3 Getting Started with Oracle Database Vault

Before you can start using Oracle Database Vault, you must register it with the Oracle database.

About Registering Oracle Database Vault with an Oracle Database

After you install Oracle Database, you must register (that is, configure and enable) Oracle Database Vault with the Oracle database in which it was installed.

Oracle Database includes Database Vault when you choose to include a default database in the installation process, but you must register it before you can use it. If you create a custom database, then you can use DBCA to install and enable Database Vault for it. The registration process enables Oracle Label Security if it is not already enabled. Oracle Label Security is required for Oracle Database Vault but it does not require a separate license unless you begin using Oracle Label Security separately and create Oracle Label Security policies. This procedure applies to the CDB root, application root, and the current pluggable database (PDB), as well as to both single-instance and Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) installations. In a multitenant database, Database Vault must be configured with the CDB root before any of the PDBs can configure Database Vault.

As part of the registration process, you created the Database Vault backup accounts. These are accounts that hold the key Database Vault roles. Use these accounts initially to provision the roles to named users with administrative privileges. Maintaining a backup account will allow you to recover from the named user losing or somehow misplacing their credentials because SYS will not be able to reset these passwords for users with these roles.

You can register Oracle Database in both multitenant and non-multitenant environments. For multitenant environments, you have several methods to choose from for the registration.

Note:

If you have upgraded from a release earlier than Oracle Database 12c, and if the earlier Oracle Database Vault had been enabled in that earlier release, then after the upgrade process is complete, you must enable Oracle Database Vault by using the DBMS_MACADM.ENABLE_DV procedure.

In a multitenant environment, if you are migrating a non-Database Vault registered Oracle database from a release earlier than release 12c, then you must perform a manual installation of Database Vault.

Registering Oracle Database Vault with an Oracle Database in a Multitenant Environment

You can register Oracle Database Vault in a multitenant environment based on several scenarios.

About Registering Database Vault in a Multitenant Environment

In a multitenant environment, you must register Oracle Database Vault in the CDB root before you can register Database Vault in any of the associated PDBs.

The common users who have been assigned the DV_OWNER and DV_ACCTMGR roles in the CDB root can also have the same role in the PDBs. PDBs can have Database Vault registered using the same common users or use separate PDB local users. The DV_ACCTMGR role is granted commonly to the common user in the CDB root. You can grant DV_OWNER locally or commonly to the CDB root common user when you register Database Vault with the CDB root. Granting DV_OWNER locally to the common user prevents the common DV_OWNER user from using this role in any PDB.

Registering Database Vault in the CDB Root

In a multitenant environment, you register Oracle Database Vault with common users who will use the Database Vault-enforced roles in the CDB root.

  1. In a multitenant environment, log into the root of the database instance as a user who has privileges to create users and grant the CREATE SESSION and SET CONTAINER privileges.

    For example:

    sqlplus c##dba_debra
    Enter password: password
    
  2. Select user accounts (or create new users) that will be used for the Database Vault Owner (DV_OWNER role) and Database Vault Account Manager (DV_ACCTMGR role) accounts.

    Oracle strongly recommends that you maintain two accounts for each role. One account, the primary named user account, will be used on a day-to-day basis and the other account will be used as a backup account in case the password of the primary account is lost and must be reset.

    Prepend the names of these accounts with c## or C##. For example:

    GRANT CREATE SESSION, SET CONTAINER TO c##sec_admin_owen IDENTIFIED BY password CONTAINER = ALL;
    GRANT CREATE SESSION, SET CONTAINER TO c##dbv_owner_root_backup IDENTIFIED BY password CONTAINER = ALL;
    GRANT CREATE SESSION, SET CONTAINER TO c##accts_admin_ace IDENTIFIED BY password CONTAINER = ALL;
    GRANT CREATE SESSION, SET CONTAINER TO c##dbv_acctmgr_root_backup IDENTIFIED BY password CONTAINER = ALL;
    

    In this specification:

    • Create the primary accounts (c##sec_admin_owen and c##accts_admin_ace) if these do not already exist for the new roles, DV_ADMIN and DV_ACCTMGR.
    • Replace password with a password that is secure.
  3. Connect to the root as user SYS with the SYSDBA administrative privilege
    CONNECT SYS AS SYSDBA
    Enter password: password
    
  4. Configure the two backup Database Vault user accounts.
    For example:
    BEGIN
     CONFIGURE_DV (
       dvowner_uname         => 'c##dbv_owner_root_backup',
       dvacctmgr_uname       => 'c##dbv_acctmgr_root_backup',
       force_local_dvowner   => FALSE);
     END;
    /
    
    In this example, setting force_local_dvowner to FALSE enables the common users to have DV_OWNER privileges for the PDBs that are associated with this CDB root. Setting it to TRUE restricts the common DV_OWNER user to have the DV_OWNER role privileges for the CDB root only. If you grant DV_OWNER locally to the CDB root common user, then that user cannot grant the DV_OWNER role commonly to any other user.
  5. Run the utlrp.sql script to recompile invalidated objects in the root.
    @?/rdbms/admin/utlrp.sql
    

    If the script provides instructions, follow them, and then run the script again. If the script terminates abnormally without giving any instructions, then run it again.

  6. Connect to the root as the primary Database Vault Owner user that you just configured.

    For example:

    CONNECT c##dbv_owner_root_backup
    Enter password: password
    
  7. Enable Oracle Database Vault using one of the following commands:
    • To enable Oracle Database Vault to use regular mode:

      EXEC DBMS_MACADM.ENABLE_DV;
    • If every associated PDB will need to have Database Vault enabled in this database, then use the following command. (You will need to enable each of these PDBs after you complete this procedure.) PDBs that do not have Database Vault enabled will be in restricted mode after the database is restarted and until Database Vault is enabled in the PDB:

      EXEC DBMS_MACADM.ENABLE_DV (strict_mode => 'y');
  8. Connect with the SYSDBA administrative privilege.
    CONNECT / AS SYSDBA
    
  9. Restart the database.
    SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE
    STARTUP
    
  10. Verify that Oracle Database Vault and Oracle Label Security are installed and enabled.
    SELECT * FROM DBA_DV_STATUS;
    SELECT * FROM DBA_OLS_STATUS;
    
  11. Connect as the backup DV_OWNER user and then grant the DV_OWNER role to the primary DV_OWNER user that you created earlier.

    For example:

    CONNECT c##dbv_owner_root_backup
    Enter password: password
    
    GRANT DV_OWNER TO c##sec_admin_owen WITH ADMIN OPTION;
    
  12. Connect as the backup DV_ACCTMGR user and then grant the DV_ACCTMGR role to the backup DV_ACCTMGR user.

    For example:

    CONNECT c##dbv_acctmgr_root_backup
    Enter password: password
    
    GRANT DV_ACCTMGR TO c##accts_admin_ace WITH ADMIN OPTION;
  13. Store the two backup account passwords in a safe location such as a privileged account management (PAM) system in case they are needed in the future.

Registering Database Vault Common Users to Manage Specific PDBs

In a multitenant environment, you must register Oracle Database Vault in the root first, then in the PDBs afterward.

If you try to register in a PDB first, then an ORA-47503: Database Vault is not enabled on CDB$ROOT error appears.
  1. If you have not already done so, then identify or create named common user accounts to be used as the Database Vault accounts along with associated backup accounts.
  2. Ensure that you have registered Oracle Database Vault in the CDB root and that the DV_OWNER role was granted commonly to the common user.
  3. Connect to the PDB as an administrator who is local to the PDB.
    For example:
    CONNECT dba_debra@pdb_name
    Enter password: password
    

    To find the available PDBs, query the DBA_PDBS data dictionary view. To check the current PDB, run the show con_name command.

  4. Grant the CREATE SESSION and SET CONTAINER privileges to the users for this PDB.
    For example:
    GRANT CREATE SESSION, SET CONTAINER TO c##sec_admin_owen CONTAINER = CURRENT;
    GRANT CREATE SESSION, SET CONTAINER TO c##accts_admin_ace CONTAINER = CURRENT;
    
  5. Connect as user SYS with the SYSDBA administrative privilege
    CONNECT SYS@pdb_name AS SYSDBA
    Enter password: password
    
  6. While still in the PDB, configure the two backup Database Vault user accounts.
    BEGIN
     CONFIGURE_DV (
       dvowner_uname         => 'c##dbv_owner_root_backup',
       dvacctmgr_uname       => 'c##dbv_acctmgr_root_backup');
     END;
    /
    

    In this example, the force_local_dvowner parameter is omitted because it is unnecessary. All common users who are configured within a PDB are restricted to the scope of the PDB.

  7. Run the utlrp.sql script to recompile invalidated objects in this PDB.
    @?/rdbms/admin/utlrp.sql
    

    If the script provides instructions, follow them, and then run the script again. If the script terminates abnormally without giving any instructions, then run it again.

  8. Connect to the PDB as the backup Database Vault Owner user that you just configured.
    For example:
    CONNECT c##dbv_owner_root_backup@pdb_name
    Enter password: password
    
  9. Enable Oracle Database Vault in this PDB.
    EXEC DBMS_MACADM.ENABLE_DV;
    
  10. Connect to the CDB with the SYSDBA administrative privilege.
    CONNECT / AS SYSDBA
    
  11. Close and reopen the PDB.
    For example:
    ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE pdb_name CLOSE IMMEDIATE;
    ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE pdb_name OPEN;
  12. Verify that the PDB is configured and enabled for Database Vault.
    SELECT * FROM DBA_DV_STATUS;
  13. Connect as the backup DV_OWNER user and then grant the DV_OWNER role to the primary DV_OWNER user that you created earlier.

    For example:

    CONNECT c##dbv_owner_root_backup@pdb_name
    Enter password: password
    
    GRANT DV_OWNER TO c##sec_admin_owen WITH ADMIN OPTION;
    
  14. Connect as the backup DV_ACCTMGR user and then grant the DV_ACCTMGR role to the primary DV_ACCTMGR user.

    For example:

    CONNECT c##dbv_acctmgr_root_backup@pdb_name
    Enter password: password
    
    GRANT DV_ACCTMGR TO c##accts_admin_ace WITH ADMIN OPTION;
  15. Store the two backup account passwords in a safe location such as a privileged account management (PAM) system in case they are needed in the future.

Plugging in a Database Vault-Enabled PDB

From SQL*Plus, in a multitenant environment, you can plug in a database that already has Database Vault enabled.

In this scenario, the plugged in database has its own local Database Vault accounts. Be aware that if you plug a Database Vault-enabled database into a CDB that is not Database Vault enabled, then the PDB will remain in restricted mode until you enable Database Vault in the CDB and then restart the CDB. If you plug a non-Database Vault-enabled PDB into a CDB that is Database Vault enabled, then the PDB remains in restricted mode until you enable Database Vault in the PDB and then restart the PDB. This plugged in non-Database Vault enabled PDB can still be used. However, if the CDB is Database Vault enabled with the strict option set, then the PDB must be Database Vault enabled.

Before you plug in a Database Vault-enabled PDB and if the Database Vault roles are granted to common users, ensure that you understand fully how plugging in PDBs affect common users.

Manually Installing Oracle Database Vault in a Multitenant Environment

Under certain conditions, for a multitenant environment, you must manually install Oracle Database Vault.

For example, you must manually install Oracle Database Vault if a release 11g Oracle database without Database Vault is upgraded to release 12c, then converted to a PDB to be plugged into a 12c Database Vault-enabled database. In addition, you must manually install Oracle Database Vault (and Oracle Label Security) in a PDB if this PDB does not have these products when the PDB has been plugged into a CDB where Database Vault and Label Security are installed.
  1. As user who has been granted the SYSDBA administrative privilege, log in to the PDB in which you want to install Oracle Database Vault.

    For example, to log in to a PDB named hr_pdb:

    sqlplus sec_admin@hr_pdb as sysdba
    Enter password: password

    To find the available PDBs, run the show pdbs command. To check the current PDB, run the show con_name command.

  2. If necessary, check if Oracle Database Vault and Oracle Label Security are already installed on this PDB.
    If the DVSYS account (for Database Vault) and the LBACSYS account (for Label Security) exist, then Database Vault and Label Security exist on the PDB.
    SELECT USERNAME FROM DBA_USERS WHERE USERNAME IN ('DVSYS', 'LBACSYS');
  3. If neither Database Vault nor Label Security have been installed, then install Oracle Label Security by executing the catols.sql script.
    @$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/catols.sql

    Oracle Label Security must be installed before you can install Oracle Database Vault.

  4. Install Oracle Database Vault by executing the catmac.sql script.
    @$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/catmac.sql
  5. At the Enter value for 1 prompt, enter SYSTEM as the tablespace to install DVSYS.
  6. At the Enter value for 2 prompt, enter the temporary tablespace for the PDB.
After the installation is complete, you can register Oracle Database Vault in the PDB. If Database Vault is not registered in the CDB already, you must close the PDB before you can register Database Vault in the CDB root. Database Vault must be registered in CDB root before it can be registered in the PDB. After Database Vault is registered in the CDB root and the database has been restarted, then you can open the PDB and register Database Vault.

Registering Database Vault in a Non-Multitenant Environment

You can register Oracle Database Vault from SQL*Plus in a non-multitenant environment.

  1. Log into the database instance as a user who has privileges to create user accounts and grant the CREATE SESSION privilege to other users.

    For example:

    sqlplus sec_admin
    Enter password: password
    
  2. Identify (or create new named user accounts if necessary) named user accounts to be used for the Database Vault Owner (DV_OWNER role) and Database Vault Account Manager (DV_ACCTMGR role) accounts.

    Oracle strongly recommends that you create two accounts for each role. One account, the primary named user account, will be used on a day-to-day basis and the other account will be used as a backup account in case the password of the primary account is lost and must be reset.

    For example:

    GRANT CREATE SESSION TO sec_admin_owen IDENTIFIED BY password;
    GRANT CREATE SESSION TO dbv_owner_backup IDENTIFIED BY password;
    GRANT CREATE SESSION TO accts_admin_ace IDENTIFIED BY password;
    GRANT CREATE SESSION TO dbv_acctmgr_backup IDENTIFIED BY password;

    Follow the guidelines in Oracle Database Security Guide to replace password with a password that is secure.

  3. Connect with the SYSDBA administrative privilege.
    CONNECT / AS SYSDBA
    Enter password: password
    
  4. Configure Database Vault using the two backup user accounts.
    BEGIN
     CONFIGURE_DV (
       dvowner_uname         => 'dbv_owner_backup',
       dvacctmgr_uname       => 'dbv_acctmgr_backup');
     END;
    /
    

    Do not enter the names DV_OWNER, DV_ACCTMGR, or the names of any other Database Vault roles for these user accounts.

  5. Run the utlrp.sql script to recompile invalidated objects.
    @?/rdbms/admin/utlrp.sql
    

    If the script gives you any instructions, follow them, and then run the script again. If the script terminates abnormally without giving any instructions, run it again.

  6. Connect as the backup Database Vault Owner user that you just configured.

    For example:

    CONNECT dbv_owner_backup
    Enter password: password
    
  7. Enable Oracle Database Vault.
    EXEC DBMS_MACADM.ENABLE_DV;
    
  8. Connect with the SYSDBA administrative privilege.
    CONNECT / AS SYSDBA
    
  9. Restart the database.
    SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE
    STARTUP
    
  10. Connect as the backup DV_OWNER user and then grant the DV_OWNER role to the primary DV_OWNER user that you created earlier.

    For example:

    CONNECT dbv_owner_backup
    Enter password: password
    
    GRANT DV_OWNER TO sec_admin_owen WITH ADMIN OPTION;
    
  11. Connect as the backup DV_ACCTMGR user and then grant the DV_ACCTMGR role to the primary DV_ACCTMGR user.

    For example:

    CONNECT dbv_acctmgr_backup
    Enter password: password
    
    GRANT DV_ACCTMGR TO accts_admin_ace WITH ADMIN OPTION;
  12. Verify that the configuration was successful.
    CONNECT / AS SYSDBA
    
    SELECT * FROM DBA_DV_STATUS;
    SELECT * FROM DBA_OLS_STATUS; 
    
  13. Store the two backup account passwords in a safe location such as a privileged account management (PAM) system in case they are needed in the future.

Verifying That Database Vault Is Configured and Enabled

The DBA_DV_STATUS, CDB_DV_STATUS, DBA_OLS_STATUS, and CDB_OLS_STATUS data dictionary views verify if Oracle Database is configured and enabled.

In addition to Oracle Database Vault administrators, the Oracle Database SYS user and users who have been granted the DBA role can query these views.
  • For Database Vault:

    • If you want to find the Database Vault status for a non-multitenant database, or in a multitenant environment for the root only or an individual PDB, then depending on who you are connected to the database as, query the DBA_DV_STATUS or SYS.DBA_DV_STATUS view. Examples are as follows:

      • If you are connected as a user who has the DBA role or the SYSDBA administrative privilege:
        SELECT * FROM DBA_DV_STATUS;
      • If you are connected as a user who has the DV_OWNER or DV_ADMIN role:
        SELECT * FROM SYS.DBA_DV_STATUS;

      Output similar to the following appears:

      NAME                 STATUS
      -------------------- -----------
      DV_CONFIGURE_STATUS  TRUE
      DV_ENABLE_STATUS     TRUE
    • If you want to find the Database Vault status of all PDBs in a multitenant environment, as a common user with administrative privileges, then query CDB_DV_STATUS, which provides the addition of a container ID (CON_ID) field.

  • For Oracle Label Security, query the following data dictionary views, which are similar to their Database Vault equivalent views:

    • DBA_OLS_STATUS

    • CDB_OLS_STATUS

Logging in to Oracle Database Vault from Oracle Enterprise Cloud Control

Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control (Cloud Control) provides pages for managing Oracle Database Vault.

The Oracle Database Vault pages can be used to administer and monitor Database Vault-protected databases from a centralized console. This console enables you to automate alerts, view Database Vault reports, and propagate Database Vault policies to other Database Vault-protected databases.
Before you try to log in, ensure that you have configured the Cloud Control target databases that you plan to use with Database Vault by following the Oracle Enterprise Manager online help. Oracle Database Vault must also be registered with the Oracle database.
  1. Start Cloud Control.

    For example:

    https://myserver.example.com:7799/em
    
  2. Log in to Cloud Control as a security administrator.
  3. In the Cloud Control home page, from the Targets menu, select Databases.
  4. In the Databases page, select the link for the Oracle Database Vault-protected database to which you want to connect.

    The Database home page appears.

  5. From the Security menu, select Database Vault.

    The Database Login page appears.

  6. Enter the following information:
    • Username: Enter the name of a user who has been granted the appropriate Oracle Database Vault role:

      • Creating and propagating Database Vault policies: DV_OWNER or DV_ADMIN role, SELECT ANY DICTIONARY privilege

      • Viewing Database Vault alerts and reports: DV_OWNER, DV_ADMIN, or DV_SECANALYST role, SELECT ANY DICTIONARY privilege

    • Password: Enter your password.

    • Role: Select NORMAL from the list.

    • Save as: Select this check box if you want these credentials to be automatically filled in for you the next time that this page appears. The credentials are stored in Enterprise Manager in a secured manner. Access to these credentials depends on the user who is currently logged in.

    The Database Vault home page appears.


    Description of em_dv_home_page.png follows
    Description of the illustration em_dv_home_page.png

Quick Start Tutorial: Securing a Schema from DBA Access

This tutorial shows how to create a realm around the HR schema.

About This Tutorial

In this tutorial, you create a realm around for the HR sample database schema by using the Oracle Database Vault PL/SQL packages.

In the HR schema, the EMPLOYEES table has information such as salaries that should be hidden from most employees in the company, including those with administrative access. To accomplish this, you add the HR schema to the secured objects of the protection zone, which in Oracle Database Vault is called a realm, inside the database. Then you grant limited authorizations to this realm. Afterward, you test the realm to make sure it has been properly secured. And finally, to see how Oracle Database Vault provides an audit trail on suspicious activities like the one you will try when you test the realm, you will run a report.

Step 1: Log On as SYSTEM to Access the HR Schema

You must enable the HR schema for this tutorial.

Before you begin this tutorial, ensure that the HR sample schema is installed. Oracle Database Sample Schemas describes how to install the sample schemas.
  1. Log into the database instance as a user who has been granted the DBA role, and then access the HR schema.

    For example:

    sqlplus system
    Enter password: password
    
  2. In a multitenant environment, connect to the appropriate PDB.

    For example:

    CONNECT SYSTEM@my_pdb
    Enter password: password
    

    To find the available PDBs, run the show pdbs command. To check the current PDB, run the show con_name command.

  3. Query the HR.EMPLOYEES table as follows.
    SELECT FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME, SALARY FROM HR.EMPLOYEES WHERE ROWNUM < 10;
    

    Output similar to the following appears:

    FIRST_NAME           LAST_NAME                     SALARY
    -------------------- ------------------------- ----------
    Steven               King                           24000
    Neena                Kochhar                        17000
    Lex                  De Haan                        17000
    Alexander            Hunold                          9000
    Bruce                Ernst                           6000
    David                Austin                          4800
    Valli                Pataballa                       4800
    Diana                Lorentz                         4200
    Nancy                Greenberg                      12008
    
    9 rows selected.
    
  4. If the HR schema is locked and expired, log into the database instance as the DV_ACCTMGR user and unlock and unexpire the account. For example:
    sqlplus bea_dvacctmgr -- For a multitenant environment, sqlplus bea_dvacctmgr@hrpdb
    Enter password: password
    
    ALTER USER HR ACCOUNT UNLOCK IDENTIFIED BY password
    

    Follow the guidelines in Oracle Database Security Guide to replace password with a password that is secure.

    As you can see, SYSTEM has access to the salary information in the EMPLOYEES table of the HR schema. This is because SYSTEM is automatically granted the DBA role, which includes the SELECT ANY TABLE system privilege.

  5. Do not exit SQL*Plus.

Step 2: Create a Realm

Realms can protect one or more schemas, individual schema objects, and database roles.

Once you create a realm, you can create security restrictions that apply to the schemas and their schema objects within the realm. You will need to create a realm for the HR schema.
  1. Log in to Oracle Database Vault Administrator from Cloud Control as a user who has been granted the DV_OWNER or DV_ADMIN role and the SELECT ANY DICTIONARY privilege. Logging in to Oracle Database Vault from Oracle Enterprise Cloud Control explains how to log in.
  2. In the Administration page, under Database Vault Components, click Realms.
  3. In the Realms page of Oracle Database Vault Administrator, click Create.
  4. In the Create Realm page, under General, enter HR Apps after Name.
  5. In the Description field, enter Realm to protect the HR schema.
  6. Leave the Mandatory Realm check box unchecked.
  7. After Status, ensure that Enabled is selected so that the realm can be used.
  8. Under Audit Options, ensure that Audit On Failure is selected so that you can create an audit trial later on.
  9. Click Next to display the Realm secured objects page.
  10. Click the Add button and in the Add Secured Object dialog box, enter the following information:
    • Owner: Enter HR to select the HR schema.

    • Object Type: Enter TABLE.

    • Object Name: Enter EMPLOYEES.

  11. Click OK.

    The HR.EMPLOYEES table is added to the Create Realm : Realm Secured Objects page.

  12. Click Done, and then click Finish.

At this stage, you have created the realm but you have not assigned any authorizations to it. You will take care of that later on in this tutorial.

Step 3: Create the SEBASTIAN User Account

At this stage, there are no database accounts or roles authorized to access or otherwise manipulate the database objects the realm will protect.

So, the next step is to authorize database accounts or database roles so that they can have access to the schemas within the realm. You will create the SEBASTIAN user account.

  1. In SQL*Plus, connect as the Database Vault Account Manager, who has the DV_ACCTMGR role, and create the local user SEBASTIAN.

    For example:

    CONNECT bea_dvacctmgr -- Or, CONNECT bea_dvacctmgr@hrpdb
    Enter password: password
    
    GRANT CREATE SESSION TO SEBASTIAN IDENTIFIED BY password;
    

    Replace password with a password that is secure. See Oracle Database Security Guide for the minimum requirements for creating passwords.

  2. Connect as SYS with the SYSDBA privilege, and then grant SEBASTIAN the following additional privilege.
    CONNECT SYS AS SYSDBA -- Or, CONNECT SYS@hrpdb AS SYSDBA
    Enter password: password
    
    GRANT READ ANY TABLE TO SEBASTIAN;
    

Do not exit SQL*Plus; you will need it for Step 6: Test the Realm, when you test the realm.

Step 4: Have User SEBASTIAN Test the Realm

At this stage, have user SEBASTIAN test the realm, even though he has the READ ANY TABLE system privilege.

  1. Connect as user SEBASTIAN.
    CONNECT sebastian
    Enter password: password
  2. Query the HR.EMPLOYEES table.
    SELECT COUNT(*) FROM HR.EMPLOYEES;

    The following output should appear:

    ERROR at line 1:
    ORA-01031: insufficient privileges
    
Even though user SEBASTIAN has the READ ANY TABLE system privilege, he cannot query the HR.EMPLOYEES table, because the HR Apps realm takes precedence over the READ ANY TABLE system privilege.

Step 5: Create an Authorization for the Realm

Next, user SEBASTIAN must be granted authorization to the HR Apps realm, so that he can access the HR.EMPLOYEES table.

  1. In the Realms page of Database Vault Administrator, select the HR Apps in the list of realms, and then click Edit.
  2. Click the Next button until you reach the Realm authorizations page.
  3. Click Add and then enter the following information in the Add Authorizations dialog box:
    • Realm Authorization Grantee: Enter SEBASTIAN.

    • Realm Authorization Type: Select Participant from the list.

    • Realm Authorization Ruleset: Leave this field blank.

  4. Click OK.

    The Participant authorization allows the user SEBASTIAN in the HR Apps realm to manage access, manipulate, and create objects protected by the HR Apps realm. In this case, the HR user and SEBASTIAN are the only users allowed to view the EMPLOYEES table.

  5. Click Done, and then Finish.

Step 6: Test the Realm

To test the realm, you must try to access the EMPLOYEES table as a user other than HR.

The SYSTEM account normally has access to all objects in the HR schema, but now that you have safeguarded the EMPLOYEES table with Oracle Database Vault, this is no longer the case.

  1. In SQL*Plus, connect as SYSTEM.

    CONNECT SYSTEM -- Or, CONNECT SYSTEM@hrpdb
    Enter password: password
    
  2. Try accessing the salary information in the EMPLOYEES table again:

    SELECT FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME, SALARY FROM HR.EMPLOYEES WHERE ROWNUM <10;
    

    The following output should appear:

    Error at line 1:
    ORA-01031: insufficient privileges
    

    SYSTEM no longer has access to the salary information in the EMPLOYEES table. (In fact, even user SYS does not have access to this table.) However, user SEBASTIAN does have access to this information.

  3. Connect as user SEBASTIAN.

    CONNECT sebastian -- Or, CONNECT sebastian@hrpdb
    Enter password: password
    
  4. Perform the following query:

    SELECT FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME, SALARY FROM HR.EMPLOYEES WHERE ROWNUM <10;
    

    Output similar to the following appears:

    FIRST_NAME           LAST_NAME                     SALARY
    -------------------- ------------------------- ----------
    Steven               King                           24000
    Neena                Kochhar                        17000
    Lex                  De Haan                        17000
    Alexander            Hunold                          9000
    Bruce                Ernst                           6000
    David                Austin                          4800
    Valli                Pataballa                       4800
    Diana                Lorentz                         4200
    Nancy                Greenberg                      12008
    
    9 rows selected.

Step 7: If Unified Auditing Is Not Enabled, Then Run a Report

Because you enabled auditing on failure for the HR Apps realm, you can generate a report to find any security violations.

For example, you could generate a report for the violation that you attempted in Step 6: Test the Realm.

  1. In SQL*Plus, connect as user SYSTEM and ensure that unified auditing is not enabled.
    CONNECT SYSTEM -- Or, CONNECT SYSTEM@hrpdb
    Enter password: password
    
    SQL> SELECT VALUE FROM V$OPTION WHERE PARAMETER = 'Unified Auditing';
    

    If VALUE returns TRUE, then you cannot complete this section. Go to Step 8: Remove the Components for This Tutorial.

    If unified auditing is enabled, then you must create a unified audit policy to capture events. See Oracle Database Security Guide for information about how to create unified audit policies for Oracle Database Vault.

  2. In the Database Vault Administrator page, click Home to display the home page.
  3. In the Database Vault Home page, under Reports, select Database Vault Reports.
  4. In the Database Vault Reports page, select Database Vault Enforcement Audit Report.
  5. From the Database Vault Audit Report list, select Realm Audit Report.
  6. In the Search area, from the Command menu, select Equals and in the text field, enter SELECT. Then click Search.

    The report appears in the table that follows the Search region.

  7. Click OK to exit the report.

Oracle Database Vault generates a report listing the type of violation (in this case, the SELECT statement entered in the previous section), when and where it occurred, the login account who tried the violation, and what the violation was.

Step 8: Remove the Components for This Tutorial

You can remove the components that you created for this tutorial if you no longer need them.

  1. Drop user SEBASTIAN.

    In SQL*Plus, log on as the Oracle Database Vault account manager (for example, bea_dvacctmgr) and then drop SEBASTIAN as follows:

    sqlplus bea_dvacctmgr -- Or, CONNECT bea_dvacctmgr@hrpdb
    Enter password: password
    
    DROP USER SEBASTIAN;
    
  2. Delete the HR Apps realm.

    1. In Cloud Control, ensure that you are logged in as a user who has the DV_OWNER role.

    2. In the Database Vault Home page, click Administration.

    3. In the Realms page, select HR Apps from the list of realms.

    4. Click Delete, and in the Confirmation window, click Yes.

  3. If necessary, in SQL*Plus, lock and expire the HR account.

    ALTER USER HR ACCOUNT LOCK PASSWORD EXPIRE;