided in the tables and views supplied with Oracle Spatial and Graph. The tables and views are part of the MDSYS schema; however, public synonyms are defined, so you do not need to specify MDSYS. before the table or view name.
The definitions and data in these tables and views are based on the EPSG data model and dataset, as explained in EPSG Model and Spatial and Graph.
The coordinate system tables fit into several general categories:

Coordinate system general information: SDO_COORD_SYS, SDO_COORD_REF_SYS

Elements or aspects of a coordinate system definition: SDO_DATUMS, SDO_ELLIPSOIDS, SDO_PRIME_MERIDIANS

Datum transformation support: SDO_COORD_OPS, SDO_COORD_OP_METHODS, SDO_COORD_OP_PARAM_USE, SDO_COORD_OP_PARAM_VALS, SDO_COORD_OP_PARAMS, SDO_COORD_OP_PATHS, SDO_PREFERRED_OPS_SYSTEM, SDO_PREFERRED_OPS_USER

Others related to coordinate system definition: SDO_COORD_AXES, SDO_COORD_AXIS_NAMES, SDO_UNITS_OF_MEASURE
Several views are provided that are identical to or subsets of coordinate system tables:

SDO_COORD_REF_SYSTEM, which contains the same columns as the SDO_COORD_REF_SYS table. Use the SDO_COORD_REF_SYSTEM view instead of the COORD_REF_SYS table for any insert, update, or delete operations.

Subsets of SDO_DATUMS, selected according to the value in the DATUM_TYPE column: SDO_DATUM_ENGINEERING, SDO_DATUM_GEODETIC, SDO_DATUM_VERTICAL.

Subsets of SDO_COORD_REF_SYS, selected according to the value in the COORD_REF_SYS_KIND column: SDO_CRS_COMPOUND, SDO_CRS_ENGINEERING, SDO_CRS_GEOCENTRIC, SDO_CRS_GEOGRAPHIC2D, SDO_CRS_GEOGRAPHIC3D, SDO_CRS_PROJECTED, SDO_CRS_VERTICAL.
Most of the rest of this section explains these tables and views, in alphabetical order. (Many column descriptions are adapted or taken from EPSG descriptions.) Relationships Among Coordinate System Tables and Views describes relationships among the tables and views, and it lists EPSG table names and their corresponding Oracle Spatial and Graph names. Finding Information About EPSGBased Coordinate Systems describes how to find information about EPSGbased coordinate systems, and it provides several examples.
In addition to the tables and views in this section, Spatial and Graph provides several legacy tables whose definitions and data match those of certain Spatial and Graph system tables used in previous releases. Legacy Tables and Views describes the legacy tables.
Note:
You should not modify or delete any Oraclesupplied information in any of the tables or views that are used for coordinate system support.
If you want to create a userdefined coordinate system, see Creating a UserDefined Coordinate Reference System.
Topics:
 SDO_COORD_AXES Table
 SDO_COORD_AXIS_NAMES Table
 SDO_COORD_OP_METHODS Table
 SDO_COORD_OP_PARAM_USE Table
 SDO_COORD_OP_PARAM_VALS Table
 SDO_COORD_OP_PARAMS Table
 SDO_COORD_OP_PATHS Table
 SDO_COORD_OPS Table
 SDO_COORD_REF_SYS Table
 SDO_COORD_REF_SYSTEM View
 SDO_COORD_SYS Table
 SDO_CRS_COMPOUND View
 SDO_CRS_ENGINEERING View
 SDO_CRS_GEOCENTRIC View
 SDO_CRS_GEOGRAPHIC2D View
 SDO_CRS_GEOGRAPHIC3D View
 SDO_CRS_PROJECTED View
 SDO_CRS_VERTICAL View
 SDO_DATUM_ENGINEERING View
 SDO_DATUM_GEODETIC View
 SDO_DATUM_VERTICAL View
 SDO_DATUMS Table
 SDO_ELLIPSOIDS Table
 SDO_PREFERRED_OPS_SYSTEM Table
 SDO_PREFERRED_OPS_USER Table
 SDO_PRIME_MERIDIANS Table
 SDO_UNITS_OF_MEASURE Table
 Relationships Among Coordinate System Tables and Views
 Finding Information About EPSGBased Coordinate Systems
6.7.1 SDO_COORD_AXES Table
The SDO_COORD_AXES table contains one row for each coordinate system axis definition. This table contains the columns shown in Table 61.
Table 61 SDO_COORD_AXES Table
Column Name  Data Type  Description 

COORD_SYS_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the coordinate system to which this axis applies. 
COORD_AXIS_NAME_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of a coordinate system axis name. Matches a value in the COORD_AXIS_NAME_ID column of the SDO_COORD_AXIS_NAMES table (described in SDO_COORD_AXIS_NAMES Table). Example: 
COORD_AXIS_ORIENTATION 
VARCHAR2(24) 
The direction of orientation for the coordinate system axis. Example: 
COORD_AXIS_ABBREVIATION 
VARCHAR2(24) 
The abbreviation for the coordinate system axis orientation. Example: 
UOM_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the unit of measurement associated with the axis. Matches a value in the UOM_ID column of the SDO_UNITS_OF_MEASURE table (described in SDO_UNITS_OF_MEASURE Table). 
ORDER 
NUMBER(5) 
Position of this axis within the coordinate system (1, 2, or 3). 
6.7.2 SDO_COORD_AXIS_NAMES Table
The SDO_COORD_AXIS_NAMES table contains one row for each axis that can be used in a coordinate system definition. This table contains the columns shown in Table 62.
Table 62 SDO_COORD_AXIS_NAMES Table
Column Name  Data Type  Description 

COORD_AXIS_NAME_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the coordinate axis name. Example: 
COORD_AXIS_NAME 
VARCHAR2(80) 
Name of the coordinate axis. Example: 
6.7.3 SDO_COORD_OP_METHODS Table
The SDO_COORD_OP_METHODS table contains one row for each coordinate systems transformation method. This table contains the columns shown in Table 63.
Table 63 SDO_COORD_OP_METHODS Table
Column Name  Data Type  Description 

COORD_OP_METHOD_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the coordinate system transformation method. Example: 
COORD_OP_METHOD_NAME 
VARCHAR2(50) 
Name of the method. Example: 
LEGACY_NAME 
VARCHAR2(50) 
Name for this transformation method in the legacy WKT strings. This name might differ syntactically from the name used by EPSG. 
REVERSE_OP 
NUMBER(1) 
Contains 
INFORMATION_SOURCE 
VARCHAR2(254) 
Origin of this information. Example: 
DATA_SOURCE 
VARCHAR2(40) 
Organization providing the data for this record. Example: 
IS_IMPLEMENTED_FORWARD 
NUMBER(1) 
Contains 
IS_IMPLEMENTED_REVERSE 
NUMBER(1) 
Contains 
6.7.4 SDO_COORD_OP_PARAM_USE Table
The SDO_COORD_OP_PARAM_USE table contains one row for each combination of transformation method and transformation operation parameter that is available for use. This table contains the columns shown in Table 64.
Table 64 SDO_COORD_OP_PARAM_USE Table
Column Name  Data Type  Description 

COORD_OP_METHOD_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the coordinate system transformation method. Matches a value in the COORD_OP_METHOD_ID column of the COORD_OP_METHODS table (described in SDO_COORD_OP_METHODS Table). 
PARAMETER_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the parameter for transformation operations. Matches a value in the PARAMETER_ID column of the SDO_COORD_OP_PARAMS table (described in SDO_COORD_OP_PARAMS Table). 
LEGACY_PARAM_NAME 
VARCHAR2(80) 
Open GeoSpatial Consortium (OGC) name for the parameter. 
SORT_ORDER 
NUMBER(5) 
A number indicating the position of this parameter in the sequence of parameters for this method. Example: 
PARAM_SIGN_REVERSAL 
VARCHAR2(3) 

6.7.5 SDO_COORD_OP_PARAM_VALS Table
The SDO_COORD_OP_PARAM_VALS table contains information about parameter values for each coordinate system transformation method. This table contains the columns shown in Table 65.
Table 65 SDO_COORD_OP_PARAM_VALS Table
Column Name  Data Type  Description 

COORD_OP_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the coordinate transformation operation. Matches a value in the COORD_OP_ID column of the SDO_COORD_OPS table (described in SDO_COORD_OPS Table). 
COORD_OP_METHOD_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
Coordinate operation method ID. Must match a COORD_OP_METHOD_ID value in the SDO_COORD_OP_METHODS table (see SDO_COORD_OP_METHODS Table). 
PARAMETER_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the parameter for transformation operations. Matches a value in the PARAMETER_ID column of the SDO_COORD_OP_PARAMS table (described in SDO_COORD_OP_PARAMS Table). 
PARAMETER_VALUE 
FLOAT(49) 
Value of the parameter for this operation. 
PARAM_VALUE_FILE_REF 
VARCHAR2(254) 
Name of the file (as specified in the original EPSG database) containing the value data, if a single value for the parameter is not sufficient. 
PARAM_VALUE_FILE 
CLOB 
The ASCII content of the file specified in the PARAM_VALUE_FILE_REF column. Used only for grid file parameters (for NADCON, NTv2, and height transformations "Geographic3D to Geographic2D+GravityRelatedHeight"). 
PARAM_VALUE_XML 
XMLTYPE 
An XML representation of the content of the file specified in the PARAM_VALUE_FILE_REF column. (Optional, and currently only used for documentation.) 
UOM_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the unit of measurement associated with the operation. Matches a value in the UOM_ID column of the SDO_UNITS_OF_MEASURE table (described in SDO_UNITS_OF_MEASURE Table). 
6.7.6 SDO_COORD_OP_PARAMS Table
The SDO_COORD_OP_PARAMS table contains one row for each available parameter for transformation operations. This table contains the columns shown in Table 66.
Table 66 SDO_COORD_OP_PARAMS Table
Column Name  Data Type  Description 

PARAMETER_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the parameter. Example: 
PARAMETER_NAME 
VARCHAR2(80) 
Name of the operation. Example: 
INFORMATION_SOURCE 
VARCHAR2(254) 
Origin of this information. Example: 
DATA_SOURCE 
VARCHAR2(40) 
Organization providing the data for this record. Example: 
6.7.7 SDO_COORD_OP_PATHS Table
The SDO_COORD_OP_PATHS table contains one row for each atomic step in a concatenated operation. This table contains the columns shown in Table 67.
Table 67 SDO_COORD_OP_PATHS Table
Column Name  Data Type  Description 

CONCAT_OPERATION_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the concatenation operation. Must match a COORD_OP_ID value in the SDO_COORD_OPS table (described in SDO_COORD_OPS Table) for which the COORD_OP_TYPE value is 
SINGLE_OPERATION_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the single coordinate operation for this step (atomic operation) in a concatenated operation. Must match a COORD_OP_ID value in the SDO_COORD_OPS table (described in SDO_COORD_OPS Table). 
SINGLE_OP_SOURCE_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of source coordinate reference system for the single coordinate operation for this step. Must match an SRID value in the SDO_COORD_REF_SYS table (described in SDO_COORD_REF_SYS Table). 
SINGLE_OP_TARGET_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of target coordinate reference system for the single coordinate operation for this step. Must match an SRID value in the SDO_COORD_REF_SYS table (described in SDO_COORD_REF_SYS Table). 
OP_PATH_STEP 
NUMBER(5) 
Sequence number of this step (atomic operation) within this concatenated operation. 
6.7.8 SDO_COORD_OPS Table
The SDO_COORD_OPS table contains one row for each transformation operation between coordinate systems. This table contains the columns shown in Table 68.
Table 68 SDO_COORD_OPS Table
Column Name  Data Type  Description 

COORD_OP_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the coordinate transformation operation. Example: 
COORD_OP_NAME 
VARCHAR2(80) 
Name of the operation. Example: 
COORD_OP_TYPE 
VARCHAR2(24) 
Type of operation. One of the following: 
SOURCE_SRID 
NUMBER(10) 
SRID of the coordinate system from which to perform the transformation. Example: 
TARGET_SRID 
NUMBER(10) 
SRID of the coordinate system into which to perform the transformation. Example: 
COORD_TFM_VERSION 
VARCHAR2(24) 
Name assigned by EPSG to the coordinate transformation. Example: 
COORD_OP_VARIANT 
NUMBER(5) 
A variant of the more generic method specified in COORD_OP_METHOD_ID. Example: 
COORD_OP_METHOD_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
Coordinate operation method ID. Must match a COORD_OP_METHOD_ID value in the SDO_COORD_OP_METHODS table (see SDO_COORD_OP_METHODS Table). Several operations can use a method. Example: 
UOM_ID_SOURCE_OFFSETS 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the unit of measurement for offsets in the source coordinate system. Matches a value in the UOM_ID column of the SDO_UNITS_OF_MEASURE table (described in SDO_UNITS_OF_MEASURE Table). 
UOM_ID_TARGET_OFFSETS 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the unit of measurement for offsets in the target coordinate system. Matches a value in the UOM_ID column of the SDO_UNITS_OF_MEASURE table (described in SDO_UNITS_OF_MEASURE Table). 
INFORMATION_SOURCE 
VARCHAR2(254) 
Origin of this information. Example: 
DATA_SOURCE 
VARCHAR2(40) 
Organization providing the data for this record. Example: 
SHOW_OPERATION 
NUMBER(3) 
(Not currently used.) 
IS_LEGACY 
VARCHAR2(5) 
TRUE if the operation was included in Oracle Spatial before release 10.2; FALSE if the operation was new in Oracle Spatial release 10.2. 
LEGACY_CODE 
NUMBER(10) 
For any EPSG coordinate transformation operation that has a semantically identical legacy (in Oracle Spatial before release 10.2) counterpart, the COORD_OP_ID value of the legacy coordinate transformation operation. 
REVERSE_OP 
NUMBER(1) 
Contains 
IS_IMPLEMENTED_FORWARD 
NUMBER(1) 
Contains 
IS_IMPLEMENTED_REVERSE 
NUMBER(1) 
Contains 
6.7.9 SDO_COORD_REF_SYS Table
The SDO_COORD_REF_SYS table contains one row for each coordinate reference system. This table contains the columns shown in Table 69. (The SDO_COORD_REF_SYS table is roughly patterned after the EPSG Coordinate Reference System table.)
Note:
If you need to perform an insert, update, or delete operation, you must perform it on the SDO_COORD_REF_SYSTEM view, which contains the same columns as the SDO_COORD_REF_SYS table. The SDO_COORD_REF_SYSTEM view is described in SDO_COORD_REF_SYSTEM View.
Table 69 SDO_COORD_REF_SYS Table
Column Name  Data Type  Description 

SRID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the coordinate reference system. Example: 
COORD_REF_SYS_NAME 
VARCHAR2(80) 
Name of the coordinate reference system. Example: 
COORD_REF_SYS_KIND 
VARCHAR2(24) 
Category for the coordinate system. Example: 
COORD_SYS_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the coordinate system used for the coordinate reference system. Must match a COORD_SYS_ID value in the SDO_COORD_SYS table (see SDO_COORD_SYS Table). 
DATUM_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the datum used for the coordinate reference system. Null for a projected coordinate system. For a geodetic coordinate system, must match a DATUM_ID value in the SDO_DATUMS table (see SDO_DATUMS Table). Example: 
GEOG_CRS_DATUM_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the datum used for the coordinate reference system. For a projected coordinate system, must match the DATUM_ID value (in the SDO_DATUMS table, described in SDO_DATUMS Table) of the geodetic coordinate system on which the projected coordinate system is based. For a geodetic coordinate system, must match the DATUM_ID value. Example: 
SOURCE_GEOG_SRID 
NUMBER(10) 
For a projected coordinate reference system, the ID number for the associated geodetic coordinate system. 
PROJECTION_CONV_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
For a projected coordinate reference system, the COORD_OP_ID value of the conversion operation used to convert the projected coordinated system to and from the source geographic coordinate system. 
CMPD_HORIZ_SRID 
NUMBER(10) 
(EPSGassigned value; not used by Oracle Spatial and Graph. The EPSG description is: "For compound CRS only, the code of the horizontal component of the Compound CRS.") 
CMPD_VERT_SRID 
NUMBER(10) 
(EPSGassigned value; not used by Oracle Spatial and Graph. The EPSG description is: "For compound CRS only, the code of the vertical component of the Compound CRS.") 
INFORMATION_SOURCE 
VARCHAR2(254) 
Provider of the definition for the coordinate system ( 
DATA_SOURCE 
VARCHAR2(40) 
Organization that supplied the data for this record (if not Oracle). 
IS_LEGACY 
VARCHAR2(5) 

LEGACY_CODE 
NUMBER(10) 
For any EPSG coordinate reference system that has a semantically identical legacy (in Oracle Spatial before release 10.2) counterpart, the SRID value of the legacy coordinate system. 
LEGACY_WKTEXT 
VARCHAR2(2046) 
If IS_LEGACY is 
LEGACY_CS_BOUNDS 
SDO_GEOMETRY 
For a legacy coordinate system, the dimensional boundary (if any). 
IS_VALID 
VARCHAR2(5) 

SUPPORTS_SDO_GEOMETRY 
VARCHAR2(5) 

See also the information about the following views that are defined based on the value of the COORD_REF_SYS_KIND column:

SDO_CRS_COMPOUND (SDO_CRS_COMPOUND View)

SDO_CRS_ENGINEERING (SDO_CRS_ENGINEERING View)

SDO_CRS_GEOCENTRIC (SDO_CRS_GEOCENTRIC View)

SDO_CRS_GEOGRAPHIC2D (SDO_CRS_GEOGRAPHIC2D View)

SDO_CRS_GEOGRAPHIC3D (SDO_CRS_GEOGRAPHIC3D View)

SDO_CRS_PROJECTED (SDO_CRS_PROJECTED View)

SDO_CRS_VERTICAL (SDO_CRS_VERTICAL View)
6.7.10 SDO_COORD_REF_SYSTEM View
The SDO_COORD_REF_SYSTEM view contains the same columns as the SDO_COORD_REF_SYS table, which is described in SDO_COORD_REF_SYS Table. However, the SDO_COORD_REF_SYSTEM view has a trigger defined on it, so that any insert, update, or delete operations performed on the view cause all relevant Spatial and Graph system tables to have the appropriate operations performed on them.
Therefore, if you need to perform an insert, update, or delete operation, you must perform it on the SDO_COORD_REF_SYSTEM view, not the SDO_COORD_REF_SYS table.
6.7.11 SDO_COORD_SYS Table
The SDO_COORD_SYS table contains rows with information about coordinate systems. This table contains the columns shown in Table 610. (The SDO_COORD_SYS table is roughly patterned after the EPSG Coordinate System table, where a coordinate system is described as "a pair of reusable axes.")
Table 610 SDO_COORD_SYS Table
Column Name  Data Type  Description 

COORD_SYS_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the coordinate system. Example: 
COORD_SYS_NAME 
VARCHAR2(254) 
Name of the coordinate system. Example: 
COORD_SYS_TYPE 
VARCHAR2(24) 
Type of coordinate system. Example: 
DIMENSION 
NUMBER(5) 
Number of dimensions represented by the coordinate system. 
INFORMATION_SOURCE 
VARCHAR2(254) 
Origin of this information. 
DATA_SOURCE 
VARCHAR2(50) 
Organization providing the data for this record. 
6.7.12 SDO_CRS_COMPOUND View
The SDO_CRS_COMPOUND view contains selected information from the SDO_COORD_REF_SYS table (described in SDO_COORD_REF_SYS Table) where the COORD_REF_SYS_KIND column value is COMPOUND
. (For an explanation of compound coordinate reference systems, see Compound Coordinate Reference Systems.) This view contains the columns shown in Table 611.
Table 611 SDO_CRS_COMPOUND View
Column Name  Data Type  Description 

SRID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the coordinate reference system. 
COORD_REF_SYS_NAME 
VARCHAR2(80) 
Name of the coordinate reference system. 
CMPD_HORIZ_SRID 
NUMBER(10) 
(EPSGassigned value; not used by Oracle Spatial and Graph. The EPSG description is: "For compound CRS only, the code of the horizontal component of the Compound CRS.") 
CMPD_VERT_SRID 
NUMBER(10) 
(EPSGassigned value; not used by Oracle Spatial and Graph. The EPSG description is: "For compound CRS only, the code of the vertical component of the Compound CRS.") 
INFORMATION_SOURCE 
VARCHAR2(254) 
Provider of the definition for the coordinate system ( 
DATA_SOURCE 
VARCHAR2(40) 
Organization that supplied the data for this record (if not Oracle). 
6.7.13 SDO_CRS_ENGINEERING View
The SDO_CRS_ENGINEERING view contains selected information from the SDO_COORD_REF_SYS table (described in SDO_COORD_REF_SYS Table) where the COORD_REF_SYS_KIND column value is ENGINEERING
. This view contains the columns shown in Table 612.
Table 612 SDO_CRS_ENGINEERING View
Column Name  Data Type  Description 

SRID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the coordinate reference system. 
COORD_REF_SYS_NAME 
VARCHAR2(80) 
Name of the coordinate reference system. 
COORD_SYS_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the coordinate system used for the coordinate reference system. Must match a COORD_SYS_ID value in the SDO_COORD_SYS table (see SDO_COORD_SYS Table). 
DATUM_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the datum used for the coordinate reference system. Must match a DATUM_ID value in the SDO_DATUMS table (see SDO_DATUMS Table). 
INFORMATION_SOURCE 
VARCHAR2(254) 
Provider of the definition for the coordinate system ( 
DATA_SOURCE 
VARCHAR2(40) 
Organization that supplied the data for this record (if not Oracle). 
6.7.14 SDO_CRS_GEOCENTRIC View
The SDO_CRS_GEOCENTRIC view contains selected information from the SDO_COORD_REF_SYS table (described in SDO_COORD_REF_SYS Table) where the COORD_REF_SYS_KIND column value is GEOCENTRIC
. This view contains the columns shown in Table 613.
Table 613 SDO_CRS_GEOCENTRIC View
Column Name  Data Type  Description 

SRID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the coordinate reference system. 
COORD_REF_SYS_NAME 
VARCHAR2(80) 
Name of the coordinate reference system. 
COORD_SYS_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the coordinate system used for the coordinate reference system. Must match a COORD_SYS_ID value in the SDO_COORD_SYS table (see SDO_COORD_SYS Table). 
DATUM_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the datum used for the coordinate reference system. Must match a DATUM_ID value in the SDO_DATUMS table (see SDO_DATUMS Table). 
INFORMATION_SOURCE 
VARCHAR2(254) 
Provider of the definition for the coordinate system ( 
DATA_SOURCE 
VARCHAR2(40) 
Organization that supplied the data for this record (if not Oracle). 
6.7.15 SDO_CRS_GEOGRAPHIC2D View
The SDO_CRS_GEOGRAPHIC2D view contains selected information from the SDO_COORD_REF_SYS table (described in SDO_COORD_REF_SYS Table) where the COORD_REF_SYS_KIND column value is GEOGRAPHIC2D
. This view contains the columns shown in Table 614.
Table 614 SDO_CRS_GEOGRAPHIC2D View
Column Name  Data Type  Description 

SRID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the coordinate reference system. 
COORD_REF_SYS_NAME 
VARCHAR2(80) 
Name of the coordinate reference system. 
COORD_SYS_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the coordinate system used for the coordinate reference system. Must match a COORD_SYS_ID value in the SDO_COORD_SYS table (see SDO_COORD_SYS Table). 
DATUM_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the datum used for the coordinate reference system. Must match a DATUM_ID value in the SDO_DATUMS table (see SDO_DATUMS Table). 
INFORMATION_SOURCE 
VARCHAR2(254) 
Provider of the definition for the coordinate system ( 
DATA_SOURCE 
VARCHAR2(40) 
Organization that supplied the data for this record (if not Oracle). 
6.7.16 SDO_CRS_GEOGRAPHIC3D View
The SDO_CRS_GEOGRAPHIC3D view contains selected information from the SDO_COORD_REF_SYS table (described in SDO_COORD_REF_SYS Table) where the COORD_REF_SYS_KIND column value is GEOGRAPHIC3D
. (For an explanation of geographic 3D coordinate reference systems, see Geographic 3D Coordinate Reference Systems.) This view contains the columns shown in Table 615.
Table 615 SDO_CRS_GEOGRAPHIC3D View
Column Name  Data Type  Description 

SRID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the coordinate reference system. 
COORD_REF_SYS_NAME 
VARCHAR2(80) 
Name of the coordinate reference system. 
COORD_SYS_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the coordinate system used for the coordinate reference system. Must match a COORD_SYS_ID value in the SDO_COORD_SYS table (see SDO_COORD_SYS Table). 
DATUM_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the datum used for the coordinate reference system. Must match a DATUM_ID value in the SDO_DATUMS table (see SDO_DATUMS Table). 
INFORMATION_SOURCE 
VARCHAR2(254) 
Provider of the definition for the coordinate system ( 
DATA_SOURCE 
VARCHAR2(40) 
Organization that supplied the data for this record (if not Oracle). 
6.7.17 SDO_CRS_PROJECTED View
The SDO_CRS_PROJECTED view contains selected information from the SDO_COORD_REF_SYS table (described in SDO_COORD_REF_SYS Table) where the COORD_REF_SYS_KIND column value is PROJECTED
. This view contains the columns shown in Table 616.
Table 616 SDO_CRS_PROJECTED View
Column Name  Data Type  Description 

SRID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the coordinate reference system. 
COORD_REF_SYS_NAME 
VARCHAR2(80) 
Name of the coordinate reference system. 
COORD_SYS_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the coordinate system used for the coordinate reference system. Must match a COORD_SYS_ID value in the SDO_COORD_SYS table (see SDO_COORD_SYS Table). 
SOURCE_GEOG_SRID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number for the associated geodetic coordinate system. 
PROJECTION_CONV_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
COORD_OP_ID value of the conversion operation used to convert the projected coordinated system to and from the source geographic coordinate system. 
INFORMATION_SOURCE 
VARCHAR2(254) 
Provider of the definition for the coordinate system ( 
DATA_SOURCE 
VARCHAR2(40) 
Organization that supplied the data for this record (if not Oracle). 
6.7.18 SDO_CRS_VERTICAL View
The SDO_CRS_VERTICAL view contains selected information from the SDO_COORD_REF_SYS table (described in SDO_COORD_REF_SYS Table) where the COORD_REF_SYS_KIND column value is VERTICAL
. This view contains the columns shown in Table 617.
Table 617 SDO_CRS_VERTICAL View
Column Name  Data Type  Description 

SRID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the coordinate reference system. 
COORD_REF_SYS_NAME 
VARCHAR2(80) 
Name of the coordinate reference system. 
COORD_SYS_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the coordinate system used for the coordinate reference system. Must match a COORD_SYS_ID value in the SDO_COORD_SYS table (see SDO_COORD_SYS Table). 
DATUM_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the datum used for the coordinate reference system. Must match a DATUM_ID value in the SDO_DATUMS table (see SDO_DATUMS Table). 
INFORMATION_SOURCE 
VARCHAR2(254) 
Provider of the definition for the coordinate system ( 
DATA_SOURCE 
VARCHAR2(40) 
Organization that supplied the data for this record (if not Oracle). 
6.7.19 SDO_DATUM_ENGINEERING View
The SDO_DATUM_ENGINEERING view contains selected information from the SDO_DATUMS table (described in SDO_DATUMS Table) where the DATUM_TYPE column value is ENGINEERING
. This view contains the columns shown in Table 618.
Table 618 SDO_DATUM_ENGINEERING View
Column Name  Data Type  Description 

DATUM_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the datum. 
DATUM_NAME 
VARCHAR2(80) 
Name of the datum. 
ELLIPSOID_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the ellipsoid used in the datum definition. Must match an ELLIPSOID_ID value in the SDO_ELLIPSOIDS table (see SDO_ELLIPSOIDS Table). Example: 
PRIME_MERIDIAN_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the prime meridian used in the datum definition. Must match a PRIME_MERIDIAN_ID value in the SDO_PRIME_MERIDIANS table (see SDO_PRIME_MERIDIANS Table). Example: 
INFORMATION_SOURCE 
VARCHAR2(254) 
Provider of the definition of the datum. Example: 
DATA_SOURCE 
VARCHAR2(40) 
Organization that supplied the data for this record (if not Oracle). 
SHIFT_X 
NUMBER 
Number of meters to shift the ellipsoid center relative to the center of the WGS 84 ellipsoid on the xaxis. 
SHIFT_Y 
NUMBER 
Number of meters to shift the ellipsoid center relative to the center of the WGS 84 ellipsoid on the yaxis. 
SHIFT_Z 
NUMBER 
Number of meters to shift the ellipsoid center relative to the center of the WGS 84 ellipsoid on the zaxis. 
ROTATE_X 
NUMBER 
Number of arcseconds of rotation about the xaxis. 
ROTATE_Y 
NUMBER 
Number of arcseconds of rotation about the yaxis. 
ROTATE_Z 
NUMBER 
Number of arcseconds of rotation about the zaxis. 
SCALE_ADJUST 
NUMBER 
A value to be used in adjusting the X, Y, and Z values after any shifting and rotation, according to the formula: 1.0 + (SCALE_ADJUST * 10^{6}) 
6.7.20 SDO_DATUM_GEODETIC View
The SDO_DATUM_GEODETIC view contains selected information from the SDO_DATUMS table (described in SDO_DATUMS Table) where the DATUM_TYPE column value is GEODETIC
. This view contains the columns shown in Table 619.
Table 619 SDO_DATUM_GEODETIC View
Column Name  Data Type  Description 

DATUM_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the datum. 
DATUM_NAME 
VARCHAR2(80) 
Name of the datum. 
ELLIPSOID_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the ellipsoid used in the datum definition. Must match an ELLIPSOID_ID value in the SDO_ELLIPSOIDS table (see SDO_ELLIPSOIDS Table). Example: 
PRIME_MERIDIAN_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the prime meridian used in the datum definition. Must match a PRIME_MERIDIAN_ID value in the SDO_PRIME_MERIDIANS table (see SDO_PRIME_MERIDIANS Table). Example: 
INFORMATION_SOURCE 
VARCHAR2(254) 
Provider of the definition of the datum. Example: 
DATA_SOURCE 
VARCHAR2(40) 
Organization that supplied the data for this record (if not Oracle). 
SHIFT_X 
NUMBER 
Number of meters to shift the ellipsoid center relative to the center of the WGS 84 ellipsoid on the xaxis. 
SHIFT_Y 
NUMBER 
Number of meters to shift the ellipsoid center relative to the center of the WGS 84 ellipsoid on the yaxis. 
SHIFT_Z 
NUMBER 
Number of meters to shift the ellipsoid center relative to the center of the WGS 84 ellipsoid on the zaxis. 
ROTATE_X 
NUMBER 
Number of arcseconds of rotation about the xaxis. 
ROTATE_Y 
NUMBER 
Number of arcseconds of rotation about the yaxis. 
ROTATE_Z 
NUMBER 
Number of arcseconds of rotation about the zaxis. 
SCALE_ADJUST 
NUMBER 
A value to be used in adjusting the X, Y, and Z values after any shifting and rotation, according to the formula: 1.0 + (SCALE_ADJUST * 10^{6}) 
6.7.21 SDO_DATUM_VERTICAL View
The SDO_DATUM_VERTICAL view contains selected information from the SDO_DATUMS table (described in SDO_DATUMS Table) where the DATUM_TYPE column value is VERTICAL
. This view contains the columns shown in Table 620.
Table 620 SDO_DATUM_VERTICAL View
Column Name  Data Type  Description 

DATUM_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the datum. 
DATUM_NAME 
VARCHAR2(80) 
Name of the datum. 
ELLIPSOID_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the ellipsoid used in the datum definition. Must match an ELLIPSOID_ID value in the SDO_ELLIPSOIDS table (see SDO_ELLIPSOIDS Table). Example: 
PRIME_MERIDIAN_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the prime meridian used in the datum definition. Must match a PRIME_MERIDIAN_ID value in the SDO_PRIME_MERIDIANS table (see SDO_PRIME_MERIDIANS Table). Example: 
INFORMATION_SOURCE 
VARCHAR2(254) 
Provider of the definition of the datum. Example: 
DATA_SOURCE 
VARCHAR2(40) 
Organization that supplied the data for this record (if not Oracle). 
SHIFT_X 
NUMBER 
Number of meters to shift the ellipsoid center relative to the center of the WGS 84 ellipsoid on the xaxis. 
SHIFT_Y 
NUMBER 
Number of meters to shift the ellipsoid center relative to the center of the WGS 84 ellipsoid on the yaxis. 
SHIFT_Z 
NUMBER 
Number of meters to shift the ellipsoid center relative to the center of the WGS 84 ellipsoid on the zaxis. 
ROTATE_X 
NUMBER 
Number of arcseconds of rotation about the xaxis. 
ROTATE_Y 
NUMBER 
Number of arcseconds of rotation about the yaxis. 
ROTATE_Z 
NUMBER 
Number of arcseconds of rotation about the zaxis. 
SCALE_ADJUST 
NUMBER 
A value to be used in adjusting the X, Y, and Z values after any shifting and rotation, according to the formula: 1.0 + (SCALE_ADJUST * 10^{6}) 
6.7.22 SDO_DATUMS Table
The SDO_DATUMS table contains one row for each datum. This table contains the columns shown in Table 621.
Table 621 SDO_DATUMS Table
Column Name  Data Type  Description 

DATUM_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the datum. Example: 
DATUM_NAME 
VARCHAR2(80) 
Name of the datum. Example: 
DATUM_TYPE 
VARCHAR2(24) 
Type of the datum. Example: 
ELLIPSOID_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the ellipsoid used in the datum definition. Must match an ELLIPSOID_ID value in the SDO_ELLIPSOIDS table (see SDO_ELLIPSOIDS Table). Example: 
PRIME_MERIDIAN_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the prime meridian used in the datum definition. Must match a PRIME_MERIDIAN_ID value in the SDO_PRIME_MERIDIANS table (see SDO_PRIME_MERIDIANS Table). Example: 
INFORMATION_SOURCE 
VARCHAR2(254) 
Provider of the definition of the datum. Example: 
DATA_SOURCE 
VARCHAR2(40) 
Organization that supplied the data for this record (if not Oracle). Example: 
SHIFT_X 
NUMBER 
Number of meters to shift the ellipsoid center relative to the center of the WGS 84 ellipsoid on the xaxis. 
SHIFT_Y 
NUMBER 
Number of meters to shift the ellipsoid center relative to the center of the WGS 84 ellipsoid on the yaxis. 
SHIFT_Z 
NUMBER 
Number of meters to shift the ellipsoid center relative to the center of the WGS 84 ellipsoid on the zaxis. 
ROTATE_X 
NUMBER 
Number of arcseconds of rotation about the xaxis. 
ROTATE_Y 
NUMBER 
Number of arcseconds of rotation about the yaxis. 
ROTATE_Z 
NUMBER 
Number of arcseconds of rotation about the zaxis. 
SCALE_ADJUST 
NUMBER 
A value to be used in adjusting the X, Y, and Z values after any shifting and rotation, according to the formula: 1.0 + (SCALE_ADJUST * 10^{6}) 
IS_LEGACY 
VARCHAR2(5) 

LEGACY_CODE 
NUMBER(10) 
For any EPSG datum that has a semantically identical legacy (in Oracle Spatial before release 10.2) counterpart, the DATUM_ID value of the legacy datum. 
See also the information about the following views that are defined based on the value of the DATUM_TYPE column: SDO_DATUM_ENGINEERING (SDO_DATUM_ENGINEERING View), SDO_DATUM_GEODETIC (SDO_DATUM_GEODETIC View), and SDO_DATUM_VERTICAL (SDO_DATUM_VERTICAL View).
6.7.23 SDO_ELLIPSOIDS Table
The SDO_ELLIPSOIDS table contains one row for each ellipsoid. This table contains the columns shown in Table 622.
Table 622 SDO_ELLIPSOIDS Table
Column Name  Data Type  Description 

ELLIPSOID_ID 
NUMBER 
ID number of the ellipsoid (spheroid). Example: 
ELLIPSOID_NAME 
VARCHAR2(80) 
Name of the ellipsoid. Example: 
NUMBER 
Radius in meters along the semimajor axis (onehalf of the long axis of the ellipsoid). 

UOM_ID 
NUMBER 
ID number of the unit of measurement for the ellipsoid. Matches a value in the UOM_ID column of the SDO_UNITS_OF_MEASURE table (described in SDO_UNITS_OF_MEASURE Table). Example: 
NUMBER 
Inverse flattening of the ellipsoid. That is, 

NUMBER 
Radius in meters along the semiminor axis (onehalf of the short axis of the ellipsoid). 

INFORMATION_SOURCE 
VARCHAR2(254) 
Origin of this information. Example: 
DATA_SOURCE 
VARCHAR2(40) 
Organization that supplied the data for this record (if not Oracle). Example: 
IS_LEGACY 
VARCHAR2(5) 

LEGACY_CODE 
NUMBER 
For any EPSG ellipsoid that has a semantically identical legacy (in Oracle Spatial before release 10.2) counterpart, the ELLIPSOID_ID value of the legacy ellipsoid. 
6.7.24 SDO_PREFERRED_OPS_SYSTEM Table
The SDO_PREFERRED_OPS_SYSTEM table contains one row for each specification of the userdefined default preferred coordinate transformation operation for a source and target SRID combination. If you insert a row into the SDO_PREFERRED_OPS_SYSTEM table, you are overriding the Oracle default operation for transformations between the specified source and target coordinate systems. The SDO_CS.CREATE_OBVIOUS_EPSG_RULES procedure inserts many rows into this table. The SDO_CS.DELETE_ALL_EPSG_RULES procedure deletes all rows from this table if the use_case
parameter is null. This table contains the columns shown in Table 623.
Table 623 SDO_PREFERRED_OPS_SYSTEM Table
Column Name  Data Type  Description 

SOURCE_SRID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the coordinate system (spatial reference system) from which to perform coordinate transformation, using the operation specified by COORD_OP_ID as the default preferred method for transforming to the specified target SRID. 
COORD_OP_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the coordinate transformation operation. Matches a value in the COORD_OP_ID column of the SDO_COORD_OPS table (described in SDO_COORD_OPS Table). 
TARGET_SRID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of coordinate system (spatial reference system) into which to perform coordinate transformation using the operation specified by COORD_OP_ID. 
6.7.25 SDO_PREFERRED_OPS_USER Table
The SDO_PREFERRED_OPS_USER table contains one row for each specification of a userdefined source and target SRID and coordinate transformation operation. If you insert a row into the SDO_PREFERRED_OPS_USER table, you create a custom transformation between the source and target coordinate systems, and you can specify the name (the USE_CASE column value) of the transformation operation as the use_case
parameter value with several SDO_CS functions and procedures. If you specify a use case with the SDO_CS.DELETE_ALL_EPSG_RULES procedure, rows associated with that use case are deleted from this table. This table contains the columns shown in Table 624.
Table 624 SDO_PREFERRED_OPS_USER Table
Column Name  Data Type  Description 

USE_CASE 
VARCHAR2(32) 
Name of this specification of a source and target SRID and coordinate transformation operation. 
SOURCE_SRID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the coordinate system (spatial reference system) from which to perform the transformation. 
COORD_OP_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the coordinate transformation operation. Matches a value in the COORD_OP_ID column of the SDO_COORD_OPS table (described in SDO_COORD_OPS Table). 
TARGET_SRID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the coordinate system (spatial reference system) into which to perform the transformation. 
6.7.26 SDO_PRIME_MERIDIANS Table
The SDO_PRIME_MERIDIANS table contains one row for each prime meridian that can be used in a datum specification. This table contains the columns shown in Table 625.
Table 625 SDO_PRIME_MERIDIANS Table
Column Name  Data Type  Description 

PRIME_MERIDIAN_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the prime meridian. Example: 
PRIME_MERIDIAN_NAME 
VARCHAR2(80) 
Name of the prime meridian. Example: 
GREENWICH_LONGITUDE 
FLOAT(49) 
Longitude of the prime meridian as an offset from the Greenwich meridian. Example: 
UOM_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the unit of measurement for the prime meridian. Matches a value in the UOM_ID column of the SDO_UNITS_OF_MEASURE table (described in SDO_UNITS_OF_MEASURE Table). Example: 
INFORMATION_SOURCE 
VARCHAR2(254) 
Origin of this information. Example: 
DATA_SOURCE 
VARCHAR2(254) 
Organization that supplied the data for this record (if not Oracle). Example: 
6.7.27 SDO_UNITS_OF_MEASURE Table
The SDO_UNITS_OF_MEASURE table contains one row for each unit of measurement. This table contains the columns shown in Table 626.
Table 626 SDO_UNITS_OF_MEASURE Table
Column Name  Data Type  Description 

UOM_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of the unit of measurement. Example: 
UNIT_OF_MEAS_NAME 
VARCHAR2(2083) 
Name of the unit of measurement; can also be a URL or URI. Example: 
SHORT_NAME 
VARCHAR2(80) 
Short name (if any) of the unit of measurement. Example: 
UNIT_OF_MEAS_TYPE 
VARCHAR2(50) 
Type of measure for which the unit is used: 
TARGET_UOM_ID 
NUMBER(10) 
ID number of a target unit of measurement. Corresponds to the TARGET_UOM_CODE column in the EPSG Unit of Measure table, which has the following description: "Other UOM of the same type into which the current UOM can be converted using the formula (POSC); POSC factors A and D always equal zero for EPSG supplied units of measure." 
FACTOR_B 
NUMBER 
Corresponds to the FACTOR_B column in the EPSG Unit of Measure table, which has the following description: "A quantity in the target UOM (y) is obtained from a quantity in the current UOM (x) through the conversion: y = (B/C).x" In a userdefined unit of measurement, FACTOR_B is usually the number of square meters or meters equal to one of the unit. For information about userdefined units, see Creating a UserDefined Unit of Measurement. 
FACTOR_C 
NUMBER 
Corresponds to the FACTOR_C column in the EPSG Unit of Measure table. For FACTOR_C in a userdefined unit of measurement, see Creating a UserDefined Unit of Measurement. 
INFORMATION_SOURCE 
VARCHAR2(254) 
Origin of this information. Example: 
DATA_SOURCE 
VARCHAR2(40) 
Organization providing the data for this record. Example: 
IS_LEGACY 
VARCHAR2(5) 
TRUE if the unit of measurement definition was included in Oracle Spatial before release 10.2; FALSE if the unit of measurement definition was new in Oracle Spatial release 10.2. 
LEGACY_CODE 
NUMBER(10) 
For any EPSG unit of measure that has a semantically identical legacy (in Oracle Spatial before release 10.2) counterpart, the UOM_ID value of the legacy unit of measure. 
6.7.28 Relationships Among Coordinate System Tables and Views
Because the definitions in Spatial and Graph system tables and views are based on the EPSG data model and dataset, the EPSG entityrelationship (ER) diagram provides a good overview of the relationships among the Spatial and Graph coordinate system data structures. The EPSG ER diagram is included in the following document: http://www.ihsenergy.com/epsg/geod_arch.html
However, Oracle Spatial and Graph does not use the following from the EPSG ER diagram:

Area of Use (yellow box in the upper center of the diagram)

Deprecation, Alias, and others represented by pink boxes in the lower right corner of the diagram
In addition, Spatial and Graph changes the names of some tables to conform to its own naming conventions, and it does not use some tables, as shown in Table 627
Table 627 EPSG Table Names and Oracle Spatial and Graph Names
EPSG Name  Oracle Name 

Coordinate System 
SDO_COORD_SYS 
Coordinate Axis 
SDO_COORD_AXES 
Coordinate Reference System 
SDO_COORD_REF_SYSTEM 
Area Of Use 
(Not used) 
Datum 
SDO_DATUMS 
Prime Meridian 
SDO_PRIME_MERIDIANS 
Ellipsoid 
SDO_ELLIPSOIDS 
Unit Of Measure 
SDO_UNITS_OF_MEASURE 
Coordinate Operation 
SDO_COORD_OPS 
Coord. Operation Parameter ValueCoord 
SDO_COORD_OP_PARAM_VALS 
Operation Parameter UsageCoord. 
SDO_COORD_OP_PARAM_USE 
Operation Parameter 
SDO_COORD_OP_PARAMS 
Coordinate Operation Path 
SDO_COORD_OP_PATHS 
Coordinate Operation Method 
SDO_COORD_OP_METHODS 
Change 
(Not used) 
Deprecation 
(Not used) 
Supersession 
(Not used) 
Naming System 
(Not used) 
Alias 
(Not used) 
Any Entity 
(Not used) 
6.7.29 Finding Information About EPSGBased Coordinate Systems
This section explains how to query the Spatial and Graph coordinate systems data structures for information about geodetic and projected EPSGbased coordinate systems.
6.7.29.1 Geodetic Coordinate Systems
A humanreadable summary of a CRS is the WKT string. For example:
SQL> select wktext from cs_srs where srid = 4326; WKTEXT  GEOGCS [ "WGS 84", DATUM ["World Geodetic System 1984 (EPSG ID 6326)", SPHEROID ["WGS 84 (EPSG ID 7030)", 6378137, 298.257223563]], PRIMEM [ "Greenwich", 0.0000 00 ], UNIT ["Decimal Degree", 0.01745329251994328]]
EPSG WKTs have been automatically generated by Spatial and Graph, for backward compatibility. Note that EPSG WKTs also contain numeric ID values (such as EPSG ID 6326 in the preceding example) for convenience. However, for more detailed information you should access the EPSG data stored in the coordinate systems data structures. The following example returns information about the ellipsoid, datum shift, rotation, and scale adjustment for SRID 4123:
SQL> select ell.semi_major_axis, ell.inv_flattening, ell.semi_minor_axis, ell.uom_id, dat.shift_x, dat.shift_y, dat.shift_z, dat.rotate_x, dat.rotate_y, dat.rotate_z, dat.scale_adjust from sdo_coord_ref_system crs, sdo_datums dat, sdo_ellipsoids ell where crs.srid = 4123 and dat.datum_id = crs.datum_id and ell.ellipsoid_id = dat.ellipsoid_id; SEMI_MAJOR_AXIS INV_FLATTENING SEMI_MINOR_AXIS UOM_ID SHIFT_X SHIFT_Y SHIFT_Z ROTATE_X ROTATE_Y ROTATE_Z SCALE_ADJUST            6378388 297 6356911.95 9001 90.7 106.1 119.2 4.09 .218 1.05 1.37
In the preceding example, the UOM_ID represents the unit of measure for SEMI_MAJOR_AXIS (a
) and SEMI_MINOR_AXIS (b
). INV_FLATTENING is a/(ab)
and has no associated unit. Shifts are in meters, rotation angles are given in arc seconds, and scale adjustment in parts per million.
To interpret the UOM_ID, you can query the units table, as shown in the following example:
SQL> select UNIT_OF_MEAS_NAME from sdo_units_of_measure where UOM_ID = 9001; UNIT_OF_MEAS_NAME  metre
Conversion factors for units of length are given relative to meters, as shown in the following example:
SQL> select UNIT_OF_MEAS_NAME, FACTOR_B/FACTOR_C from sdo_units_of_measure where UOM_ID = 9002; UNIT_OF_MEAS_NAME  FACTOR_B/FACTOR_C  foot .3048
Conversion factors for units of angle are given relative to radians, as shown in the following example:
SQL> select UNIT_OF_MEAS_NAME, FACTOR_B/FACTOR_C from sdo_units_of_measure where UOM_ID = 9102; UNIT_OF_MEAS_NAME  FACTOR_B/FACTOR_C  degree .017453293
6.7.29.2 Projected Coordinate Systems
As mentioned in Geodetic Coordinate Systems, the WKT is a humanreadable summary of a CRS, but the actual EPSG data is stored in the Spatial and Graph coordinate systems data structures. The following example shows the WKT string for a projected coordinate system:
SQL> select wktext from cs_srs where srid = 32040; WKTEXT  PROJCS["NAD27 / Texas South Central", GEOGCS [ "NAD27", DATUM ["North American D atum 1927 (EPSG ID 6267)", SPHEROID ["Clarke 1866 (EPSG ID 7008)", 6378206.4, 29 4.978698213905820761610537123195175418]], PRIMEM [ "Greenwich", 0.000000 ], UNIT ["Decimal Degree", 0.01745329251994328]], PROJECTION ["Texas CS27 South Central zone (EPSG OP 14204)"], PARAMETER ["Latitude_Of_Origin", 27.8333333333333333333 3333333333333333333], PARAMETER ["Central_Meridian", 98.99999999999999999999999 999999999999987], PARAMETER ["Standard_Parallel_1", 28.3833333333333333333333333 3333333333333], PARAMETER ["Standard_Parallel_2", 30.283333333333333333333333333 33333333333], PARAMETER ["False_Easting", 2000000], PARAMETER ["False_Northing", 0], UNIT ["U.S. Foot", .3048006096012192024384048768097536195072]]
To determine the base geographic CRS for a projected CRS, you can query the SDO_COORD_REF_SYSTEM table, as in the following example:
SQL> select SOURCE_GEOG_SRID from sdo_coord_ref_system where srid = 32040; SOURCE_GEOG_SRID  4267
The following example returns the projection method for the projected CRS 32040:
SQL> select m.coord_op_method_name from sdo_coord_ref_sys crs, sdo_coord_ops ops, sdo_coord_op_methods m where crs.srid = 32040 and ops.coord_op_id = crs.projection_conv_id and m.coord_op_method_id = ops.coord_op_method_id; COORD_OP_METHOD_NAME  Lambert Conic Conformal (2SP)
The following example returns the projection parameters for the projected CRS 32040:
SQL> select params.parameter_name  ' = '  vals.parameter_value  ' '  uom.unit_of_meas_name "Projection parameters" from sdo_coord_ref_sys crs, sdo_coord_op_param_vals vals, sdo_units_of_measure uom, sdo_coord_op_params params where crs.srid = 32040 and vals.coord_op_id = crs.projection_conv_id and uom.uom_id = vals.uom_id and params.parameter_id = vals.parameter_id; Projection parameters  Latitude of false origin = 27.5 sexagesimal DMS Longitude of false origin = 99 sexagesimal DMS Latitude of 1st standard parallel = 28.23 sexagesimal DMS Latitude of 2nd standard parallel = 30.17 sexagesimal DMS Easting at false origin = 2000000 US survey foot Northing at false origin = 0 US survey foot
The following example is essentially the same query as the preceding example, but it also converts the values to the base unit:
SQL> select params.parameter_name  ' = '  vals.parameter_value  ' '  uom.unit_of_meas_name  ' = '  sdo_cs.transform_to_base_unit(vals.parameter_value, vals.uom_id)  ' '  decode( uom.unit_of_meas_type, 'area', 'square meters', 'angle', 'radians', 'length', 'meters', 'scale', '', '') "Projection parameters" from sdo_coord_ref_sys crs, sdo_coord_op_param_vals vals, sdo_units_of_measure uom, sdo_coord_op_params params where crs.srid = 32040 and vals.coord_op_id = crs.projection_conv_id and uom.uom_id = vals.uom_id and params.parameter_id = vals.parameter_id; Projection parameters  Latitude of false origin = 27.5 sexagesimal DMS = .485783308471754564814814814814814814815 radians Longitude of false origin = 99 sexagesimal DMS = 1.7278759594743845 radians Latitude of 1st standard parallel = 28.23 sexagesimal DMS = .495382619357723367592592592592592592593 radians Latitude of 2nd standard parallel = 30.17 sexagesimal DMS = .528543875145615595370370370370370370371 radians Easting at false origin = 2000000 US survey foot = 609601.219202438404876809753619507239014 meters Northing at false origin = 0 US survey foot = 0 meters
The following example returns the projection unit of measure for the projected CRS 32040. (The projection unit might be different from the length unit used for the projection parameters.)
SQL> select axes.coord_axis_abbreviation  ': '  uom.unit_of_meas_name "Projection units" from sdo_coord_ref_sys crs, sdo_coord_axes axes, sdo_units_of_measure uom where crs.srid = 32040 and axes.coord_sys_id = crs.coord_sys_id and uom.uom_id = axes.uom_id; Projection units  X: US survey foot Y: US survey foot
6.8 Legacy Tables and Views
In releases of Spatial and Graph before 10.2, the coordinate systems functions and procedures used information provided in the following tables, some of which have new names or are now views instead of tables.

MDSYS.CS_SRS defines the valid coordinate systems. It associates each coordinate system with its wellknown text description, which is in conformance with the standard published by the Open Geospatial Consortium (
http://www.opengeospatial.org
). 
MDSYS.SDO_ANGLE_UNITS defines the valid angle units.

MDSYS.SDO_AREA_UNITS defines the valid area units.

MDSYS.SDO_DIST_UNITS defines the valid distance units.

MDSYS.SDO_DATUMS_OLD_FORMAT and MDSYS.SDO_DATUMS_OLD_SNAPSHOT are based on the MDSYS.SDO_DATUMS table before release 10.2, which defined valid datums.

MDSYS.SDO_ELLIPSOIDS_OLD_FORMAT and MDSYS.SDO_ELLIPSOIDS_OLD_SNAPSHOT are based on the MDSYS.SDO_ELLIPSOIDS table before release 10.2, which defined valid ellipsoids.

MDSYS.SDO_PROJECTIONS_OLD_FORMAT and MDSYS.SDO_PROJECTIONS_OLD_SNAPSHOT are based on the MDSYS.SDO_PROJECTIONS table before release 10.2, which defined the valid map projections.
Note:
You should not modify or delete any Oraclesupplied information in these legacy tables.
If you refer to a legacy table in a SQL statement, you must include the MDSYS. before the table name.
Topics:
 MDSYS.CS_SRS Table
 MDSYS.SDO_ANGLE_UNITS View
 MDSYS.SDO_AREA_UNITS View
 MDSYS.SDO_DATUMS_OLD_FORMAT and SDO_DATUMS_OLD_SNAPSHOT Tables
 MDSYS.SDO_DIST_UNITS View
 MDSYS.SDO_ELLIPSOIDS_OLD_FORMAT and SDO_ELLIPSOIDS_OLD_SNAPSHOT Tables
 MDSYS.SDO_PROJECTIONS_OLD_FORMAT and SDO_PROJECTIONS_OLD_SNAPSHOT Tables
6.8.1 MDSYS.CS_SRS Table
The MDSYS.CS_SRS reference table contains over 4000 rows, one for each valid coordinate system. This table contains the columns shown in Table 628.
Table 628 MDSYS.CS_SRS Table
Column Name  Data Type  Description 

CS_NAME 
VARCHAR2(68) 
A wellknown name, often mnemonic, by which a user can refer to the coordinate system. 
SRID 
NUMBER(38) 
The unique ID number (Spatial Reference ID) for a coordinate system. Currently, SRID values 1999999 are reserved for use by Oracle Spatial and Graph, and values 1000000 (1 million) and higher are available for userdefined coordinate systems. 
AUTH_SRID 
NUMBER(38) 
An optional ID number that can be used to indicate how the entry was derived; it might be a foreign key into another coordinate table, for example. 
AUTH_NAME 
VARCHAR2(256) 
An authority name for the coordinate system. Contains 
WKTEXT 
VARCHAR2(2046) 
The wellknown text (WKT) description of the SRS, as defined by the Open Geospatial Consortium. For more information, see WellKnown Text (WKT). 
CS_BOUNDS 
SDO_GEOMETRY 
An optional SDO_GEOMETRY object that is a polygon with WGS 84 longitude and latitude vertices, representing the spheroidal polygon description of the zone of validity for a projected coordinate system. Must be null for a geographic or nonEarth coordinate system. Is null in all supplied rows. 
Topics:
6.8.1.1 WellKnown Text (WKT)
The WKTEXT column of the MDSYS.CS_SRS table contains the wellknown text (WKT) description of the SRS, as defined by the Open Geospatial Consortium. The following is the WKT EBNF syntax.
<coordinate system> ::= <horz cs>  <local cs> <horz cs> ::= <geographic cs>  <projected cs> <projected cs> ::= PROJCS [ "<name>", <geographic cs>, <projection>, {<parameter>,}* <linear unit> ] <projection> ::= PROJECTION [ "<name>" ] <parameter> ::= PARAMETER [ "<name>", <number> ] <geographic cs> ::= GEOGCS [ "<name>", <datum>, <prime meridian>, <angular unit> ] <datum> ::= DATUM [ "<name>", <spheroid> {, <shiftx>, <shifty>, <shiftz> , <rotx>, <roty>, <rotz>, <scale_adjust>} ] <spheroid> ::= SPHEROID ["<name>", <semi major axis>, <inverse flattening> ] <prime meridian> ::= PRIMEM ["<name>", <longitude> ] <longitude> ::= <number> <semimajor axis> ::= <number> <inverse flattening> ::= <number> <angular unit> ::= <unit> <linear unit> ::= <unit> <unit> ::= UNIT [ "<name>", <conversion factor> ] <local cs> ::= LOCAL_CS [ "<name>", <local datum>, <linear unit>, <axis> {, <axis>}* ] <local datum> ::= LOCAL_DATUM [ "<name>", <datum type> {, <shiftx>, <shifty>, <shiftz> , <rotx>, <roty>, <rotz>, <scale_adjust>} ] <datum type> ::= <number> <axis> ::= AXIS [ "<name>", NORTH  SOUTH  EAST  WEST  UP  DOWN  OTHER ]
Each <parameter>
specification is one of the following:

Standard_Parallel_1
(in decimal degrees) 
Standard_Parallel_2
(in decimal degrees) 
Central_Meridian
(in decimal degrees) 
Latitude_of_Origin
(in decimal degrees) 
Azimuth
(in decimal degrees) 
False_Easting
(in the unit of the coordinate system; for example, meters) 
False_Northing
(in the unit of the coordinate system; for example, meters) 
Perspective_Point_Height
(in the unit of the coordinate system; for example, meters) 
Landsat_Number
(must be 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5) 
Path_Number

Scale_Factor
Note:
If the WKT uses European rather than USAmerican notation for datum rotation parameters, or if the transformation results do not seem correct, see USAmerican and European Notations for Datum Parameters.
The default value for each <parameter>
specification is 0 (zero). That is, if a specification is needed for a projection but no value is specified in the WKT, Spatial and Graph uses a value of 0.
The prime meridian (PRIMEM
) is specified in decimal degrees of longitude.
An example of the WKT for a geodetic (geographic) coordinate system is:
'GEOGCS [ "Longitude / Latitude (Old Hawaiian)", DATUM ["Old Hawaiian", SPHEROID ["Clarke 1866", 6378206.400000, 294.978698]], PRIMEM [ "Greenwich", 0.000000 ], UNIT ["Decimal Degree", 0.01745329251994330]]'
The WKT definition of the coordinate system is hierarchically nested. The Old Hawaiian geographic coordinate system (GEOGCS) is composed of a named datum (DATUM), a prime meridian (PRIMEM), and a unit definition (UNIT). The datum is in turn composed of a named spheroid and its parameters of semimajor axis and inverse flattening.
An example of the WKT for a projected coordinate system (a Wyoming State Plane) is:
'PROJCS["Wyoming 4901, Eastern Zone (1983, meters)", GEOGCS [ "GRS 80", DATUM ["GRS 80", SPHEROID ["GRS 80", 6378137.000000, 298.257222]], PRIMEM [ "Greenwich", 0.000000 ], UNIT ["Decimal Degree", 0.01745329251994330]], PROJECTION ["Transverse Mercator"], PARAMETER ["Scale_Factor", 0.999938], PARAMETER ["Central_Meridian", 105.166667], PARAMETER ["Latitude_Of_Origin", 40.500000], PARAMETER ["False_Easting", 200000.000000], UNIT ["Meter", 1.000000000000]]'
The projected coordinate system contains a nested geographic coordinate system as its basis, as well as parameters that control the projection.
Oracle Spatial and Graph supports all common geodetic datums and map projections.
An example of the WKT for a local coordinate system is:
LOCAL_CS [ "NonEarth (Meter)", LOCAL_DATUM ["Local Datum", 0], UNIT ["Meter", 1.0], AXIS ["X", EAST], AXIS["Y", NORTH]]
For more information about local coordinate systems, see Local Coordinate Support.
You can use the SDO_CS.VALIDATE_WKT function, described in SDO_CS Package (Coordinate System Transformation) , to validate the WKT of any coordinate system defined in the MDSYS.CS_SRS table.
6.8.1.2 USAmerican and European Notations for Datum Parameters
The datumrelated WKT parameters are a list of up to seven Bursa Wolf transformation parameters. Rotation parameters specify arc seconds, and shift parameters specify meters.
Two different notations, USAmerican and European, are used for the three rotation parameters that are in general use, and these two notations use opposite signs. Spatial and Graph uses and expects the USAmerican notation. Therefore, if your WKT uses the European notation, you must convert it to the USAmerican notation by inverting the signs of the rotation parameters.
If you do not know if a parameter set uses the USAmerican or European notation, perform the following test:

Select a single point for which you know the correct result.

Perform the transformation using the current WKT.

If the computed result does not match the known correct result, invert signs of the rotation parameters, perform the transformation, and check if the computed result matches the known correct result.
6.8.1.3 Procedures for Updating the WellKnown Text
If you insert or delete a row in the SDO_COORD_REF_SYSTEM view (described in SDO_COORD_REF_SYSTEM View), Spatial and Graph automatically updates the WKTEXT column in the MDSYS.CS_SRS table. (The format of the WKTEXT column is described in WellKnown Text (WKT).) However, if you update an existing row in the SDO_COORD_REF_SYSTEM view, the wellknown text (WKT) value is not automatically updated.
In addition, information relating to coordinate reference systems is also stored in several other system tables, including SDO_DATUMS (described in SDO_DATUMS Table), SDO_ELLIPSOIDS (described in SDO_ELLIPSOIDS Table), and SDO_PRIME_MERIDIANS (described in SDO_PRIME_MERIDIANS Table). If you add, delete, or modify information in these tables, the WKTEXT values in the MDSYS.CS_SRS table are not automatically updated. For example, if you update an ellipsoid flattening value in the SDO_ELLIPSOIDS table, the wellknown text string for the associated coordinate system is not updated.
However, you can manually update the WKTEXT values in the in the MDSYS.CS_SRS table by using any of several procedures whose names start with UPDATE_WKTS_FOR (for example, SDO_CS.UPDATE_WKTS_FOR_ALL_EPSG_CRS and SDO_CS.UPDATE_WKTS_FOR_EPSG_DATUM). If the display of SERVEROUTPUT information is enabled, these procedures display a message identifying the SRID value for each row in the MDSYS.CS_SRS table whose WKTEXT value is being updated. These procedures are described in SDO_CS Package (Coordinate System Transformation) .
6.8.2 MDSYS.SDO_ANGLE_UNITS View
The MDSYS.SDO_ANGLE_UNITS reference view contains one row for each valid angle UNIT specification in the wellknown text (WKT) description in the coordinate system definition. The WKT is described in WellKnown Text (WKT).
The MDSYS.SDO_ANGLE_UNITS view is based on the SDO_UNITS_OF MEASURE table (described in SDO_UNITS_OF_MEASURE Table), and it contains the columns shown in Table 629.
Table 629 MDSYS.SDO_ANGLE_UNITS View
Column Name  Data Type  Description 

SDO_UNIT 
VARCHAR2(32) 
Name of the angle unit (often a shortened form of the UNIT_NAME value). Use the SDO_UNIT value with the 
VARCHAR2(100) 
Name of the angle unit. Specify a value from this column in the UNIT specification of the WKT for any userdefined coordinate system. Examples: 

NUMBER 
The ratio of the specified unit to one radian. For example, the ratio of 
6.8.3 MDSYS.SDO_AREA_UNITS View
The MDSYS.SDO_AREA_UNITS reference view contains one row for each valid area UNIT specification in the wellknown text (WKT) description in the coordinate system definition. The WKT is described in WellKnown Text (WKT).
The MDSYS.SDO_AREA_UNITS view is based on the SDO_UNITS_OF MEASURE table (described in SDO_UNITS_OF_MEASURE Table), and it contains the columns shown in Table 630.
Table 630 SDO_AREA_UNITS View
Column Name  Data Type  Purpose 

VARCHAR2 
Values are taken from the SHORT_NAME column of the SDO_UNITS_OF MEASURE table. 

VARCHAR2 
Values are taken from the UNIT_OF_MEAS_NAME column of the SDO_UNITS_OF MEASURE table. 

NUMBER 
Ratio of the unit to 1 square meter. For example, the conversion factor for a square meter is 1.0, and the conversion factor for a square mile is 2589988. 
6.8.4 MDSYS.SDO_DATUMS_OLD_FORMAT and SDO_DATUMS_OLD_SNAPSHOT Tables
The MDSYS.SDO_DATUMS_OLD_FORMAT and MDSYS.SDO_DATUMS_OLD_SNAPSHOT reference tables contain one row for each valid DATUM specification in the wellknown text (WKT) description in the coordinate system definition. (The WKT is described in WellKnown Text (WKT).)

MDSYS.SDO_DATUMS_OLD_FORMAT contains the new data in the old format (that is, EPSGbased datum specifications in a table using the format from before release 10.2).

MDSYS.SDO_DATUMS_OLD_SNAPSHOT contains the old data in the old format (that is, datum specifications and table format from before release 10.2).
These tables contain the columns shown in the following table.
Table 631 MDSYS.SDO_DATUMS_OLD_FORMAT and SDO_DATUMS_OLD_SNAPSHOT Tables
Column Name  Data Type  Description 

NAME 
VARCHAR2(80) for OLD_FORMAT VARCHAR2(64) for OLD_SNAPSHOT 
Name of the datum. Specify a value (Oraclesupplied or userdefined) from this column in the DATUM specification of the WKT for any userdefined coordinate system. Examples: 
SHIFT_X 
NUMBER 
Number of meters to shift the ellipsoid center relative to the center of the WGS 84 ellipsoid on the xaxis. 
SHIFT_Y 
NUMBER 
Number of meters to shift the ellipsoid center relative to the center of the WGS 84 ellipsoid on the yaxis. 
SHIFT_Z 
NUMBER 
Number of meters to shift the ellipsoid center relative to the center of the WGS 84 ellipsoid on the zaxis. 
ROTATE_X 
NUMBER 
Number of arcseconds of rotation about the xaxis. 
ROTATE_Y 
NUMBER 
Number of arcseconds of rotation about the yaxis. 
ROTATE_Z 
NUMBER 
Number of arcseconds of rotation about the zaxis. 
SCALE_ADJUST 
NUMBER 
A value to be used in adjusting the X, Y, and Z values after any shifting and rotation, according to the formula: 1.0 + (SCALE_ADJUST * 10^{6}) 
To see the names of the datums in these tables, enter an appropriate SELECT statement. For example:
SELECT name FROM MDSYS.SDO_DATUMS_OLD_FORMAT ORDER BY name;
6.8.5 MDSYS.SDO_DIST_UNITS View
The MDSYS.SDO_DIST_UNITS reference view contains one row for each valid distance UNIT specification in the wellknown text (WKT) description in the coordinate system definition. The WKT is described in WellKnown Text (WKT).
The MDSYS.SDO_DIST_UNITS view is based on the SDO_UNITS_OF MEASURE table (described in SDO_UNITS_OF_MEASURE Table), and it contains the columns shown in Table 632.
Table 632 MDSYS.SDO_DIST_UNITS View
Column Name  Data Type  Description 

VARCHAR2 
Values are taken from the SHORT_NAME column of the SDO_UNITS_OF MEASURE table. 

VARCHAR2 
Values are taken from the UNIT_OF_MEAS_NAME column of the SDO_UNITS_OF MEASURE table. 

NUMBER 
Ratio of the unit to 1 meter. For example, the conversion factor for a meter is 1.0, and the conversion factor for a mile is 1609.344. 
6.8.6 MDSYS.SDO_ELLIPSOIDS_OLD_FORMAT and SDO_ELLIPSOIDS_OLD_SNAPSHOT Tables
The MDSYS.SDO_ELLIPSOIDS_OLD_FORMAT and MDSYS.SDO_ELLIPSOIDS_OLD_SNAPSHOT reference tables contain one row for each valid SPHEROID specification in the wellknown text (WKT) description in the coordinate system definition. (The WKT is described in WellKnown Text (WKT).)

MDSYS.SDO_ELLIPSOIDS_OLD_FORMAT contains the new data in the old format (that is, EPSGbased ellipsoid specifications in a table using the format from before release 10.2).

MDSYS.SDO_ELLIPSOIDS_OLD_SNAPSHOT contains the old data in the old format (that is, ellipsoid specifications and table format from before release 10.2).
These tables contain the columns shown in the following table.
Table 633 MDSYS.SDO_ELLIPSOIDS_OLD_FORMAT and SDO_ELLIPSOIDS_OLD_SNAPSHOT Tables
Column Name  Data Type  Description 

NAME 
VARCHAR2(80) for OLD_FORMAT VARCHAR2(64) for OLD_SNAPSHOT 
Name of the ellipsoid (spheroid). Specify a value from this column in the SPHEROID specification of the WKT for any userdefined coordinate system. Examples: 
NUMBER 
Radius in meters along the semimajor axis (onehalf of the long axis of the ellipsoid). 

NUMBER 
Inverse flattening of the ellipsoid. That is, 
To see the names of the ellipsoids in these tables, enter an appropriate SELECT statement. For example:
SELECT name FROM MDSYS.SDO_ELLIPSOIDS_OLD_FORMAT ORDER BY name;
6.8.7 MDSYS.SDO_PROJECTIONS_OLD_FORMAT and SDO_PROJECTIONS_OLD_SNAPSHOT Tables
The MDSYS.SDO_PROJECTIONS_OLD_FORMAT and MDSYS.SDO_PROJECTIONS_OLD_SNAPSHOT reference tables contain one row for each valid PROJECTION specification in the wellknown text (WKT) description in the coordinate system definition. (The WKT is described in WellKnown Text (WKT).)

MDSYS.SDO_PROJECTIONS_OLD_FORMAT contains the new data in the old format (that is, EPSGbased projection specifications in a table using the format from before release 10.2).

MDSYS.SDO_PROJECTIONS_OLD_SNAPSHOT contains the old data in the old format (that is, projection specifications and table format from before release 10.2).
These tables contains the column shown in the following table.
Table 634 MDSYS.SDO_PROJECTIONS_OLD_FORMAT and SDO_PROJECTIONS_OLD_SNAPSHOT Tables
Column Name  Data Type  Description 

NAME 
VARCHAR2(80) for OLD_FORMAT VARCHAR2(64) for OLD_SNAPSHOT 
Name of the map projection. Specify a value from this column in the PROJECTION specification of the WKT for any userdefined coordinate system. Examples: 
To see the names of the projections in these tables, enter an appropriate SELECT statement. For example:
SELECT name FROM MDSYS.SDO_PROJECTIONS_OLD_FORMAT ORDER BY name;
6.9 Creating a UserDefined Coordinate Reference System
If the coordinate systems supplied by Oracle are not sufficient for your needs, you can create userdefined coordinate reference systems.
Note:
As mentioned in Coordinate System (Spatial Reference System) , the terms coordinate system and coordinate reference system (CRS) are often used interchangeably, although coordinate reference systems must be Earthbased.
The exact steps for creating a userdefined CRS depend on whether it is geodetic or projected. In both cases, supply information about the coordinate system (coordinate axes, axis names, unit of measurement, and so on). For a geodetic CRS, supply information about the datum (ellipsoid, prime meridian, and so on), as explained in Creating a Geodetic CRS. For a projected CRS, supply information about the source (geodetic) CRS and the projection (operation and parameters), as explained in Creating a Projected CRS.
For any userdefined coordinate system, the SRID value should be 1000000 (1 million) or higher.
Topics:
6.9.1 Creating a Geodetic CRS
If the necessary unit of measurement, coordinate axes, SDO_COORD_SYS table row, ellipsoid, prime meridian, and datum are already defined, insert a row into the SDO_COORD_REF_SYSTEM view (described in SDO_COORD_REF_SYSTEM View) to define the new geodetic CRS.
Example 65 inserts the definition for a hypothetical geodetic CRS named My Own NAD27
(which, except for its SRID and name, is the same as the NAD27
CRS supplied by Oracle).
If the necessary information for the definition does not already exist, follow these steps, as needed, to define the information before you insert the row into the SDO_COORD_REF_SYSTEM view:
 If the unit of measurement is not already defined in the SDO_UNITS_OF_MEASURE table (described in SDO_UNITS_OF_MEASURE Table), insert a row into that table to define the new unit of measurement.
 If the coordinate axes are not already defined in the SDO_COORD_AXES table (described in SDO_COORD_AXES Table), insert one row into that table for each new coordinate axis.
 If an appropriate entry for the coordinate system does not already exist in the SDO_COORD_SYS table (described in SDO_COORD_SYS Table), insert a row into that table. Example 66 inserts the definition for a fictitious coordinate system.
 If the ellipsoid is not already defined in the SDO_ELLIPSOIDS table (described in SDO_ELLIPSOIDS Table), insert a row into that table to define the new ellipsoid.
 If the prime meridian is not already defined in the SDO_PRIME_MERIDIANS table (described in SDO_PRIME_MERIDIANS Table), insert a row into that table to define the new prime meridian.
 If the datum is not already defined in the SDO_DATUMS table (described in SDO_DATUMS Table), insert a row into that table to define the new datum.
Example 65 Creating a UserDefined Geodetic Coordinate Reference System
INSERT INTO SDO_COORD_REF_SYSTEM ( SRID, COORD_REF_SYS_NAME, COORD_REF_SYS_KIND, COORD_SYS_ID, DATUM_ID, GEOG_CRS_DATUM_ID, SOURCE_GEOG_SRID, PROJECTION_CONV_ID, CMPD_HORIZ_SRID, CMPD_VERT_SRID, INFORMATION_SOURCE, DATA_SOURCE, IS_LEGACY, LEGACY_CODE, LEGACY_WKTEXT, LEGACY_CS_BOUNDS, IS_VALID, SUPPORTS_SDO_GEOMETRY) VALUES ( 9994267, 'My Own NAD27', 'GEOGRAPHIC2D', 6422, 6267, 6267, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, 'EPSG', 'FALSE', NULL, NULL, NULL, 'TRUE', 'TRUE');
Example 66 Inserting a Row into the SDO_COORD_SYS Table
INSERT INTO SDO_COORD_SYS ( COORD_SYS_ID, COORD_SYS_NAME, COORD_SYS_TYPE, DIMENSION, INFORMATION_SOURCE, DATA_SOURCE) VALUES ( 9876543, 'My custom CS. Axes: lat, long. Orientations: north, east. UoM: deg', 'ellipsoidal', 2, 'Myself', 'Myself');
6.9.2 Creating a Projected CRS
If the necessary unit of measurement, coordinate axes, SDO_COORD_SYS table row, source coordinate system, projection operation, and projection parameters are already defined, insert a row into the SDO_COORD_REF_SYSTEM view (described in SDO_COORD_REF_SYSTEM View) to define the new projected CRS.
Example 67 inserts the definition for a hypothetical projected CRS named My Own NAD27 / Cuba Norte
(which, except for its SRID and name, is the same as the NAD27 / Cuba Norte
CRS supplied by Oracle).
If the necessary information for the definition does not already exist, follow these steps, as needed, to define the information before you insert the row into the SDO_COORD_REF_SYSTEM view:
 If the unit of measurement is not already defined in the SDO_UNITS_OF_MEASURE table (described in SDO_UNITS_OF_MEASURE Table), insert a row into that table to define the new unit of measurement.
 If the coordinate axes are not already defined in the SDO_COORD_AXES table (described in SDO_COORD_AXES Table), insert one row into that table for each new coordinate axis.
 If an appropriate entry for the coordinate system does not already exist in SDO_COORD_SYS table (described in SDO_COORD_SYS Table), insert a row into that table. (See Example 66 in Creating a Geodetic CRS).
 If the projection operation is not already defined in the SDO_COORD_OPS table (described in SDO_COORD_OPS Table), insert a row into that table to define the new projection operation. Example 68 shows the statement used to insert information about coordinate operation ID 18061, which is supplied by Oracle.
 If the parameters for the projection operation are not already defined in the SDO_COORD_OP_PARAM_VALS table (described in SDO_COORD_OP_PARAM_VALS Table), insert one row into that table for each new parameter. Example 69 shows the statement used to insert information about parameters with ID values 8801, 8802, 8805, 8806, and 8807, which are supplied by Oracle.
Example 67 Creating a UserDefined Projected Coordinate Reference System
INSERT INTO SDO_COORD_REF_SYSTEM ( SRID, COORD_REF_SYS_NAME, COORD_REF_SYS_KIND, COORD_SYS_ID, DATUM_ID, GEOG_CRS_DATUM_ID, SOURCE_GEOG_SRID, PROJECTION_CONV_ID, CMPD_HORIZ_SRID, CMPD_VERT_SRID, INFORMATION_SOURCE, DATA_SOURCE, IS_LEGACY, LEGACY_CODE, LEGACY_WKTEXT, LEGACY_CS_BOUNDS, IS_VALID, SUPPORTS_SDO_GEOMETRY) VALUES ( 9992085, 'My Own NAD27 / Cuba Norte', 'PROJECTED', 4532, NULL, 6267, 4267, 18061, NULL, NULL, 'Institut Cubano di Hidrografia (ICH)', 'EPSG', 'FALSE', NULL, NULL, NULL, 'TRUE', 'TRUE');
Example 68 Inserting a Row into the SDO_COORD_OPS Table
INSERT INTO SDO_COORD_OPS ( COORD_OP_ID, COORD_OP_NAME, COORD_OP_TYPE, SOURCE_SRID, TARGET_SRID, COORD_TFM_VERSION, COORD_OP_VARIANT, COORD_OP_METHOD_ID, UOM_ID_SOURCE_OFFSETS, UOM_ID_TARGET_OFFSETS, INFORMATION_SOURCE, DATA_SOURCE, SHOW_OPERATION, IS_LEGACY, LEGACY_CODE, REVERSE_OP, IS_IMPLEMENTED_FORWARD, IS_IMPLEMENTED_REVERSE) VALUES ( 18061, 'Cuba Norte', 'CONVERSION', NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, 9801, NULL, NULL, NULL, 'EPSG', 1, 'FALSE', NULL, 1, 1, 1);
Example 69 Inserting a Row into the SDO_COORD_OP_PARAM_VALS Table
INSERT INTO SDO_COORD_OP_PARAM_VALS ( COORD_OP_ID, COORD_OP_METHOD_ID, PARAMETER_ID, PARAMETER_VALUE, PARAM_VALUE_FILE_REF, UOM_ID) VALUES ( 18061, 9801, 8801, 22.21, NULL, 9110); INSERT INTO SDO_COORD_OP_PARAM_VALS ( COORD_OP_ID, COORD_OP_METHOD_ID, PARAMETER_ID, PARAMETER_VALUE, PARAM_VALUE_FILE_REF, UOM_ID) VALUES ( 18061, 9801, 8802, 81, NULL, 9110); INSERT INTO SDO_COORD_OP_PARAM_VALS ( COORD_OP_ID, COORD_OP_METHOD_ID, PARAMETER_ID, PARAMETER_VALUE, PARAM_VALUE_FILE_REF, UOM_ID) VALUES ( 18061, 9801, 8805, .99993602, NULL, 9201); INSERT INTO SDO_COORD_OP_PARAM_VALS ( COORD_OP_ID, COORD_OP_METHOD_ID, PARAMETER_ID, PARAMETER_VALUE, PARAM_VALUE_FILE_REF, UOM_ID) VALUES ( 18061, 9801, 8806, 500000, NULL, 9001); INSERT INTO SDO_COORD_OP_PARAM_VALS ( COORD_OP_ID, COORD_OP_METHOD_ID, PARAMETER_ID, PARAMETER_VALUE, PARAM_VALUE_FILE_REF, UOM_ID) VALUES ( 18061, 9801, 8807, 280296.016, NULL, 9001);
Example 610 Creating a UserDefined Projected CRS: Extended Example
 Create an EPSG equivalent for the following CRS:   CS_NAME: VDOT_LAMBERT  SRID: 51000000  AUTH_SRID: 51000000  AUTH_NAME: VDOT Custom Lambert Conformal Conic  WKTEXT:   PROJCS[  "VDOT_Lambert",  GEOGCS[  "GCS_North_American_1983",  DATUM[  "D_North_American_1983",  SPHEROID["GRS_1980", 6378137.0, 298.257222101]],  PRIMEM["Greenwich", 0.0],  UNIT["Decimal Degree",0.0174532925199433]],  PROJECTION["Lambert_Conformal_Conic"],  PARAMETER["False_Easting", 0.0],  PARAMETER["False_Northing", 0.0],  PARAMETER["Central_Meridian", 79.5],  PARAMETER["Standard_Parallel_1", 37.0],  PARAMETER["Standard_Parallel_2", 39.5],  PARAMETER["Scale_Factor", 1.0],  PARAMETER["Latitude_Of_Origin", 36.0],  UNIT["Meter", 1.0]]  First, the base geographic CRS (GCS_North_American_1983) already exists in EPSG.  It is 4269:  Next, find the EPSG equivalent for PROJECTION["Lambert_Conformal_Conic"]: select coord_op_method_id, legacy_name from sdo_coord_op_methods where not legacy_name is null order by coord_op_method_id;  Result:  COORD_OP_METHOD_ID LEGACY_NAME     9802 Lambert Conformal Conic  9803 Lambert Conformal Conic (Belgium 1972)  9805 Mercator  9806 Cassini  9807 Transverse Mercator  9829 Polar Stereographic   6 rows selected.   It is EPSG method 9802. Create a projection operation 510000001, based on it: insert into MDSYS.SDO_COORD_OPS ( COORD_OP_ID, COORD_OP_NAME, COORD_OP_TYPE, SOURCE_SRID, TARGET_SRID, COORD_TFM_VERSION, COORD_OP_VARIANT, COORD_OP_METHOD_ID, UOM_ID_SOURCE_OFFSETS, UOM_ID_TARGET_OFFSETS, INFORMATION_SOURCE, DATA_SOURCE, SHOW_OPERATION, IS_LEGACY, LEGACY_CODE, REVERSE_OP, IS_IMPLEMENTED_FORWARD, IS_IMPLEMENTED_REVERSE) VALUES ( 510000001, 'VDOT_Lambert', 'CONVERSION', NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, 9802, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, 1, 'FALSE', NULL, 1, 1, 1);  Now, set the parameters. See which are required: select use.parameter_id  ': '  use.legacy_param_name from sdo_coord_op_param_use use where use.coord_op_method_id = 9802;  result:  8821: Latitude_Of_Origin  8822: Central_Meridian  8823: Standard_Parallel_1  8824: Standard_Parallel_2  8826: False_Easting  8827: False_Northing   6 rows selected.  Also check the most common units we will need: select UOM_ID  ': '  UNIT_OF_MEAS_NAME from sdo_units_of_measure where uom_id in (9001, 9101, 9102, 9201) order by uom_id;  result:  9001: metre  9101: radian  9102: degree  9201: unity  Now, configure the projection parameters:  8821: Latitude_Of_Origin insert into MDSYS.SDO_COORD_OP_PARAM_VALS ( COORD_OP_ID, COORD_OP_METHOD_ID, PARAMETER_ID, PARAMETER_VALUE, PARAM_VALUE_FILE_REF, UOM_ID) VALUES ( 510000001, 9802, 8821, 36.0, NULL, 9102);  8822: Central_Meridian insert into MDSYS.SDO_COORD_OP_PARAM_VALS ( COORD_OP_ID, COORD_OP_METHOD_ID, PARAMETER_ID, PARAMETER_VALUE, PARAM_VALUE_FILE_REF, UOM_ID) VALUES ( 510000001, 9802, 8822, 79.5, NULL, 9102);  8823: Standard_Parallel_1 insert into MDSYS.SDO_COORD_OP_PARAM_VALS ( COORD_OP_ID, COORD_OP_METHOD_ID, PARAMETER_ID, PARAMETER_VALUE, PARAM_VALUE_FILE_REF, UOM_ID) VALUES ( 510000001, 9802, 8823, 37.0, NULL, 9102);  8824: Standard_Parallel_2 insert into MDSYS.SDO_COORD_OP_PARAM_VALS ( COORD_OP_ID, COORD_OP_METHOD_ID, PARAMETER_ID, PARAMETER_VALUE, PARAM_VALUE_FILE_REF, UOM_ID) VALUES ( 510000001, 9802, 8824, 39.5, NULL, 9102);  8826: False_Easting insert into MDSYS.SDO_COORD_OP_PARAM_VALS ( COORD_OP_ID, COORD_OP_METHOD_ID, PARAMETER_ID, PARAMETER_VALUE, PARAM_VALUE_FILE_REF, UOM_ID) VALUES ( 510000001, 9802, 8826, 0.0, NULL, 9001);  8827: False_Northing insert into MDSYS.SDO_COORD_OP_PARAM_VALS ( COORD_OP_ID, COORD_OP_METHOD_ID, PARAMETER_ID, PARAMETER_VALUE, PARAM_VALUE_FILE_REF, UOM_ID) VALUES ( 510000001, 9802, 8827, 0.0, NULL, 9001);  Now, create the actual projected CRS.Look at the GEOG_CRS_DATUM_ID  and COORD_SYS_ID first. The GEOG_CRS_DATUM_ID is the datum of  the base geog_crs (4269): select datum_id from sdo_coord_ref_sys where srid = 4269;  DATUM_ID    6269  And the COORD_SYS_ID is the Cartesian CS used for the projected CRS.  We can use 4400, if meters will be the unit: select COORD_SYS_NAME from sdo_coord_sys where COORD_SYS_ID = 4400;  Cartesian 2D CS. Axes: easting, northing (E,N). Orientations: east, north.  UoM: m.  Now create the projected CRS: insert into MDSYS.SDO_COORD_REF_SYSTEM ( SRID, COORD_REF_SYS_NAME, COORD_REF_SYS_KIND, COORD_SYS_ID, DATUM_ID, SOURCE_GEOG_SRID, PROJECTION_CONV_ID, CMPD_HORIZ_SRID, CMPD_VERT_SRID, INFORMATION_SOURCE, DATA_SOURCE, IS_LEGACY, LEGACY_CODE, LEGACY_WKTEXT, LEGACY_CS_BOUNDS, GEOG_CRS_DATUM_ID) VALUES ( 51000000, 'VDOT_LAMBERT', 'PROJECTED', 4400, NULL, 4269, 510000001, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, 'FALSE', NULL, NULL, NULL, 6269);  To see the result: select srid, wktext from cs_srs where srid = 51000000;  51000000  PROJCS[  "VDOT_LAMBERT",  GEOGCS [  "NAD83",  DATUM [  "North American Datum 1983 (EPSG ID 6269)",  SPHEROID [  "GRS 1980 (EPSG ID 7019)",  6378137,  298.257222101]],  PRIMEM [ "Greenwich", 0.000000 ],  UNIT ["Decimal Degree", 0.01745329251994328]],  PROJECTION ["VDOT_Lambert"],  PARAMETER ["Latitude_Of_Origin", 36],  PARAMETER ["Central_Meridian", 79.50000000000000000000000000000000000028],  PARAMETER ["Standard_Parallel_1", 37],  PARAMETER ["Standard_Parallel_2", 39.5],  PARAMETER ["False_Easting", 0],  PARAMETER ["False_Northing", 0],  UNIT ["Meter", 1]]
Example 610 provides an extended, annotated example of creating a userdefined projected coordinate system
6.9.3 Creating a Vertical CRS
A vertical CRS has only one dimension, usually height. On its own, a vertical CRS is of little use, but it can be combined with a twodimensional CRS (geodetic or projected), to result in a compound CRS. Example 611 shows the statement that created the vertical CRS with SRID 5701, which is included with Spatial and Graph. This definition refers to an existing (onedimensional) coordinate system (ID 6499; see SDO_COORD_SYS Table) and vertical datum (ID 5101; see SDO_DATUMS Table).
Example 611 Creating a Vertical Coordinate Reference System
INSERT INTO MDSYS.SDO_COORD_REF_SYSTEM ( SRID, COORD_REF_SYS_NAME, COORD_REF_SYS_KIND, COORD_SYS_ID, DATUM_ID, SOURCE_GEOG_SRID, PROJECTION_CONV_ID, CMPD_HORIZ_SRID, CMPD_VERT_SRID, INFORMATION_SOURCE, DATA_SOURCE, IS_LEGACY, LEGACY_CODE, LEGACY_WKTEXT, LEGACY_CS_BOUNDS) VALUES ( 5701, 'Newlyn', 'VERTICAL', 6499, 5101, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, 'EPSG', 'FALSE', NULL, NULL, NULL);
A vertical CRS might define some undulating equipotential surface. The shape of that surface, and its offset from some ellipsoid, is not actually defined in the vertical CRS record itself (other than textually). Instead, that definition is included in an operation between the vertical CRS and another CRS. Consequently, you can define several alternative operations between the same pair of geoidal and WGS 84ellipsoidal heights. For example, there are geoid offset matrixes GEOID90, GEOID93, GEOID96, GEOID99, GEOID03, GEOID06, and others, and for each of these variants there can be a separate operation. Creating a Transformation Operation describes such an operation.
6.9.4 Creating a Compound CRS
A compound CRS combines an existing horizontal (twodimensional) CRS and a vertical (onedimensional) CRS. The horizontal CRS can be geodetic or projected. Example 612 shows the statement that created the compound CRS with SRID 7405, which is included with Spatial and Graph. This definition refers to an existing projected CRS and vertical CRS (IDs 27700 and 5701, respectively; see SDO_COORD_REF_SYS Table).
Example 612 Creating a Compound Coordinate Reference System
INSERT INTO MDSYS.SDO_COORD_REF_SYSTEM ( SRID, COORD_REF_SYS_NAME, COORD_REF_SYS_KIND, COORD_SYS_ID, DATUM_ID, SOURCE_GEOG_SRID, PROJECTION_CONV_ID, CMPD_HORIZ_SRID, CMPD_VERT_SRID, INFORMATION_SOURCE, DATA_SOURCE, IS_LEGACY, LEGACY_CODE, LEGACY_WKTEXT, LEGACY_CS_BOUNDS) VALUES ( 7405, 'OSGB36 / British National Grid + ODN', 'COMPOUND', NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, 27700, 5701, NULL, 'EPSG', 'FALSE', NULL, NULL, NULL);
6.9.5 Creating a Geographic 3D CRS
A geographic 3D CRS is the combination of a geographic 2D CRS with ellipsoidal height. Example 613 shows the statement that created the geographic 3D CRS with SRID 4327, which is included with Spatial and Graph. This definition refers to an existing projected coordinate system (ID 6401; see SDO_COORD_SYS Table) and datum (ID 6326; see SDO_DATUMS Table).
Example 613 Creating a Geographic 3D Coordinate Reference System
INSERT INTO MDSYS.SDO_COORD_REF_SYSTEM ( SRID, COORD_REF_SYS_NAME, COORD_REF_SYS_KIND, COORD_SYS_ID, DATUM_ID, GEOG_CRS_DATUM_ID, SOURCE_GEOG_SRID, PROJECTION_CONV_ID, CMPD_HORIZ_SRID, CMPD_VERT_SRID, INFORMATION_SOURCE, DATA_SOURCE, IS_LEGACY, LEGACY_CODE, LEGACY_WKTEXT, LEGACY_CS_BOUNDS, IS_VALID, SUPPORTS_SDO_GEOMETRY) VALUES ( 4327, 'WGS 84 (geographic 3D)', 'GEOGRAPHIC3D', 6401, 6326, 6326, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, 'NIMA TR8350.2 January 2000 revision. http://164.214.2.59/GandG/tr8350_2.html', 'EPSG', 'FALSE', NULL, NULL, NULL, 'TRUE', 'TRUE');
6.9.6 Creating a Transformation Operation
Creating a Projected CRS described the creation of a projection operation, for the purpose of then creating a projected CRS. A similar requirement can arise when using a compound CRS based on orthometric height: you may want to transform from and to ellipsoidal height. The offset between the two heights is undulating and irregular.
By default, Spatial and Graph transforms between ellipsoidal and orthometric height using an identity transformation. (Between different ellipsoids, the default would instead be a datum transformation.) The identity transformation is a reasonable approximation; however, a more accurate approach involves an EPSG type 9635 operation, involving an offset matrix. Example 614 is a declaration of such an operation:
Example 614 Creating a Transformation Operation
INSERT INTO MDSYS.SDO_COORD_OPS ( COORD_OP_ID, COORD_OP_NAME, COORD_OP_TYPE, SOURCE_SRID, TARGET_SRID, COORD_TFM_VERSION, COORD_OP_VARIANT, COORD_OP_METHOD_ID, UOM_ID_SOURCE_OFFSETS, UOM_ID_TARGET_OFFSETS, INFORMATION_SOURCE, DATA_SOURCE, SHOW_OPERATION, IS_LEGACY, LEGACY_CODE, REVERSE_OP, IS_IMPLEMENTED_FORWARD, IS_IMPLEMENTED_REVERSE) VALUES ( 999998, 'Test operation, based on GEOID03 model, using Hawaii grid', 'TRANSFORMATION', NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, 9635, NULL, NULL, 'NGS', 'NGS', 1, 'FALSE', NULL, 1, 1, 1); INSERT INTO MDSYS.SDO_COORD_OP_PARAM_VALS ( COORD_OP_ID, COORD_OP_METHOD_ID, PARAMETER_ID, PARAMETER_VALUE, PARAM_VALUE_FILE_REF, UOM_ID) VALUES ( 999998, 9635, 8666, NULL, 'g2003h01.asc', NULL);
The second INSERT statement in Example 614 specifies the file name g2003h01.asc
, but not yet its actual CLOB content with the offset matrix. As with NADCON and NTv2 matrixes, geoid matrixes have to be loaded into the PARAM_VALUE_FILE column. Due to space and copyright considerations, Oracle does not supply most of these matrixes; however, they are usually available for download on the Web. Good sources are the relevant government websites, and you can search by file name (such as g2003h01
in this example). Although some of these files are available in both binary format (such as .gsb) and ASCII format (such as .gsa or .asc), only the ASCII variant can be used with Spatial and Graph. The existing EPSG operations include file names in standard use.
Example 615 Loading Offset Matrixes
DECLARE ORCL_HOME_DIR VARCHAR2(128); ORCL_WORK_DIR VARCHAR2(128); Src_loc BFILE; Dest_loc CLOB; CURSOR PARAM_FILES IS SELECT COORD_OP_ID, PARAMETER_ID, PARAM_VALUE_FILE_REF FROM MDSYS.SDO_COORD_OP_PARAM_VALS WHERE PARAMETER_ID IN (8656, 8657, 8658, 8666); PARAM_FILE PARAM_FILES%ROWTYPE; ACTUAL_FILE_NAME VARCHAR2(128); platform NUMBER; dest_offset number := 1; src_offset number := 1; lang_context number := 0; warning number; BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'CREATE OR REPLACE DIRECTORY work_dir AS ''define_your_source_directory_here'''; FOR PARAM_FILE IN PARAM_FILES LOOP CASE UPPER(PARAM_FILE.PARAM_VALUE_FILE_REF) /* NTv2, fill in your files here */ WHEN 'NTV2_0.GSB' THEN ACTUAL_FILE_NAME := 'ntv20.gsa'; /* GEOID03, fill in your files here */ WHEN 'G2003H01.ASC' THEN ACTUAL_FILE_NAME := 'g2003h01.asc'; ELSE ACTUAL_FILE_NAME := NULL; END CASE; IF(NOT (ACTUAL_FILE_NAME IS NULL)) THEN BEGIN dbms_output.put_line('Loading file '  actual_file_name  '...'); Src_loc := BFILENAME('WORK_DIR', ACTUAL_FILE_NAME); DBMS_LOB.OPEN(Src_loc, DBMS_LOB.LOB_READONLY); END; UPDATE MDSYS.SDO_COORD_OP_PARAM_VALS SET PARAM_VALUE_FILE = EMPTY_CLOB() WHERE COORD_OP_ID = PARAM_FILE.COORD_OP_ID AND PARAMETER_ID = PARAM_FILE.PARAMETER_ID RETURNING PARAM_VALUE_FILE INTO Dest_loc; DBMS_LOB.OPEN(Dest_loc, DBMS_LOB.LOB_READWRITE);  DBMS_LOB.LOADFROMFILE(Dest_loc, Src_loc, DBMS_LOB.LOBMAXSIZE); dbms_lob.loadclobfromfile ( dest_lob => dest_loc, src_bfile => src_loc, amount => DBMS_LOB.LOBMAXSIZE, dest_offset => dest_offset, src_offset => src_offset, bfile_csid => 0, lang_context => lang_context, warning => warning); DBMS_LOB.CLOSE(Dest_loc); DBMS_LOB.CLOSE(Src_loc); DBMS_LOB.FILECLOSE(Src_loc); END IF; END LOOP; END; /
Example 615 is a script for loading a set of such matrixes. It loads specified physical files (such as ntv20.gsa
) into database CLOBs, based on the official file name reference (such as NTV2_0.GSB
).
6.9.7 Using British Grid Transformation OSTN02/OSGM02 (EPSG Method 9633)
To use British Grid Transformation OSTN02/OSGM02 (EPSG method 9633) in a projected coordinate reference system, you must first insert a modified version of the OSTN02_OSGM02_GB.txt
grid file into the PARAM_VALUE_FILE column (type CLOB) of the SDO_COORD_OP_PARAM_VALS table (described in SDO_COORD_OP_PARAM_VALS Table). The OSTN02_OSGM02_GB.txt
file contains the offset matrix on which EPSG transformation method 9633 is based.
Follow these steps:
Example 616 Using British Grid Transformation OSTN02/OSGM02 (EPSG Method 9633)
DECLARE ORCL_HOME_DIR VARCHAR2(128); ORCL_WORK_DIR VARCHAR2(128); Src_loc BFILE; Dest_loc CLOB; CURSOR PARAM_FILES IS SELECT COORD_OP_ID, PARAMETER_ID, PARAM_VALUE_FILE_REF FROM MDSYS.SDO_COORD_OP_PARAM_VALS WHERE PARAMETER_ID IN (8656, 8657, 8658, 8664, 8666) order by COORD_OP_ID, PARAMETER_ID; PARAM_FILE PARAM_FILES%ROWTYPE; ACTUAL_FILE_NAME VARCHAR2(128); platform NUMBER; BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'CREATE OR REPLACE DIRECTORY work_dir AS '''  system.geor_dir  ''''; FOR PARAM_FILE IN PARAM_FILES LOOP CASE UPPER(PARAM_FILE.PARAM_VALUE_FILE_REF) /* NTv2 */ WHEN 'NTV2_0.GSB' THEN ACTUAL_FILE_NAME := 'ntv20.gsa'; /* GEOID03 */ WHEN 'G2003H01.ASC' THEN ACTUAL_FILE_NAME := 'g2003h01.asc'; /* British Ordnance Survey (9633) */ WHEN 'OSTN02_OSGM02_GB.TXT' THEN ACTUAL_FILE_NAME := 'my_OSTN02_OSGM02_GB.txt'; ELSE ACTUAL_FILE_NAME := NULL; END CASE; IF(NOT (ACTUAL_FILE_NAME IS NULL)) THEN BEGIN dbms_output.put_line('Loading file '  actual_file_name  '...'); Src_loc := BFILENAME('WORK_DIR', ACTUAL_FILE_NAME); DBMS_LOB.OPEN(Src_loc, DBMS_LOB.LOB_READONLY); END; UPDATE MDSYS.SDO_COORD_OP_PARAM_VALS SET PARAM_VALUE_FILE = EMPTY_CLOB() WHERE COORD_OP_ID = PARAM_FILE.COORD_OP_ID AND PARAMETER_ID = PARAM_FILE.PARAMETER_ID RETURNING PARAM_VALUE_FILE INTO Dest_loc; DBMS_LOB.OPEN(Dest_loc, DBMS_LOB.LOB_READWRITE); DBMS_LOB.LOADFROMFILE(Dest_loc, Src_loc, DBMS_LOB.LOBMAXSIZE); DBMS_LOB.CLOSE(Dest_loc); DBMS_LOB.CLOSE(Src_loc); DBMS_LOB.FILECLOSE(Src_loc); END IF; END LOOP; END; /
Note that adding "header" information to a grid file is required only for British Grid Transformation OSTN02/OSGM02. It is not required for NADCON, NTv2, or VERTCON matrixes, because they already have headers of varying formats.
See also the following for related information:
6.10 Notes and Restrictions with Coordinate Systems Support
The following notes and restrictions apply to coordinate systems support in the current release of Oracle Spatial and Graph.
If you have geodetic data, see Geodetic Coordinate Support for additional considerations, guidelines, and restrictions.
Topics:
6.10.1 Different Coordinate Systems for Geometries with Operators and Functions
For spatial operators (described in Spatial Operators ) that take two geometries as input parameters, if the geometries are based on different coordinate systems, the query window (the second geometry) is transformed to the coordinate system of the first geometry before the operation is performed. This transformation is a temporary internal operation performed by Spatial and Graph; it does not affect any stored querywindow geometry.
For SDO_GEOM package geometry functions (described in SDO_GEOM Package (Geometry)) that take two geometries as input parameters, both geometries must be based on the same coordinate system.
6.10.2 3D LRS Functions Not Supported with Geodetic Data
In the current release, the 3D formats of LRS functions (explained in 3D Formats of LRS Functions) are not supported with geodetic data.
6.10.3 Functions Supported by Approximations with Geodetic Data
In the current release, the following functions are supported by approximations with geodetic data:
When these functions are used on data with geodetic coordinates, they internally perform the operations in an implicitly generated localtangentplane Cartesian coordinate system and then transform the results to the geodetic coordinate system. For SDO_GEOM.SDO_BUFFER, generated arcs are approximated by line segments before the backtransform.
6.10.4 Unknown CRS and NaC Coordinate Reference Systems
The following coordinate reference systems are provided for Oracle internal use and for other possible special uses:

unknown CRS
(SRID 999999) means that the coordinate system is unknown, and its space could be geodetic or Cartesian. Contrast this with specifying a null coordinate reference system, which indicates an unknown coordinate system with a Cartesian space. 
NaC
(SRID 999998) means NotaCRS. Its name is patterned after theNaN
(NotaNumber) value in Java. It is intended for potential use with nonspatial geometries.
The following restrictions apply to geometries based on the unknown CRS
and NaC
coordinate reference systems:

You cannot perform coordinate system transformations on these geometries.

Operations that require a coordinate system will return a null value when performed on these geometries. These operations include finding the area or perimeter of a geometry, creating a buffer, densifying an arc, and computing the aggregate centroid.
6.11 U.S. National Grid Support
The U.S. National Grid is a point coordinate representation using a single alphanumeric coordinate (for example, 18SUJ2348316806479498).
This approach contrasts with the use of numeric coordinates to represent the location of a point, as is done with Oracle Spatial and Graph and with EPSG. A good description of the U.S. National Grid is available at http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/TOOLS/usng.html
.
To support the U.S. National Grid in Spatial and Graph, the SDO_GEOMETRY type cannot be used because it is based on numeric coordinates. Instead, a point in U.S. National Grid format is represented as a single string of type VARCHAR2. To allow conversion between the SDO_GEOMETRY format and the U.S. National grid format, the SDO_CS package (documented in SDO_CS Package (Coordinate System Transformation)) contains the following functions:
6.12 Geohash Support
A geohash is a standard String encoding of a longitude/latitude point.
Some thirdparty software without advanced geospatial capabilities may be compatible with geohashes, since they support some types of simple, limited analysis of geographic data. For example, the approximate distance between objects can be guessed, based on the length of common prefix of the geohashes.
For more information about geohash, see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geohash
.
To support geohashes, the SDO_GEOMETRY type cannot be used directly. Instead, you can use the SDO_CS package (documented in SDO_CS Package (Coordinate System Transformation) ) to convert between SDO_GEOMETRY and gaohash format, and to perform other geohashrelated operations. That package contains the following subprograms related to geohash support:
6.13 Google Maps Considerations
Google Maps uses spherical math in its projections, as opposed to the ellipsoidal math used by Oracle Spatial and Graph. This difference can lead to inconsistencies in applications, such as when overlaying a map based on Google Maps with a map based on an Oracle Spatial and Graph ellipsoidal projection.
For example, an Oracle Spatial and Graph transformation from the ellipsoidal SRID 8307 to the spherical SRID 3785 accounts, by default, for the different ellipsoidal shapes, whereas Google Maps does not consider ellipsoidal shapes.
If you want Oracle Spatial and Graph to accommodate the Google Maps results, consider the following options:

Use the spherical SRID 4055 instead of the ellipsoidal SRID 8307. This may be the simplest approach; however, if you need to accommodate SRID 8307based data (such as from a thirdparty tool) as if it were spherical, you must use another option.

Use SRID 3857 instead of SRID 3785. This more convenient than the next two options, because using SRID 3857 does not require that you declare an EPSG rule or that you specify the
USE_SPHERICAL
use case name in order to produce Googlecompatible results. 
Declare an EPSG rule between the ellipsoidal and spherical coordinate systems. For example, declare an EPSG rule between SRIDs 8307 and 3785, ignoring the ellipsoidal shape of SRID 8307, as in the following example:
CALL sdo_cs.create_pref_concatenated_op( 302, 'CONCATENATED OPERATION', TFM_PLAN(SDO_TFM_CHAIN(8307, 1000000000, 4055, 19847, 3785)), NULL);
In this example, operation
1000000000
represents nooperation, causing the datum transformation between ellipsoid and sphere to be ignored.With this approach, you must declare a rule for each desired SRID pair (ellipsoidal and spherical).

Specify a use case name of
USE_SPHERICAL
with the SDO_CS.TRANSFORM function or the SDO_CS.TRANSFORM_LAYER procedure, as in the following examples:SELECT SDO_CS.TRANSFORM( sdo_geometry( 2001, 4326, sdo_point_type(1, 1, null), null, null), 'USE_SPHERICAL', 3785) FROM DUAL; CALL SDO_CS.TRANSFORM_LAYER( 'source_geoms', 'GEOMETRY', 'GEO_CS_3785_SPHERICAL', 'USE_SPHERICAL', 3785);
If you specify a
use_case
parameter value ofUSE_SPHERICAL
in such cases, the transformation defaults to using spherical math instead of ellipsoidal math, thereby accommodating Google Maps and some other thirdparty tools that use spherical math.If you use this approach (specifying
'USE_SPHERICAL'
) but you have also declared an EPSG rule requiring that ellipsoidal math be used in transformations between two specified SRIDs, then the declared EPSG rule takes precedence and ellipsoidal math is used for transformations between those two SRIDs.
6.14 Example of Coordinate System Transformation
This topic presents a simplified example that uses coordinate system transformation functions and procedures.
It refers to concepts that are explained in this chapter and uses functions documented in SDO_CS Package (Coordinate System Transformation) .
Example 617 Simplified Example of Coordinate System Transformation
Example 617 uses mostly the same geometry data (cola markets) as in Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data, except that instead of null SDO_SRID values, the SDO_SRID value 8307 is used. That is, the geometries are defined as using the coordinate system whose SRID is 8307 and whose wellknown name is "Longitude / Latitude (WGS 84)". This is probably the most widely used coordinate system, and it is the one used for global positioning system (GPS) devices. The geometries are then transformed using the coordinate system whose SRID is 8199 and whose wellknown name is "Longitude / Latitude (Arc 1950)".
Example 617 uses the geometries illustrated in Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data, except that cola_d
is a rectangle (here, a square) instead of a circle, because arcs are not supported with geodetic coordinate systems.
Example 617 does the following:

Creates a table (COLA_MARKETS_CS) to hold the spatial data

Inserts rows for four areas of interest (
cola_a
,cola_b
,cola_c
,cola_d
), using the SDO_SRID value 8307 
Updates the USER_SDO_GEOM_METADATA view to reflect the dimension of the areas, using the SDO_SRID value 8307

Creates a spatial index (COLA_SPATIAL_IDX_CS)

Performs some transformation operations (single geometry and entire layer)
 Create a table for cola (soft drink) markets in a  given geography (such as city or state). CREATE TABLE cola_markets_cs ( mkt_id NUMBER PRIMARY KEY, name VARCHAR2(32), shape SDO_GEOMETRY);  The next INSERT statement creates an area of interest for  Cola A. This area happens to be a rectangle.  The area could represent any userdefined criterion: for  example, where Cola A is the preferred drink, where  Cola A is under competitive pressure, where Cola A  has strong growth potential, and so on. INSERT INTO cola_markets_cs VALUES( 1, 'cola_a', SDO_GEOMETRY( 2003,  twodimensional polygon 8307,  SRID for 'Longitude / Latitude (WGS 84)' coordinate system NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1,1003,1),  polygon SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(1,1, 5,1, 5,7, 1,7, 1,1)  All vertices must  be defined for rectangle with geodetic data. ) );  The next two INSERT statements create areas of interest for  Cola B and Cola C. These areas are simple polygons (but not  rectangles). INSERT INTO cola_markets_cs VALUES( 2, 'cola_b', SDO_GEOMETRY( 2003,  twodimensional polygon 8307, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1,1003,1),  one polygon (exterior polygon ring) SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(5,1, 8,1, 8,6, 5,7, 5,1) ) ); INSERT INTO cola_markets_cs VALUES( 3, 'cola_c', SDO_GEOMETRY( 2003,  twodimensional polygon 8307, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1,1003,1), one polygon (exterior polygon ring) SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(3,3, 6,3, 6,5, 4,5, 3,3) ) );  Insert a rectangle (here, square) instead of a circle as in the original,  because arcs are not supported with geodetic coordinate systems. INSERT INTO cola_markets_cs VALUES( 4, 'cola_d', SDO_GEOMETRY( 2003,  twodimensional polygon 8307,  SRID for 'Longitude / Latitude (WGS 84)' coordinate system NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1,1003,1),  polygon SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(10,9, 11,9, 11,10, 10,10, 10,9)  All vertices must  be defined for rectangle with geodetic data. ) );   UPDATE METADATA VIEW    Update the USER_SDO_GEOM_METADATA view. This is required  before the spatial index can be created. Do this only once for each  layer (tablecolumn combination; here: cola_markets_cs and shape). INSERT INTO user_sdo_geom_metadata (TABLE_NAME, COLUMN_NAME, DIMINFO, SRID) VALUES ( 'cola_markets_cs', 'shape', SDO_DIM_ARRAY( SDO_DIM_ELEMENT('Longitude', 180, 180, 10),  10 meters tolerance SDO_DIM_ELEMENT('Latitude', 90, 90, 10)  10 meters tolerance ), 8307  SRID for 'Longitude / Latitude (WGS 84)' coordinate system );   CREATE THE SPATIAL INDEX   CREATE INDEX cola_spatial_idx_cs ON cola_markets_cs(shape) INDEXTYPE IS MDSYS.SPATIAL_INDEX_V2;   TEST COORDINATE SYSTEM TRANSFORMATION    Return the transformation of cola_c using to_srid 8199  ('Longitude / Latitude (Arc 1950)') SELECT c.name, SDO_CS.TRANSFORM(c.shape, 8199) FROM cola_markets_cs c WHERE c.name = 'cola_c';  Same as preceding, but using to_srname parameter. SELECT c.name, SDO_CS.TRANSFORM(c.shape, 'Longitude / Latitude (Arc 1950)') FROM cola_markets_cs c WHERE c.name = 'cola_c';  Transform the entire SHAPE layer and put results in the table  named cola_markets_cs_8199, which the procedure will create. CALL SDO_CS.TRANSFORM_LAYER('COLA_MARKETS_CS','SHAPE','COLA_MARKETS_CS_8199',8199);  Select all from the old (existing) table. SELECT * from cola_markets_cs;  Select all from the new (layer transformed) table. SELECT * from cola_markets_cs_8199;  Show metadata for the new (layer transformed) table. DESCRIBE cola_markets_cs_8199;  Use a geodetic MBR with SDO_FILTER. SELECT c.name FROM cola_markets_cs c WHERE SDO_FILTER(c.shape, SDO_GEOMETRY( 2003, 8307,  SRID for WGS 84 longitude/latitude NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1,1003,3), SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(6,5, 10,10)) ) = 'TRUE';
Example 618 shows the output of the SELECT statements in Example 617. Notice the slight differences between the coordinates in the original geometries (SRID 8307) and the transformed coordinates (SRID 8199)  for example, (1, 1, 5, 1, 5, 7, 1, 7, 1, 1) and (1.00078604, 1.00274579, 5.00069354, 1.00274488, 5.0006986, 7.00323528, 1.00079179, 7.00324162, 1.00078604, 1.00274579) for cola_a
.
Example 618 Output of SELECT Statements in Coordinate System Transformation Example
SQL>  Return the transformation of cola_c using to_srid 8199 SQL>  ('Longitude / Latitude (Arc 1950)') SQL> SELECT c.name, SDO_CS.TRANSFORM(c.shape, 8199) 2 FROM cola_markets_cs c WHERE c.name = 'cola_c'; NAME  SDO_CS.TRANSFORM(C.SHAPE,8199)(SDO_GTYPE, SDO_SRID, SDO_POINT(X, Y, Z), SDO_ELEM  cola_c SDO_GEOMETRY(2003, 8199, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1003, 1), SDO_ORDINATE_ARR AY(3.00074114, 3.00291482, 6.00067068, 3.00291287, 6.0006723, 5.00307625, 4.0007 1961, 5.00307838, 3.00074114, 3.00291482)) SQL> SQL>  Same as preceding, but using to_srname parameter. SQL> SELECT c.name, SDO_CS.TRANSFORM(c.shape, 'Longitude / Latitude (Arc 1950)') 2 FROM cola_markets_cs c WHERE c.name = 'cola_c'; NAME  SDO_CS.TRANSFORM(C.SHAPE,'LONGITUDE/LATITUDE(ARC1950)')(SDO_GTYPE, SDO_SRID, SDO  cola_c SDO_GEOMETRY(2003, 8199, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1003, 1), SDO_ORDINATE_ARR AY(3.00074114, 3.00291482, 6.00067068, 3.00291287, 6.0006723, 5.00307625, 4.0007 1961, 5.00307838, 3.00074114, 3.00291482)) SQL> SQL>  Transform the entire SHAPE layer and put results in the table SQL>  named cola_markets_cs_8199, which the procedure will create. SQL> CALL SDO_CS.TRANSFORM_LAYER('COLA_MARKETS_CS','SHAPE','COLA_MARKETS_CS_8199',8199); Call completed. SQL> SQL>  Select all from the old (existing) table. SQL> SELECT * from cola_markets_cs; MKT_ID NAME   SHAPE(SDO_GTYPE, SDO_SRID, SDO_POINT(X, Y, Z), SDO_ELEM_INFO, SDO_ORDINATES)  1 cola_a SDO_GEOMETRY(2003, 8307, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1003, 1), SDO_ORDINATE_ARR AY(1, 1, 5, 1, 5, 7, 1, 7, 1, 1)) 2 cola_b SDO_GEOMETRY(2003, 8307, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1003, 1), SDO_ORDINATE_ARR AY(5, 1, 8, 1, 8, 6, 5, 7, 5, 1)) 3 cola_c MKT_ID NAME   SHAPE(SDO_GTYPE, SDO_SRID, SDO_POINT(X, Y, Z), SDO_ELEM_INFO, SDO_ORDINATES)  SDO_GEOMETRY(2003, 8307, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1003, 1), SDO_ORDINATE_ARR AY(3, 3, 6, 3, 6, 5, 4, 5, 3, 3)) 4 cola_d SDO_GEOMETRY(2003, 8307, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1003, 1), SDO_ORDINATE_ARR AY(10, 9, 11, 9, 11, 10, 10, 10, 10, 9)) SQL> SQL>  Select all from the new (layer transformed) table. SQL> SELECT * from cola_markets_cs_8199; SDO_ROWID  GEOMETRY(SDO_GTYPE, SDO_SRID, SDO_POINT(X, Y, Z), SDO_ELEM_INFO, SDO_ORDINATES)  AAABZzAABAAAOa6AAA SDO_GEOMETRY(2003, 8199, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1003, 1), SDO_ORDINATE_ARR AY(1.00078604, 1.00274579, 5.00069354, 1.00274488, 5.0006986, 7.00323528, 1.0007 9179, 7.00324162, 1.00078604, 1.00274579)) AAABZzAABAAAOa6AAB SDO_GEOMETRY(2003, 8199, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1003, 1), SDO_ORDINATE_ARR AY(5.00069354, 1.00274488, 8.00062191, 1.00274427, 8.00062522, 6.00315345, 5.000 6986, 7.00323528, 5.00069354, 1.00274488)) SDO_ROWID  GEOMETRY(SDO_GTYPE, SDO_SRID, SDO_POINT(X, Y, Z), SDO_ELEM_INFO, SDO_ORDINATES)  AAABZzAABAAAOa6AAC SDO_GEOMETRY(2003, 8199, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1003, 1), SDO_ORDINATE_ARR AY(3.00074114, 3.00291482, 6.00067068, 3.00291287, 6.0006723, 5.00307625, 4.0007 1961, 5.00307838, 3.00074114, 3.00291482)) AAABZzAABAAAOa6AAD SDO_GEOMETRY(2003, 8199, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1003, 1), SDO_ORDINATE_ARR AY(10.0005802, 9.00337775, 11.0005553, 9.00337621, 11.0005569, 10.0034478, 10.00 SDO_ROWID  GEOMETRY(SDO_GTYPE, SDO_SRID, SDO_POINT(X, Y, Z), SDO_ELEM_INFO, SDO_ORDINATES)  05819, 10.0034495, 10.0005802, 9.00337775)) SQL> SQL>  Show metadata for the new (layer transformed) table. SQL> DESCRIBE cola_markets_cs_8199; Name Null? Type    SDO_ROWID ROWID GEOMETRY SDO_GEOMETRY SQL> SQL>  Use a geodetic MBR with SDO_FILTER SQL> SELECT c.name FROM cola_markets_cs c WHERE 2 SDO_FILTER(c.shape, 3 SDO_GEOMETRY( 4 2003, 5 8307,  SRID for WGS 84 longitude/latitude 6 NULL, 7 SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1,1003,3), 8 SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(6,5, 10,10)) 9 ) = 'TRUE'; NAME  cola_c cola_b cola_d