4 Managing the Keystore and the Master Encryption Key

You can modify settings for the keystore and TDE master encryption key, and store Oracle Database and store Oracle GoldenGate secrets in a keystore.

Managing the Keystore

You can perform maintenance activities on keystores such as changing passwords, and backing up, merging, and moving keystores.

Performing Operations That Require a Keystore Password

Many ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT operations require access to a keystore password, for both software and hardware keystores.

In some cases, a software keystore depends on an auto-login keystore before the operation can succeed. Auto-login keystores open automatically when they are configured and a key is requested. They are generally used for operations where the keystore could be closed but a database operation needs a key (for example, after the database is restarted). Because the auto-login keystore opens automatically, it can be retrieved to perform a database operation without manual intervention. However, some keystore operations that require the keystore password cannot be performed when the auto-login keystore is open. The auto-login keystore must be closed and the password-protected keystore must be opened for the keystore operations that require a password.

In a multitenant environment, the re-opening of keystores affects other PDBs. For example, an auto-login keystore in the root must be accessible by the PDBs in the CDB for this root.

You can temporarily open the keystore by including the FORCE KEYSTORE clause in the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement when you perform the following operations: rotating a keystore password; creating, using, rekeying, tagging, importing, exporting, migrating, or reverse migrating encryption keys; opening or backing up keystores; adding, updating, or deleting secret keystores. In a multitenant environment, if no keystore is open in the root, then FORCE KEYSTORE opens the password-protected keystore in the root.

Changing the Password of a Software Keystore

Oracle Database enables you to easily change password-protected software keystore passwords.

About Changing the Password of a Password-Protected Software Keystore

You can only change the password for protected-protected software keystores.

You can change this password at any time, as per the security policies, compliance guidelines, and other security requirements of your site. As part of the command to change the password, you will be forced to specify the WITH BACKUP clause, and thus forced to make a backup of the current keystore. During the password change operation, Transparent Data Encryption operations such as encryption and decryption will continue to work normally.

You can change this password at any time. You may want to change this password if you think it was compromised.

Changing the Password-Protected Software Keystore Password

To change the password of a password-protected software keystore, you must use the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement.

  1. Log in to the database instance as a user who has been granted the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT or SYSKM privilege.

    For example:

    sqlplus sec_admin as syskm
    Enter password: password
    Connected.
    
  2. Change the password of the password-protected software keystore by using the following syntax:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT ALTER KEYSTORE PASSWORD 
    [FORCE KEYSTORE] 
    IDENTIFIED BY
    old_password SET new_password 
    [WITH BACKUP [USING 'backup_identifier']];
    

    In this specification:

    • FORCE KEYSTORE temporarily opens the password-protected keystore for this operation. You must open the keystore for this operation.

    • old_password is the current keystore password that you want to change.

    • new_password is the new password that you will set for the keystore.

    • WITH BACKUP creates a backup of the current keystore before the password is changed. You must include this clause.

    • backup_identifier specifies an optional identifier string for the backup that is created. The backup_identifier is added to the name of the backup file. Enclose backup_identifier in single quotation marks (' '). This identifier is appended to the named keystore file (for example, ewallet_time_stamp_emp_key_pwd_change.p12).

    The following example backs up the current keystore and then changes the password for the keystore:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT ALTER KEYSTORE PASSWORD 
    FORCE KEYSTORE
    IDENTIFIED BY
    old_password SET new_password 
    WITH BACKUP USING 'pwd_change';
    
    keystore altered.

Changing the Password of a Hardware Keystore

To change the password of a hardware keystore, you must use the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement.

  1. Log in to the database instance as a user who has been granted the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT or SYSKM privilege.

    For example:

    sqlplus sec_admin as syskm
    Enter password: password
    Connected.
    
  2. Close the hardware keystore.

    For example, for an HSM:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SET KEYSTORE CLOSE 
    IDENTIFIED BY "psmith:password";
    

    For a keystore whose password is stored externally:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SET KEYSTORE CLOSE 
    IDENTIFIED BY EXTERNAL STORE;
  3. From the hardware security module management interface, create a new hardware security module password.

  4. In SQL*Plus, open the hardware keystore.

    For example:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SET KEYSTORE OPEN 
    IDENTIFIED BY "psmith:new_password";
    
    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SET KEYSTORE OPEN 
    IDENTIFIED BY EXTERNAL STORE;

Configuring an External Store for a Keystore Password

An external store for a keystore password stores the keystore password in a centrally accessed and managed location.

About Configuring an External Store for a Keystore Password

An external store for a keystore password allows you to easily remove that keystore password from the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT command line, implementing separation of duties between database administrators and key administrators. It is also useful for situations in which you use automated tools to perform Transparent Data Encryption operations that require a password, when the scripts that run the automated tools include hard-coded password. To avoid hard-coding the password in a script, you can store this password in an external store on the database server. In a multitenant environment, different PDBs can make use of the external store.

Configuring the Keystore Password External Store by Setting WALLET_ROOT

The preferred approach to configuring the external store for the keystore password is the set the WALLET_ROOT parameter.

  1. Connect to the united mode CDB root or isolated mode PDB as a user who has been granted the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT or SYSKM privilege and who has the ALTER SYSTEM system privilege.

    For example:

    CONNECT c##sec_admin AS SYSKM (or CONNECT sec_admin@pdb_name AS SYSKM)
    Enter password: password
  2. Set the external keystore credential location by running the ALTER SYSTEM statement for the EXTERNAL_KEYSTORE_CREDENTIAL_LOCATION parameter.
    If you had set the WALLET_ROOT and TDE_CONFIGURATION parameters, then the external keystore credential location becomes WALLET_ROOT/tde_seps. In that case, You do not need to set the EXTERNAL_KEYSTORE_CREDENTIAL_LOCATION parameter.

    For example:

    ALTER SYSTEM SET EXTERNAL_KEYSTORE_CREDENTIAL_LOCATION = "/etc/ORACLE/WALLETS/orcl/external_store" SCOPE = SPFILE;
  3. Create an auto-login keystore that contains the keystore password, by including the ADD SECRET clause to the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement.

    For example:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT ADD SECRET 'password'  
    FOR CLIENT 'TDE_WALLET' 
    TO LOCAL AUTO_LOGIN KEYSTORE '/etc/ORACLE/WALLETS/orcl/external_store';

    In this example:

    • Enter 'TDE_WALLET', in capital letters and enclosed in single quotation marks, for the client_identifier value set by the FOR CLIENT clause. TDE_WALLET is for a keystore that is configured as FILE. Alternatively, you can enter OKV_PASSWORD for an Oracle Key Vault HSM, or HSM_PASSWORD for a third-party password. This is a fixed value and must be entered as shown here for this application of the ADD SECRET clause. If you do not enter this value, then TDE will be unable to find this secret, and attempts to use the IDENTIFIED BY EXTERNAL STORE setting will generate an ORA-00988: missing or invalid password(s) error message.
    • LOCAL in the TO LOCAL AUTO_LOGIN KEYSTORE clause is optional, but cannot be used if the wallet is shared between Oracle RAC instances.

    In this example,

  4. Restart the database (for the CDB root) or close and re-open the PDB.

    To restart from the CDB root:

    SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE
    STARTUP

    To close and re-open a PDB:

    ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE pdb_name CLOSE IMMEDIATE;
    ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE pdb_name OPEN;
Configuring the Keystore Password External Store by Editing sqlnet.ora

As an alternative to setting the WALLET_ROOT parameter, you can edit the sqlnet.ora file to configure the external password store for the keystore password.

  • To set the external keystore credential location, edit the init.ora file for the database instance.
    For example:
    EXTERNAL_KEYSTORE_CREDENTIAL_LOCATION = "/etc/ORACLE/WALLETS/orcl/external_store"

    By default, the init.ora file is located in the ORACLE_HOME/dbs directory or in the location set by the TNS_ADMIN environment variable.

When to Use the EXTERNAL STORE Clause After Configuration

After you configure the external store for a keystore password, you can use the EXTERNAL_STORE clause in the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement.

You must use the EXTERNAL STORE clause in the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement for the following operations: opening, closing, backing up the keystore; adding, updating, or deleting a secret keystore; creating, using, rekeying, tagging, importing, exporting encryption keys.

For example:

ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SET KEYSTORE OPEN 
IDENTIFIED BY EXTERNAL STORE;

You can change or delete external keystore passwords by using the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT UPDATE CLIENT SECRET statement or the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT DELETE CLIENT SECRET statement.

Backing Up Password-Protected Software Keystores

When you back up a password-protected software keystore, you can create a backup identifier string to describe the backup type.

About Backing Up Password-Protected Software Keystores

You must back up password-protected software keystores, as per the security policy and requirements of your site.

A backup of the keystore contains all of the keys contained in the original keystore. Oracle Database prefixes the backup keystore with the creation time stamp (UTC). If you provide an identifier string, then this string is inserted between the time stamp and keystore name.

After you complete the backup operation, the keys in the original keystore are marked as "backed up". You can check the status of keys querying the V$ENCRYPTION_WALLET data dictionary view.

You cannot back up auto-login or local auto-login software keystores. No new keys can be added to them directly through the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement operations. The information in these keystores is only read and hence there is no need for a backup.

You must include the WITH BACKUP clause in any ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement that changes the wallet (for example, changing the wallet password, or setting the master encryption key).

Creating a Backup Identifier String for the Backup Keystore

The backup file name of a software password keystore is derived from the name of the password-protected software keystore.

  • To create a backup identifier string for a backup keystore, use the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SQL statement with the BACKUP KEYSTORE clause, with the following syntax:
    ewallet_creation-time-stamp-in-UTC_user-defined-string.p12
    

    When you create the backup identifier (user_defined_string), use the operating system file naming convention. For example, in UNIX systems, you may want to ensure that this setting does not have spaces.

    The following example shows the creation of a backup keystore that uses a user-identified string, and how the resultant keystore appears in the file system. This example includes the FORCE KEYSTORE clause in the event the auto-login keystore is in use or the keystore is closed.

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT BACKUP KEYSTORE USING 'Monthly-backup-2013-04' 
    FORCE KEYSTORE 
    IDENTIFIED BY keystore_password;
    

    This version is for a scenario in which the password is stored in an external store:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT BACKUP KEYSTORE USING 'Monthly-backup-2013-04' 
    FORCE KEYSTORE 
    IDENTIFIED BY EXTERNAL STORE;

    Resultant keystore file:

    ewallet_2013041513244657_Monthly-backup-2013-04.p12
Backing Up a Password-Protected Software Keystore

The BACKUP KEYSTORE clause of the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement backs up a password-protected software keystore.

  • Back up the keystore by using the following syntax:
    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT BACKUP KEYSTORE 
    [USING 'backup_identifier'] 
    FORCE KEYSTORE] 
    IDENTIFIED BY [EXTERNAL STORE | software_keystore_password] 
    [TO 'keystore_location'];
    

    In this specification:

    • USING backup_identifier is an optional string that you can provide to identify the backup. Enclose this identifier in single quotation marks (' '). This identifier is appended to the named keystore file (for example, ewallet_time-stamp_emp_key_backup.p12).

    • FORCE KEYSTORE temporarily opens the password-protected keystore for this operation. You must open the keystore for this operation.

    • IDENTIFIED BY can be one of the following settings:

      • EXTERNAL STORE uses the keystore password stored in the external store to perform the keystore operation.

      • software_keystore_password is the password for the keystore.

    • keystore_location is the path at which the backup keystore is stored. If you do not specify the keystore_location, then the backup is created in the same directory as the original keystore. Enclose this location in single quotation marks (' ').

    The following example backs up a software keystore into another location.

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT BACKUP KEYSTORE 
    USING 'hr.emp_keystore' 
    FORCE KEYSTORE 
    IDENTIFIED BY software_keystore_password
    TO '/etc/ORACLE/KEYSTORE/DB1/';
    
    keystore altered.
    

    In the following version, the password for the keystore is external, so the EXTERNAL STORE clause is used. The keystore is backed up into the same directory as the current keystore.

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT BACKUP KEYSTORE 
    USING 'hr.emp_keystore' 
    FORCE KEYSTORE 
    IDENTIFIED BY EXTERNAL STORE;

    After you run this statement, an ewallet_identifier.p12 file (for example, ewallet_time-stamp_hr.emp_keystore.p12) appears in the keystore location.

How the V$ENCRYPTION_WALLET View Interprets Backup Operations

The BACKUP column of the V$ENCRYPTION_WALLET view indicates a how a copy of the keystore was created.

The column indicates if a copy of the keystore had been created with the WITH BACKUP clause of the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement or the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT BACKUP KEYSTORE statement.

When you modify a key or a secret, the modifications that you make do not exist in the previously backed-up copy, because you make a copy and then modify the key itself. Because there is no copy of the modification in the previous keystores, the BACKUP column is set to NO, even if the BACKUP had been set to YES previously. Hence, if the BACKUP column is YES, then after you perform an operation that requires a backup, such as adding a custom attribute tag, the BACKUP column value changes to NO.

Backups of the Hardware Keystore

You cannot use Oracle Database to back up hardware keystores.

See your HSM vendor instructions for information about backing up keys for hardware keystores.

Merging Software Keystores

You can merge software keystores in a variety of ways.

About Merging Software Keystores

You can merge any combination of software keystores, but the merged keystore must be password-protected. It can have a password that is different from the constituent keystores.

To use the merged keystore, you must explicitly open the merged keystore after you create it, even if one of the constituent keystores was already open before the merge.

Whether a common key from two source keystores is added or overwritten to a merged keystore depends on how you write the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT merge statement. For example, if you merge Keystore 1 and Keystore 2 to create Keystore 3, then the key in Keystore 1 is added to Keystore 3. If you merge Keystore 1 into Keystore 2, then the common key in Keystore 2 is not overwritten.

The ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT merge statement has no bearing on the configured keystore that is in use. However, the merged keystore can be used as the new configured database keystore if you want. Remember that you must reopen the keystore if you are using the newly created keystore as the keystore for the database at the location configured by the WALLET_ROOT parameter.

Merging One Software Keystore into an Existing Software Keystore

You can use the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement with the MERGE KEYSTORE clause to merge one software keystore into another existing software keystore.

  • To perform this type of merge, follow the steps in Merging Two Software Keystores into a Third New Keystore but use the following SQL statement:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT MERGE KEYSTORE 'keystore1_location' 
    [IDENTIFIED BY software_keystore1_password] 
    INTO EXISTING KEYSTORE 'keystore2_location' 
    IDENTIFIED BY software_keystore2_password 
    [WITH BACKUP [USING 'backup_identifier]];
    

    In this specification:

    • keystore1_location is the directory location of the first keystore, which will be left unchanged after the merge. Enclose this path in single quotation marks (' ').

    • The IDENTIFIED BY clause is required for the first keystore if it is a password-protected keystore. software_keystore1_password is the password for the first keystore.

    • keystore2_location is the directory location of the second keystore into which the first keystore is to be merged. Enclose this path in single quotation marks (' ').

    • software_keystore2_password is the password for the second keystore.

    • WITH BACKUP creates a backup of the software keystore. Optionally, you can use the USING clause to add a brief description of the backup. Enclose this description in single quotation marks (' '). This identifier is appended to the named keystore file (for example, ewallet_time-stamp_emp_key_backup.p12, with emp_key_backup being the backup identifier). Follow the file naming conventions that your operating system uses.

The resultant keystore after the merge operation is always a password-protected keystore.

Merging Two Software Keystores into a Third New Keystore

You can merge two software keystores into a third new keystore, so that the two existing keystores are not changed.

  1. Log in to the database instance as a user who has been granted the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT or SYSKM privilege.

    For example:

    sqlplus sec_admin as syskm
    Enter password: password
    Connected.
    
  2. Merge the software keystores by using the following syntax:
    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT MERGE KEYSTORE 'keystore1_location' 
    [IDENTIFIED BY software_keystore1_password] 
    AND KEYSTORE 'keystore2_location' 
    [IDENTIFIED BY software_keystore2_password] 
    INTO NEW KEYSTORE 'keystore3_location' 
    IDENTIFIED BY software_keystore3_password;
    

    In this specification:

    • keystore1_location is the directory location of the first keystore, which will be left unchanged after the merge. Enclose this path in single quotation marks (' ').

    • The IDENTIFIED BY clause is required for the first keystore if it is a password-protected keystore. software_keystore1_password is the current password for the first keystore.

    • keystore2_location is the directory location of the second keystore. Enclose this path in single quotation marks (' ').

    • The IDENTIFIED BY clause is required for the second keystore if it is a password-protected keystore. software_keystore2_password is the current password for the second keystore.

    • keystore3_location specifies the directory location of the new, merged keystore. Enclose this path in single quotation marks (' '). If there is already an existing keystore at this location, the command exits with an error.

    • software_keystore3_password is the new password for the merged keystore.

    The following example merges an auto-login software keystore with a password-protected keystore to create a merged password-protected keystore at a new location:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT MERGE KEYSTORE '/etc/ORACLE/KEYSTORE/DB1' 
    AND KEYSTORE '/etc/ORACLE/KEYSTORE/DB2' 
    IDENTIFIED BY existing_password_for_keystore_2 
    INTO NEW KEYSTORE '/etc/ORACLE/KEYSTORE/DB3' 
    IDENTIFIED BY new_password_for_keystore_3;
    
    keystore altered.
Merging an Auto-Login Software Keystore into an Existing Password-Protected Software Keystore

You can merge an auto-login software keystore into an existing password-protected software keystore.

  • Use the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT MERGE KEYSTORE SQL statement to merge an auto-login software keystore into an existing password-protected software keystore.

Example 4-1 shows how to merge an auto-login software keystore into a password-protected software keystore. It also creates a backup of the second keystore before creating the merged keystore.

Example 4-1 Merging a Software Auto-Login Keystore into a Password Keystore

ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT MERGE KEYSTORE '/etc/ORACLE/KEYSTORE/DB1' 
INTO EXISTING KEYSTORE '/etc/ORACLE/KEYSTORE/DB2' 
IDENTIFIED BY keystore_password WITH BACKUP;

In this specification:

  • MERGE KEYSTORE must specify the auto-login keystore.

  • EXISTING KEYSTORE refers to the password keystore.

Reversing a Software Keystore Merge Operation

You cannot directly reverse a keystore merge operation.

When you merge a keystore into an existing keystore (rather than creating a new one), you must include the WITH BACKUP clause in the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement to create a backup of this existing keystore. Later on, if you decide that you must reverse the merge, you can replace the merged software keystore with the one that you backed up.

In other words, suppose you want merge Keystore A into Keystore B. By using the WITH BACKUP clause, you create a backup for Keystore B before the merge operation begins. (The original Keystore A is still intact.) To reverse the merge operation, revert to the backup that you made of Keystore B.

  • Use the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT MERGE KEYSTORE SQL statement to perform merge operations.

    • For example, to perform a merge operation into an existing keystore:

      ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT MERGE KEYSTORE '/etc/ORACLE/KEYSTORE/DB1' 
      INTO EXISTING KEYSTORE '/etc/ORACLE/KEYSTORE/DB2' 
      IDENTIFIED BY password WITH BACKUP USING "merge1";
      

      Replace the new keystore with the backup keystore, which in this case would be named ewallet_time-stamp_merge1.p12.

    • To merge an auto-login keystore into a password-based keystore, use the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT MERGE KEYSTORE SQL statement.

Moving a Software Keystore to a New Location

You move a software keystore to a new location after you have updated the WALLET_ROOT parameter.

If you are using Oracle Key Vault, then you can configure a TDE direct connection where Key Vault directly manages the master encryption keys. In this case, you will never need to manually move the keystore to a new location.

  1. Log in to the database instance as a user who has been granted the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT or SYSKM privilege.

  2. Back up the software keystore.

    For example:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT BACKUP KEYSTORE 
    USING 'hr.emp_keystore' 
    FORCE KEYSTORE 
    IDENTIFIED BY 
    software_keystore_password TO '/etc/ORACLE/KEYSTORE/DB1/';
  3. Close the software keystore.

    Examples of ways that you can close the keystore are as follows.

    For an auto-login software keystore:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SET KEYSTORE CLOSE; 
    

    For a password-protected software keystore:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SET KEYSTORE CLOSE 
    IDENTIFIED BY software_keystore_password;
    

    For a keystore for which the password is stored externally:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SET KEYSTORE CLOSE 
    IDENTIFIED BY EXTERNAL STORE; 
  4. Exit the database session.

    For example, if you are logged in to SQL*Plus:

    EXIT
    
  5. In the init.ora file for the database instance, update the WALLET_ROOT parameter to point to the new location where you want to move the keystore.

  6. Use the operating system move command (such as mv) to move the keystore with all of its keys to the new directory location.

Moving a Software Keystore Out of Automatic Storage Management

You can use the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement to move a software keystore out Automatic Storage Management.

  1. Log in to the database instance as a user who has been granted the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT or SYSKM privilege.

    For example:

    sqlplus sec_admin as syskm
    Enter password: password
    Connected.
  2. Initialize a target keystore on the file system by using the following syntax:
    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT CREATE KEYSTORE targetKeystorePath 
    IDENTIFIED BY targetKeystorePassword;

    In this specification:

    • targetKeystorePath is the directory path to the target keystore on the file system.

    • targetKeystorePassword is a password that you create for the keystore.

    For example:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT CREATE KEYSTORE '/etc/ORACLE/KEYSTORE/DB1/' IDENTIFIED BY "targetKeystorePassword"; 
  3. Copy the keystore from ASM to the target keystore that you just created.

    This step requires that you merge the keystore from ASM to the file system, as follows:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT MERGE KEYSTORE srcKeystorePath 
    IDENTIFIED BY srcKeystorePassword 
    INTO EXISTING KEYSTORE targetKeystorePath 
    IDENTIFIED BY targetKeystorePassword 
    WITH BACKUP USING backupIdentifier;

    In this specification:

    • srcKeystorePath is the directory path to the source keystore.

    • srcKeystorePassword is th source keystore password.

    • targetKeystorePath is the path to the target keystore.

    • targetKeystorePassword is the target keystore password.

    • backupIdentifier is the backup identifier to be added to the backup file name.

    For example:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT MERGE KEYSTORE '+DATAFILE' 
    IDENTIFIED BY "srcPassword" 
    INTO EXISTING KEYSTORE '/etc/ORACLE/KEYSTORE/DB1/' 
    IDENTIFIED BY "targetKeystorePassword" 
    WITH BACKUP USING "bkup";

Migrating Between a Software Password Keystore and a Hardware Keystore

You can migrate between password-protected software keystores and hardware keystores.

Migrating from a Password-Protected Software Keystore to a Hardware Keystore

You can migrate from a password-protected software keystore to a hardware keystore.

Step 1: Convert the Software Keystore to Open with the Hardware Keystore

Some Oracle tools require access to the old software keystore to encrypt or decrypt data that was exported or backed up using the software keystore.

Examples of these tools are Oracle Data Pump and Oracle Recovery Manager.

  • Use the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SQL statement to convert a software keystore to a open with a hardware keystore.

    • To set the software keystore password as that of the hardware keystore, use the following syntax:

      ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT ALTER KEYSTORE PASSWORD 
      FORCE KEYSTORE
      IDENTIFIED BY software_keystore_password 
      SET "hardware_keystore_credentials" WITH BACKUP 
      [USING 'backup_identifier'];
      

      In this specification:

      • software_keystore_password is the same password that you used when creating the software keystore.

      • hardware_keystore_credentials is the new software keystore password which is the same as the password of the hardware keystore.

      • WITH BACKUP creates a backup of the software keystore. Optionally, you can use the USING clause to add a brief description of the backup. Enclose this description in single quotation marks (' '). This identifier is appended to the named keystore file (for example, ewallet_time-stamp_emp_key_backup.p12, with emp_key_backup being the backup identifier). Follow the file naming conventions that your operating system uses.

    • To create an auto-login keystore for a software keystore, use the following syntax:

      ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT CREATE [LOCAL] AUTO_LOGIN KEYSTORE 
      FROM KEYSTORE 'keystore_location' 
      IDENTIFIED BY software_keystore_password;
      

      In this specification:

      • LOCAL enables you to create a local auto-login software keystore. Otherwise, omit this clause if you want the keystore to be accessible by other computers.

      • keystore_location is the path to the keystore directory location of the keystore that is configured in the sqlnet.ora file.

      • software_keystore_password is the existing password of the configured software keystore.

Step 2: Configure the Hardware Security Module Keystore Type

You can use the ALTER SYSTEM statement to configure the HSM keystore type.

For the software keystore to open with the hardware keystore, either the software keystore must have the same password as the hardware keystore, or alternatively, you can create an auto-login keystore for the software keystore.
  1. Log in to the database instance as a user who has been granted the SYSDBA administrative privilege.
    For example:
    sqlplus sec_admin as sysdba
    Enter password: password
  2. Set the TDE_CONFIGURATION dynamic initialization parameter.

    The following example migrates from a TDE keystore to a hardware keystore:

    ALTER SYSTEM SET TDE_CONFIGURATION="KEYSTORE_CONFIGURATION=HSM|FILE";

    The next example migrates from a TDE keystore to an Oracle Key Vault keystore:

    ALTER SYSTEM SET TDE_CONFIGURATION="KEYSTORE_CONFIGURATION=OKV|FILE";
  3. Restart the database.
    SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE
    STARTUP
Step 3: Perform the Hardware Keystore Migration

You can use the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SQL statement to perform a hardware keystore migration.

To migrate from the software keystore to hardware keystore, you must use the MIGRATE USING keystore_password clause in the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SET KEY SQL statement to decrypt the existing TDE table keys and the tablespace encryption keys with the TDE master encryption key in the software keystore and then reencrypt them with the newly created TDE master encryption key in the hardware keystore.

After you complete the migration, you do not need to restart the database, nor do you need to manually re-open the hardware keystore. The migration process automatically reloads the keystore keys in memory.

  • Migrate the hardware keystores by using the following syntax:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SET ENCRYPTION KEY 
    IDENTIFIED BY "user_name:password" 
    MIGRATE USING software_keystore_password 
    [WITH BACKUP [USING 'backup_identifier']];
    

    In this specification:

    • user_name:password is the user ID and password that was created in Step 2 under Step 2: Configure the Hardware Security Module (in Configuring Transparent Data Encryption). Enclose this setting in double quotation marks (" ") and separate user_name and password with a colon (:).

    • software_keystore_password is the same password that you used when creating the software keystore or that you have changed to in Step 1: Convert the Software Keystore to Open with the Hardware Keystore.

    • USING enables you to add a brief description of the backup. Enclose this description in single quotation marks (' '). This identifier is appended to the named keystore file (for example, ewallet_time-stamp_emp_key_backup.p12, with emp_key_backup being the backup identifier). Follow the file naming conventions that your operating system uses.

Note:

If the database contains columns encrypted with a public key, then the columns are decrypted and reencrypted with an AES symmetric key generated by HSM-based Transparent Data Encryption.

Migrating from a Hardware Keystore to a Password-Based Software Keystore

You can migrate a hardware keystore to a software keystore.

About Migrating Back from a Hardware Keystore

To switch from using a hardware keystore solution to a software keystore, you can use reverse migration of the keystore.

After you complete the switch, keep the hardware security module, in case earlier backup files rely on the TDE master encryption keys in the hardware security module.

If you had originally migrated from the software keystore to the hardware security module and reconfigured the software keystore as described in Migration of a Previously Configured TDE Master Encryption Key, then you already have an existing keystore with the same password as the HSM password. Reverse migration configures this keystore to act as the new software keystore with a new password. If your existing keystore is an auto-login software keystore and you have the password-based software keystore for this auto-login keystore, then use the password-based keystore. If the password-based keystore is not available, then merge the auto-login keystore into a newly created empty password-based keystore, and use the newly created password-based keystore.

If you do not have an existing keystore, then you must specify a keystore location using the WALLET_ROOT parameter in the init.ora file. When you perform the reverse migration, migrate to the previous keystore so that you do not lose the keys.

Step 1: Configure Hardware Security Module Keystore Type

You can use the ALTER SYSTEM statement to configure the hardware security module keystore type.

  1. Log in to the database instance as a user who has been granted the SYSDBA administrative privilege.
    For example:
    sqlplus sec_admin as sysdba
    Enter password: password
  2. Set the TDE_CONFIGURATION dynamic initialization parameter to specify the TDE keystore type.
    For example:
    ALTER SYSTEM SET TDE_CONFIGURATION="KEYSTORE_CONFIGURATION=HSM";
    Setting KEYSTORE_CONFIGURATION to HSM eliminates the possibility of using an auto-login HSM configuration. To use an auto-login HSM configuration, you would set KEYSTORE_CONFIGURATION to HSM:FILE.
  3. Restart the database.
    SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE
    STARTUP
Step 2: Configure the Keystore for the Reverse Migration

The ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement with the SET ENCRYPTION KEY and REVERSE MIGRATE clauses can be used to reverse the migration of a keystore.

  1. Log in to the database instance as a user who has been granted the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT or SYSKM privilege.

    For example:

    sqlplus sec_admin as syskm
    Enter password: password
    Connected.
    
  2. Reverse migrate the keystore by using the following syntax:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SET ENCRYPTION KEY 
    IDENTIFIED BY software_keystore_password 
    REVERSE MIGRATE USING "user_name:password" 
    [WITH BACKUP [USING 'backup_identifier']]; 
    

    In this specification:

    • software_keystore_password is the password for the existing keystore or the new keystore.

    • user_name:password is the user ID and password that was created in Step 2 in Step 2: Configure the Hardware Security Module (in Configuring Transparent Data Encryption). If the pre-hardware security module software keystore is the new keystore, then you must ensure that it has the same password as the user_name:password before issuing the reverse migration command. Enclose this setting in double quotation marks (" ").

    • WITH BACKUP creates a backup of the software keystore. Optionally, you can include the USING clause to add a brief description of the backup. Enclose this description in single quotation marks (' '). This identifier is appended to the named keystore file (for example, ewallet_time-stamp_emp_key_backup.p12, with emp_key_backup being the backup identifier). Follow the file naming conventions that your operating system uses.

    For example:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SET ENCRYPTION KEY 
    IDENTIFIED BY password 
    REVERSE MIGRATE USING "psmith:password" WITH BACKUP;
    
    keystore altered.
    
  3. Optionally, change the keystore password.

    For example:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT ALTER KEYSTORE PASSWORD 
    IDENTIFIED BY old_password 
    SET new_password 
    WITH BACKUP USING 'pwd_change';
Step 3: Configure the Hardware Keystore to Open with the Software Keystore

After you complete the migration, the migration process automatically reloads the keystore keys in memory.

You do not need to restart the database, nor do you need to manually re-open the software keystore.

The hardware keystore may still be required after reverse migration because the old keys are likely to have been used for encrypted backups or by tools such as Oracle Data Pump and Oracle Recovery Manager. You should cache the hardware keystore credentials in the keystore so that the HSM can be opened with the software keystore.

Keystore Order After a Migration

After you perform a migration, keystores can be either primary or secondary in their order.

The WALLET_ORDER column of the V$ENCRYPTION_WALLET dynamic view describes whether a keystore is primary (that is, it holds the current TDE master encryption key) or if it is secondary (it holds the previous TDE master encryption key). The WRL_TYPE column describes the type of locator for the keystore (for example, FILE for the sqlnet.ora file). The WALLET_ORDER column shows SINGLE if two keystores are not configured together and no migration was ever performed previously.

Table 4-1 describes how the keystore order works after you perform a migration.

Table 4-1 Keystore Order After a Migration

Type of Migration Done WRL_TYPE WALLET_ORDER Description

Migration of software keystore to HSM

HSM

FILE

PRIMARY

SECONDARY

Both the HSM and software keystore are configured. The TDE master encryption key can be either in the HSM or the software keystore.

The TDE master encryption key is first searched in the HSM.

If the TDE master encryption key is not in the primary keystore (HSM), then it will be searched for in the software keystore.

All of the new TDE master encryption keys will be created in the primary keystore (in this case, the HSM).

Reverse migration of HSM to software keystore

FILE

HSM

PRIMARY

SECONDARY

Both the HSM and software keystore are configured. The TDE master encryption key can be either in the HSM or the software keystore.

The TDE master encryption key is first searched for in the software keystore.

If the TDE master encryption key is not present in the primary (that is, software) keystore, then it will be searched for in the HSM.

All of the new TDE master encryption keys will be created in the primary keystore (in this case, the software keystore).

Migration of Keystores to and from Oracle Key Vault

You can use Oracle Key Vault to migrate both software and hardware keystores to and from Oracle Key Vault.

This enables you to manage the keystores centrally, and then share the keystores as necessary with other TDE-enabled databases in your enterprise.

Oracle Key Vault enables you to upload a keystore to a container called a virtual wallet, and then create a new virtual wallet from the contents of previously uploaded Oracle keystores. For example, suppose you previously uploaded a keystore that contains 5 keys. You can create a new virtual wallet that consists of only 3 of these keys. You then can download this keystore to another TDE-enabled database. This process does not modify the original keystore.

In addition to Oracle keystores, Oracle Key Vault enables you to securely share other security objects, such as credential files and Java keystores, across the enterprise. It prevents the loss of keys and keystores due to forgotten passwords or accidentally deleted keystores. You can use Oracle Key Vault with products other than TDE: Oracle Real Application Security, Oracle Active Data Guard, and Oracle GoldenGate. Oracle Key Vault facilitates the movement of encrypted data using Oracle Data Pump and Oracle Transportable Tablespaces.

Configuring Keystores for Automatic Storage Management

You can store a software keystore on an Automatic Storage Management (ASM) disk group.

About Configuring Keystores for Automatic Storage Management

You can configure a keystore for Automatic Storage Management (ASM) for a standalone database or a multitenant environment. The WALLET_ROOT location can be compliant or non-compliant with Oracle Managed File (OMF) systems.

You should use the WALLET_ROOT and TDE_CONFIGURATION initialization parameters to configure the keystore location in an ASM system. The TDE_CONFIGURATION parameter must be set with the attribute KEYSTORE_CONFIGURATION=FILE in order for the WALLET_ROOT parameter to work. Note that starting with Oracle Database release 19c, the ENCRYPTION_WALLET_LOCATION, set in the sqlnet.ora file, is deprecated in favor of WALLET_ROOT and TDE_CONFIGURATION.

To perform the configuration, you must specify a + sign, followed by the ASM disk group and path where the keystore will be located. For example:

WALLET_ROOT=+disk_group/path

Note the following:

  • When you designate the path for the WALLET_ROOT for databases in standalone or multitenant environments, or environments where the WALLET_ROOT location either complies or does not comply with the Oracle Managed File (OMF) directory naming convention, be aware that this path must follow certain conventions so that the database can automate the creation of the directory components of the TDE keystore locations for you. Otherwise, you must manually create the directories under the WALLET_ROOT location.
  • If you must move or merge software keystores between a regular file system and an ASM file system, then you can use the same keystore merge statements that are used to merge software keystores.
  • To execute commands to manage keystores in an ASM environment, you can use the ASMCMD utility.
Configuring a Keystore on a Standalone Database to Point to an ASM Location

On a standalone database system, you can set the WALLET_ROOT parameter to point to an ASM location.

  1. Ensure that the KEYSTORE_CONFIGURATION attribute of the TDE_CONFIGURATION dynamic initialization parameter is set to FILE.
    For example, in SQL*Plus:
    ALTER SYSTEM SET TDE_CONFIGURATION="KEYSTORE_CONFIGURATION=FILE";
  2. In the init.ora file, set the WALLET_ROOT static initialization parameter to the ASM disk group location.
    Optionally, include OMF (in upper case) to provide Oracle Managed File (OMF) compliance and to facilitate automation of the directory creation.
    For example:
    WALLET_ROOT=+disk_group_name/OMF
    This setting places the TDE keystore of the standalone database system in the WALLET_ROOT/tde directory (that is, +disk_group_name/OMF/tde with the tde component of the path being automatically created by the database server).
Configuring a Keystore in a Multitenant Environment to Point to an ASM Location

You can set WALLET_ROOT to point to an ASM directory within which the TDE keystore of the CDB root (which all united mode PDBs share) and the TDE keystores of all isolated mode PDBs are located.

  1. Ensure that the KEYSTORE_CONFIGURATION attribute of the TDE_CONFIGURATION dynamic initialization parameter is set to FILE.
    For a CDB, set TDE_CONFIGURATION in the CDB root; for a PDB, set it in the PDB.
    For example, in SQL*Plus:
    ALTER SYSTEM SET TDE_CONFIGURATION="KEYSTORE_CONFIGURATION=FILE";
  2. Set the WALLET_ROOT static initialization parameter to the ASM disk group location followed by the DB_UNIQUE_NAME initialization parameter value.
    The inclusion of the value of DB_UNIQUE_NAME is necessary to allow the database server to automate the creation of the necessary directories under this location.
    You must not use OMF as a directory component of the WALLET_ROOT location (unlike in the standalone database configuration section).
    For example:
    WALLET_ROOT=+disk_group_name/db_unique_name

    This setting locates the TDE wallet that is used by the root and by all of the united mode PDBs in the WALLET_ROOT/db_unique_name/tde directory (that is, in +disk_group_name/db_unique_name/tde).

    This setting locates the TDE wallet which is used by each isolated mode PDB in the WALLET_ROOT/db_unique_name/PDB_GUID/tde directory (that is, in +disk_group_name/db_unique_name/PDB_GUID/tde).

Configuring a Keystore to Point to an ASM Location When the WALLET_ROOT Location Does Not Follow OMF Guidelines

If the chosen WALLET_ROOT location does not comply with the Oracle Managed File (OMF) guidelines, then the Oracle database cannot perform automation of the directory creation.

In this case, you must use the ALTER DISKGROUP command to manually create the necessary directories under the WALLET_ROOT location. You must use the ALTER DISKGROUP ... ADD DIRECTORY statement to manually create the necessary directories, because no automation of the directory creation is possible when the WALLET_ROOT parameter is not using an OMF-compliant value.
  1. Ensure that the KEYSTORE_CONFIGURATION attribute of the TDE_CONFIGURATION dynamic initialization parameter is set to FILE.
    For example, in SQL*Plus:
    ALTER SYSTEM SET TDE_CONFIGURATION="KEYSTORE_CONFIGURATION=FILE";
  2. In the init.ora file, set the WALLET_ROOT static initialization parameter to the ASM disk group location.
    For example, the following path after disk_group_name contains no uppercase OMF directory elements:
    WALLET_ROOT="+disk_group_name/mydir/wallets"
  3. Connect to the database instance using the SYSASM administrative privilege.
    connect / as sysasm
  4. Execute the ALTER DISKGROUP statements to create the necessary directories.
    You must perform this step because the database server cannot automate the creation of these directories, since the location chosen for WALLET_ROOT is not compliant with the Oracle Managed Files guideline (that is, it does not have the OMF component included in it in uppercase letters).

    For example:

    ALTER DISKGROUP "disk_group_name" ADD DIRECTORY 
        '+disk_group_name/mydir/wallets/tde';

    For a multitenant environment, find the PDB GUID of the PDB that will store the keystore, as follows:

    SELECT GUID FROM DBA_PDBS WHERE PDB_NAME = 'pdb name';

    Next, include the PDB GUID in the following ALTER DISKGROUP statements to create the necessary directories for the isolated mode PDB within the WALLET_ROOT location. For example, assuming the GUID is 4756C705E52A8768E053F82DC40A5329:

    ALTER DISKGROUP "disk_group_name" ADD DIRECTORY
        '+disk_group_name/mydir/wallets/4756C705E52A8768E053F82DC40A5329'
    
    ALTER DISKGROUP "disk_group_name" ADD DIRECTORY
        '+disk_group_name/mydir/wallets/4756C705E52A8768E053F82DC40A5329/tde';
    

Closing a Keystore

You can manually close software and hardware keystores.

About Closing Keystores

After you open a keystore, it remains open until you shut down the database instance.

When you restart the database instance, then auto-login and local auto-login software keystores automatically open when required (that is, when the TDE master encryption key must be accessed). However, software password-based and hardware keystores do not automatically open. You must manually open them again before you can use them.

When you close a software or hardware keystore, you disable all of the encryption and decryption operations on the database. Hence, a database user or application cannot perform any operation involving encrypted data until the keystore is reopened.

When you re-open a keystore after closing it, the keystore contents are reloaded back into the database. Thus, if the contents had been modified (such as during a migration), the database will have the latest keystore contents.

You can check if a keystore is closed by querying the STATUS column of the V$ENCRYPTION_WALLET view.

The following data operations will fail if the keystore is not accessible:

  • SELECT data from an encrypted column

  • INSERT data into on an encrypted column

  • CREATE a table with encrypted columns

  • CREATE an encrypted tablespace

Closing a Software Keystore

You can manually close password-based software keystores, auto-login software keystores, and local auto-login software keystores.

In the case of an auto-login keystore, which opens automatically when it is accessed, manually close it if you moved it to a new location. You do this if you are changing your configuration from an auto-login keystore to a password-based keystore: you move out the auto-login keystore, and then close the auto-login keystore.

  1. Log in to the database instance as a user who has been granted the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT or SYSKM privilege.

    For example:

    sqlplus sec_admin as syskm
    Enter password: password
    Connected.
    
  2. Run the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SQL statement.

    • For a password-based software keystore, use the following syntax:

      ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SET KEYSTORE CLOSE 
      [IDENTIFIED BY [EXTERNAL STORE | software_keystore_password]];
      

      In this specification:

      • IDENTIFIED BY can be one of the following:

        • EXTERNAL STORE uses the keystore password stored in the external store to perform the keystore operation.

        • software_keystore_password is the password of the user who created the keystore.

    • For an auto-login or local auto-login software keystore, use the following SQL statement:

      ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SET KEYSTORE CLOSE;
      

      You do not need to specify a password for this statement.

Closing a keystore disables all of the encryption and decryption operations. Any attempt to encrypt or decrypt data or access encrypted data results in an error.

Closing a Hardware Keystore

To close a hardware keystore, you must use the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement with the SET KEYSTORE CLOSE clause.

  1. Log into the database instance as a user who has been granted the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT or SYSKM privilege.

    For example:

    sqlplus sec_admin as syskm
    Enter password: password
    Connected.
    
  2. Close the hardware keystore by using this syntax:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SET KEYSTORE CLOSE 
    IDENTIFIED BY [EXTERNAL STORE | "hardware_keystore_credentials"];
    

    In this specification:

    • IDENTIFIED BY can be one of the following settings:

      • EXTERNAL STORE uses the keystore password stored in the external store to perform the keystore operation.

      • hardware_keystore_credentials refers to the credentials for either an HSM or an Oracle Key Vault hardware keystore. For an HSM, specify the credentials using this format, enclosed in quotation marks and separating the components with a colon: user_name:password, with user_name being the user who created the HSM and password being this user’s password. For Oracle Key Vault, enter only the password of the user who created the keystore. Enclose this password with quotation marks.

    For example:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SET KEYSTORE CLOSE 
    IDENTIFIED BY "psmith:password";

Backup and Recovery of Encrypted Data

For software keystores, you cannot access encrypted data without the TDE master encryption key.

Because the TDE master encryption key is stored in the keystore, you should periodically back up the software keystore in a secure location. You must back up a copy of the keystore whenever you set a new TDE master encryption key or perform any operation that writes to the keystore.

Do not back up the software keystore in the same location as the encrypted data. Back up the software keystore separately. This is especially true when you use the auto-login keystore, which does not require a password to open. In case the backup tape is lost, a malicious user should not be able to get both the encrypted data and the keystore.

Oracle Recovery Manager (Oracle RMAN) does not back up the software keystore as part of the database backup. When using a media manager such as Oracle Secure Backup with Oracle RMAN, Oracle Secure Backup automatically excludes auto-open keystores (the cwallet.sso files). However, it does not automatically exclude encryption keystores (the ewallet.p12 files). It is a good practice to add the following exclude data set statement to your Oracle Secure Backup configuration:

exclude name *.p12

This setting instructs Oracle Secure Backup to exclude the encryption keystore from the backup set.

If you lose the software keystore that stores the TDE master encryption key, then you can restore access to encrypted data by copying the backed-up version of the keystore to the appropriate location. If you archived the restored keystore after the last time that you reset the TDE master encryption key, then you do not need to take any additional action.

If the restored software keystore does not contain the most recent TDE master encryption key, then you can recover old data up to the point when the TDE master encryption key was reset by rolling back the state of the database to that point in time. All of the modifications to encrypted columns after the TDE master encryption key was reset are lost.

Dangers of Deleting Keystores

Oracle strongly recommends that you do not delete keystores.

If a keystore becomes overly full, any TDE master encryption key other than the currently-active TDE master encryption key can be moved to a new keystore to reduce the overall size of the keystore, but it is important to keep a backup of this new keystore because even though the keys have been moved out of the currently-active keystore, they may still be needed by other Oracle features, such as Oracle Recovery Manager backup operations. (See Related Topics at the end of this topic for a listing of features that are affected by deleted keystores.)

Deleting a keystore that still contains keys is particularly dangerous if you have configured Transparent Data Encryption and the keystore is in use. You can find if a keystore is in use by querying the STATUS column of the V$ENCRYPTION_WALLET view after you open the keystore. How you should proceed depends on whether you are using united mode or isolated mode.

  • In isolated mode, if the STATUS column of the V$ENCRYPTION_WALLET is OPEN_NO_MASTER_KEY, then it is safe to archive and later delete the this keystore, because there are no keys in it.
  • In united mode, you must execute the query of V$ENCRYPTION_WALLET from the CDB$ROOT, not the PDB. If you execute the query in a PDB that does not yet have a key set, then the STATUS is OPEN_NO_MASTER_KEY. However, this can be misleading, because a key could have been set in the CDB$ROOT. After you execute the query in the root and if the STATUS is OPEN_NO_MASTER_KEY, then you can safely archive and later delete the keystore.

The reason that you should be cautious when moving keys out of the currently-active TDE keystore is that this keystore may contain keys that are still needed by the database (even though the TDE master encryption key has been rekeyed). Deleting the keystore deletes these keys, and could result in the loss of encrypted data. Even if you decrypted all of the data in your database, you still should not delete the keystore, because doing so could still hamper the normal functioning of the Oracle database. This is because a TDE master encryption key in the keystore can also be required for other Oracle Database features. (See Related Topics at the end of this topic for a listing of features that are affected by deleted keystores.)

Even after you performed TDE keystore migration (which rekeys in such a way that the location of your currently-active TDE master encryption key changes place between your software keystore and your hardware keystore), you still should not delete your original keystore. The keys in the original keystore may be needed at a later time (for example, when you must recover an offline encrypted tablespace). Even if all online tablespaces are not encrypted, the key may still be in use.

The exception is in the case of software auto-login (or local auto-login) keystores. If you do not want to use this type of keystore, then ideally you should move it to a secure directory. Only delete an auto-login keystore if you are sure that it was created from a specific password-based keystore because an auto-login keystore is always based on an ordinary software keystore. The keystore should be available and known.

If you must delete a keystore, then do so with great caution. You must first move the keys within the keystore to a new keystore by using the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT MOVE KEYS TO NEW KEYSTORE statement.

Features That Are Affected by Deleted Keystores

Some features can be adversely affected if a keystore is deleted and a TDE master encryption key residing in that keystore is later needed.

Before you delete a keystore, consider the impact that the deletion will have in the event that you need the any TDE master encryption key in the TDE keystore at a later time. The following features and activities are affected:

  • Offlined tablespace operations
  • Oracle Secure Backup operations
  • Media recovery and block media recovery operations
  • Point-in-time recovery operations
  • Physical and logical Oracle Data Guard standby operations
  • Golden Gate operations
  • Oracle Streams operations
  • Oracle Recovery Manager operations, including restoring Oracle Recovery Manager backups
  • Applying archived redo logs to a database during database crash recovery operations
  • Database online block recovery. (Online block recovery implies that the database is still open. Deleting a wallet in an open database with encrypted tablespaces will cause additional problems other than those associated with online block recovery.) These problems can include the following:
    • Encrypted online data in encrypted tablespaces would no longer be decrypted. Encrypted metadata in the SYSTEM, UNDO, and TEMP tablespaces would no longer be decrypted. You will no longer have control over what metadata is encrypted or where that metadata can reside.
    • Buffered data or metadata needs to be encrypted before it can be written back to the disk, but if the wallet is deleted, then the buffered data or metadata would no longer be encrypted. This could cause redo generation to fail, and the DBWR background process would not be able to write the data, which would possibly lead to a database instance hang or crash.
    • After a database instance crash, the database instance recovery and database crash recovery would fail, leading to the database not being able to be restarted.

Managing the TDE Master Encryption Key

You can manage the TDE master encryption key in several ways.

Creating User-Defined TDE Master Encryption Keys

You can create a user-defined TDE master encryption key outside the database by generating a TDE master encryption key ID.

About User-Defined TDE Master Encryption Keys

A TDE master encryption key that is outside the database has its own user-generated ID, which tracks the use of the TDE master encryption key.

You can use the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT to create and set user-defined TDE master encryption key IDs. After you generate the TDE master encryption key, you can bring this key into the database. Optionally, you can specify the TDE master encryption key ID in various ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statements.

This type of configuration benefits Oracle Fusion SaaS Cloud environments in that it enables you to generate a TDE master encryption key this complies with your site’s requirements. This key that you generate supports the current encryption algorithms and can be used for software keystores.

After you generate the TDE master encryption key ID, you can encrypt your data as you normally would.

The TDE master encryption key and its corresponding ID will not be captured by any auditing logs.

Creating a User-Defined TDE Master Encryption Key

To create a user-defined TDE master encryption key, use the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement with the SET | CREATE [ENCRYPTION] KEY clause.

  1. Log in to the database instance as a user who has been granted the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT or SYSKM privilege.
    For example:
    sqlplus sec_admin as syskm
    Enter password: password
    Connected.
    
  2. Create the user-defined TDE master encryption key by using the following syntax:
    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SET | CREATE [ENCRYPTION] KEY
    '[mkid:mk | mk]' 
    [USING ALGORITHM 'algorithm'] 
    [FORCE KEYSTORE]
    IDENTIFIED BY [EXTERNAL STORE | keystore_password] 
    [WITH BACKUP [USING 'backup_identifier']];

    In this specification:

    • SET | CREATE : Enter SET if you want to create the master and activate the TDE master encryption key now, or select CREATE if you want to create the key for later use, without activating it yet.

    • mkid and mk:

      • mkid, the TDE master encryption key ID, is a 16–byte hex-encoded value that you can specify or have Oracle Database generate.

      • mk, the TDE master encryption key, is a hex-encoded value that you can specify or have Oracle Database generate, either 32 bytes (for the for AES256, ARIA256, and GOST256 algorithms) or 16 bytes (for the SEED128 algorithm).

      If you omit the mkid:mk|mkid clause but include the mk value, then Oracle Database generates the mkid for the mk.

      If you omit the entire mkid:mk|mkid clause, then Oracle Database generates these values for you.

    • USING ALGORITHM: Specify one of the following supported algorithms:

      • AES256

      • ARIA256

      • SEED128

      • GOST256

      If you omit the algorithm, then the default, AES256, is used.

    • FORCE KEYSTORE temporarily opens the password-protected keystore for this operation. You must open the keystore for this operation.

    The following example creates a TDE master encryption key without the key-ID is when a database administrator performs that operation:

    First, generate the TDE master encryption key with OpenSSL:

    $ openssl rand 32 -hex
    f24ce8cdae39742b5da7293da206fbd05a28b1e44c4781f801768cfdc3dbb6e2

    This use this key in the following ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SET ENCRYPTION KEY 
    'f24ce8cdae39742b5da7293da206fbd05a28b1e44c4781f801768cfdc3dbb6e2' 
    USING ALGORITHM 'GOST256'
    FORCE KEYSTORE
    IDENTIFIED BY keystore_password;

    The next example creates user-defined keys for both the master encryption ID and the TDE master encryption key. It omits the algorithm specification, so the default algorithm AES256 is used.

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT CREATE ENCRYPTION KEY 
    '10203040506070801112131415161718:3D432109DF88967A541967062A6F4E460E892318E307F017BA048707B402493C' 
    IDENTIFIED BY keystore_password;

    The next scenario, where TDE master encryption key and key-ID are generated outside of the database, shows how to support separation of duties. A key administrator inserts the key with a key_ID into the wallet by using the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT CREATE [ENCRYPTION] KEY statement. Then, the key administrator sends the key_ID to the database administrator, who then activates the key by using the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT USE KEY clause.

    1. Create the key-ID using OpenSSL, converting characters to upper case:
      $ openssl rand 16 | xxd -u -p
      D20765EB721AF44D054B30FE87F8E49A
    2. Create the TDE master encryption key.
      $ openssl rand 32 -hex
      5a089c8ea6ee21cba774f61e58d102665df4a979a34757836b3d066a3eb3db11
    3. Use both strings to insert the new TDE master encryption key, using the default of AES256, into the wallet.
      ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT CREATE ENCRYPTION KEY
      'D20765EB721AF44D054B30FE87F8E49A:5a089c8ea6ee21cba774f61e58d102665df4a979a34757836b3d066a3eb3db11'
      IDENTIFIED BY keystore_password;
    4. Because the database internally stores the key_ID in BASE64 format, the key administrator must convert the HEX key_ID to a BASE64 key-ID, using this syntax:
      $ echo "01hex key_ID followed by 44 zeros" | xxd -r -p | base64"

      For example:

      $ echo "01D20765EB721AF44D054B30FE87F8E49A00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000" 
    5. After the key administrator sent the key_ID to the database administrator, the database administrator then executes the following statement:
      ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT USE ENCRYPTION KEY
      'AdIHZetyGvRNBUsw/of45JoAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA'
      IDENTIFIED BY keystore_password;

      Alternatively, the database administrator can retrieve the BASE64 key-ID from the database with the following SELECT statement:

      SELECT ' ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT USE KEY '''||KEY_ID||''' 
      FORCE KEYSTORE IDENTIFIED BY KEYSTORE_PASSWORD WITH BACKUP;' 
      AS "USE KEY COMMAND" FROM V$ENCRYPTION_KEYS 
      WHERE CREATOR_PDBNAME = SYS_CONTEXT('USERENV', 'CON_NAME') 
      ORDER BY CREATION_TIME DESC FETCH FIRST 1 ROWS ONLY;

Creating TDE Master Encryption Keys for Later Use

You can create a TDE master encryption key that can be activated at a later date.

About Creating a TDE Master Encryption Key for Later Use

The CREATE KEY clause of the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement can create a TDE master encryption key to be activated at a later date.

You then can activate this key on the same database or export it to another database and activate it there.

This method of TDE master encryption key creation is useful in a multitenant environment when you must re-create the TDE master encryption keys. The CREATE KEY clause enables you to use a single SQL statement to generate a new TDE master encryption key for all of the PDBs within a multitenant environment. The creation time of the new TDE master encryption key is later than the activation of the TDE master encryption key that is currently in use. Hence, the creation time can serve as a reminder to all of the PDBs to activate the most recently created TDE master encryption key as soon as possible.

Creating a TDE Master Encryption Key for Later Use

A keystore must be opened before you can create a TDE master encryption key for use later on.

  1. Log in to the database instance as a user who has been granted the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT or SYSKM privilege.

    For example:

    sqlplus sec_admin as syskm
    Enter password: password
    Connected.
    
  2. Create the TDE master encryption key by using this syntax:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT CREATE KEY [USING TAG 'tag'] 
    [FORCE KEYSTORE] 
    IDENTIFIED BY [EXTERNAL STORE | keystore_password] 
    [WITH BACKUP [USING 'backup_identifier']];
    

    In this specification:

    • tag is the associated attribute and information that you define. Enclose this setting in single quotation marks (' ').

    • FORCE KEYSTORE temporarily opens the password-protected keystore for this operation. You must open the keystore for this operation.

    • IDENTIFIED BY can be one of the following settings:

      • EXTERNAL STORE uses the keystore password stored in the external store to perform the keystore operation.

      • keystore_password is the mandatory keystore password that you used when you created the original keystore. It is case sensitive.

    • WITH BACKUP backs up the TDE master encryption key in the same location as the key, as identified by the WRL_PARAMETER column of the V$ENCRYPTION_WALLET view. To find the key locations for all of the database instances, query the GV$ENCRYPTION_WALLET view.

      You must back up password-based software keystores. You do not need to back up auto-login or local auto-login software keystores. Optionally, include the USING backup_identifier clause to add a description of the backup. Enclose backup_identifier in single quotation marks (' ').

  3. If necessary, activate the TDE master encryption key.

    1. Fin the key ID.

      SELECT KEY_ID FROM V$ENCRYPTION_KEYS; 
      
      KEY_ID
      ----------------------------------------------------
      AWsHwVYC2U+Nv3RVphn/yAIAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
    2. Use this key ID to activate the key.

      ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT USE KEY 
      'AWsHwVYC2U+Nv3RVphn/yAIAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA' 
      USING TAG 'quarter:second;description:Activate Key on standby' 
      IDENTIFIED BY password 
      WITH BACKUP;
Example: Creating a TDE Master Encryption Key in a Single Database

You can use the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT CREATE KEY USING TAG statement to create a TDE master encryption key in a single database.

Example 4-2 shows how to create a TDE master encryption key in a single database. After you run this statement, a TDE master encryption key with the tag definition is created in the keystore for that database. You can query the TAG column of the V$ENCRYPTION_KEYS view for the identifier of the newly created key. You can query the CREATION_TIME column to find the most recently created key, which would be the key that you created from this statement. You can export this key to another database if you want or activate it locally later on, as described in Activating TDE Master Encryption Keys.

Example 4-2 Creating a TDE Master Encryption Key in a Single Database

ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT CREATE KEY USING TAG
'source:admin@source;target:db1@target' 
IDENTIFIED BY password WITH BACKUP;

keystore altered.

Activating TDE Master Encryption Keys

After you activate a TDE master encryption key, it can be used.

About Activating TDE Master Encryption Keys

You can activate a previously created or imported TDE master encryption key by using the USE KEY clause of ADMINSTER KEY MANAGEMENT.

After you activate the key, it is available for use. The key will be used to protect all of the column keys and all of the tablespace encryption keys. If you have deployed a logical standby database, then you must export the TDE master encryption keys after recreating them, and then import them into the standby database. You can have the TDE master encryption key in use on both the primary and the standby databases. To do so, you must activate the TDE master encryption key after you import it to the logical standby database.

Activating a TDE Master Encryption Key

To activate a TDE master encryption key, you must open the keystore and use ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT with the USE KEY clause.

  1. Log in to the database instance as a user who has been granted the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT or SYSKM privilege.

    For example:

    sqlplus sec_admin as syskm
    Enter password: password
    Connected.
    
  2. Query the KEY_ID column of the V$ENCRYPTION_KEYS view to find the key identifier.

    For example:

    SELECT KEY_ID FROM V$ENCRYPTION_KEYS; 
    
    KEY_ID
    ----------------------------------------------------
    ARaHD762tUkkvyLgPzAi6hMAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
    
  3. Use this key identifier to activate the TDE master encryption key by using the following syntax:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT USE KEY 'key_identifier_from_V$ENCRYPTION_KEYS' 
    [USING TAG 'tag'] 
    [FORCE KEYSTORE] 
    IDENTIFIED BY [EXTERNAL STORE | keystore_password] 
    [WITH BACKUP [USING 'backup_identifier']];
    

    In this specification:

    • key_identifier_from_V$ENCRYPTION_KEYS is the key identifie. Enclose this setting in single quotation marks (' ').

    • tag is the associated attributes and information that you define. Enclose this setting in single quotation marks (' ').

    • FORCE KEYSTORE temporarily opens the password-protected keystore for this operation. You must open the keystore for this operation.

    • IDENTIFIED BY can be one of the following settings:

      • EXTERNAL STORE uses the keystore password stored in the external store to perform the keystore operation.

      • keystore_password is the mandatory keystore password that you used when you created the original keystore.

    • WITH BACKUP backs up the TDE master encryption key in the same location as the key, as identified by the WRL_PARAMETER column of the V$ENCRYPTION_WALLET view. To find the key locations for all of the database instances, query the GV$ENCRYPTION_WALLET view.

      You must back up password-based software keystores. You do not need to back up auto-login or local auto-login software keystores. Optionally, include the USING backup_identifier clause to add a description of the backup. Enclose backup_identifier in single quotation marks (' ').

Example: Activating a TDE Master Encryption Key

You can use the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SQL statement to activate a TDE master encryption key.

Example 4-3 shows how to activate a previously imported TDE master encryption key and then update its tag. This key is activated with the current database time stamp and time zone.

Example 4-3 Activating a TDE Master Encryption Key

ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT USE KEY 
'ARaHD762tUkkvyLgPzAi6hMAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA' 
USING TAG 'quarter:second;description:Activate Key on standby' 
IDENTIFIED BY password WITH BACKUP;

keystore altered.

In this version of the same operation, the FORCE KEYSTORE clause is added in the event that the auto-login keystore is in use, or if the keystore is closed. The password of the keystore is stored externally, so the EXTERNAL STORE setting is used for the IDENTIFIED BY clause.

ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT USE KEY 
'ARaHD762tUkkvyLgPzAi6hMAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA' 
USING TAG 'quarter:second;description:Activate Key on standby' 
FORCE KEYSTORE IDENTIFIED BY EXTERNAL STORE WITH BACKUP;

keystore altered.

TDE Master Encryption Key Attribute Management

TDE master encryption key attributes store information about the TDE master encryption key.

TDE Master Encryption Key Attributes

TDE master encryption key attributes include detailed information about the TDE master encryption key.

The information contains the following types:

  • Key time stamp information: Internal security policies and compliance policies usually determine the key rekeying frequency. You should expire keys when they reach the end of their lifetimes and then generate new keys. Time stamp attributes such as key creation time and activation time help you to determine the key age accurately, and automate key generation.

    The V$ENCRYPTION_KEYS view includes columns such as CREATION_TIME and ACTIVATION_TIME. See Oracle Database Reference for a complete description of the V$ENCRYPTION_KEYS view.

  • Key owner information: Key owner attributes help you to determine the user who created or activated the key. These attributes can be important for security, auditing, and tracking purposes. Key owner attributes also include key use information, such as whether the key is used for standalone TDE operations or used in a multitenant environment.

    The V$ENCRYPTION_KEYS view includes columns such as CREATOR, CREATOR_ID, USER, USER_ID, and KEY_USE.

  • Key source information: Keys often must be moved between databases for operations such as import-export operations and Data Guard-related operations. Key source attributes enable you to track the origin of each key. You can track whether a key was created locally or imported, and the database name and instance number of the database that created the key. In a multitenant environment, you can track the PDB where the key was created.

    The V$ENCRYPTION_KEYS view includes columns such as CREATOR_DBNAME, CREATOR_DBID, CREATOR_INSTANCE_NAME, CREATOR_INSTANCE_NUMBER, CREATOR_PDBNAME, and so on.

  • Key usage information: Key usage information determines the database or PDB where the key is being used. It also helps determine whether a key is in active use or not.

    The V$ENCRYPTION_KEYS view includes columns such as ACTIVATING_DBNAME, ACTIVATING_DBID, ACTIVATING_INSTANCE_NAME, ACTIVATING_PDBNAME, and so on.

  • User-defined information and other information: When creating a key, you can tag it with information using the TAG option. Each key contains important information such as whether or not it has been backed up.

    The V$ENCRYPTION_KEYS view includes columns such as KEY_ID, TAG, and other miscellaneous columns, for example BACKED_UP.

Note:

TDE Master Key Attributes and Tag are only supported with a hardware security module that has PKCS#11 data object support.
Finding the TDE Master Encryption Key That Is in Use

A TDE master encryption key that is in use is the encryption key that was activated most recently for the database.

  • To find the TDE master encryption key, query the V$ENCRYPTION_KEYS dynamic view.
    For example:
    SELECT KEY_ID 
    FROM V$ENCRYPTION_KEYS 
    WHERE ACTIVATION_TIME = (SELECT MAX(ACTIVATION_TIME) 
                             FROM V$ENCRYPTION_KEYS
                             WHERE ACTIVATING_DBID = (SELECT DBID FROM V$DATABASE));
    

Creating Custom TDE Master Encryption Key Attributes for Reports

Custom TDE master encryption key attributes enable you to defined attributes that are specific to your needs.

About Creating Custom Attribute Tags

Attribute tags enable you to monitor specific activities users perform, such as accessing a particular terminal ID.

By default, Oracle Database defines a set of attributes that describe various characteristics of the TDE master encryption keys that you create, such as the creation time, database in which the TDE master encryption key is used, and so on. These attributes are captured by the V$ENCRYPTION_KEY dynamic view.

You can create custom attributes that can be captured by the TAG column of the V$ENCRYPTION_KEYS dynamic view. This enables you to define behaviors that you may want to monitor, such as users who perform activities on encryption keys. The tag can encompass multiple attributes, such as session IDs from a specific terminal.

After you create the tag for a TDE master encryption key, its name should appear in the TAG column of the V$ENCRYPTION_KEYS view for that TDE master encryption key. If you create a tag for the secret, then the tag appears in the SECRET_TAG column of the V$CLIENT_SECRETS view. If you create a secret with a tag, then the tag appears in the SECRET_TAG column of the V$CLIENT_SECRETS view.

Creating a Custom Attribute Tag

To create a custom attribute tag, you must use the SET TAG clause of the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement.

  1. Log in to the database instance as a user who has been granted the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT or SYSKM privilege.

    For example:

    sqlplus sec_admin as syskm
    Enter password: password
    Connected.
    
  2. If necessary, query the TAG column of the V$ENCRYPTION_KEY dynamic view to find a listing of existing tags for the TDE master encryption keys.

    When you create a new tag for a TDE master encryption key, it overwrites the existing tag for that TDE master encryption key.

  3. Create the custom attribute tag by using the following syntax:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SET TAG 'tag' 
    FOR 'master_key_identifier' 
    [FORCE KEYSTORE] 
    IDENTIFIED BY [EXTERNAL STORE | keystore_password] 
    [WITH BACKUP [USING 'backup_identifier']];
    

    In this specification

    • tag is the associated attributes or information that you define. Enclose this information in single quotation marks (' ').

    • master_key_identifier identifies the TDE master encryption key for which the tag is set. To find a list of TDE master encryption key identifiers, query the KEY_ID column of the V$ENCRYPTION_KEYS dynamic view.

    • FORCE KEYSTORE temporarily opens the password-protected keystore for this operation. You must open the keystore for this operation.

    • IDENTIFIED BY can be one of the following settings:

      • EXTERNAL STORE uses the keystore password stored in the external store to perform the keystore operation.

      • keystore_password is the password that was used to create the keystore.

    • backup_identifier defines the tag values. Enclose this setting in single quotation marks (' ') and separate each value with a colon.

    For example, to create a tag that uses two values, one to capture a specific session ID and the second to capture a specific terminal ID:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SET ENCRYPTION KEY 
    USING TAG 'sessionid=3205062574:terminal=xcvt' 
    IDENTIFIED BY keystore_password 
    WITH BACKUP;
    
    keystore altered.
    

    Both the session ID (3205062574) and terminal ID (xcvt) can derive their values by using either the SYS_CONTEXT function with the USERENV namespace, or by using the USERENV function.

Setting or Rekeying the TDE Master Encryption Key in the Keystore

You can set or rekey the TDE master encryption key for both software keystores and hardware keystores.

About Setting or Rekeying the TDE Master Encryption Key in the Keystore

You can set or rekey the TDE master encryption key for both software password-based and hardware keystores.

The TDE master encryption key is stored in an external security module (keystore), and it is used to protect the TDE table keys and tablespace encryption keys. By default, the TDE master encryption key is a system-generated random value created by Transparent Data Encryption (TDE).

Use the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement to set or reset (REKEY) the TDE master encryption key. When the master encryption key is set, then TDE is considered enabled and cannot be disabled.

Before you can encrypt or decrypt database columns or tablespaces, you must generate a TDE master encryption key. Oracle Database uses the same TDE master encryption key for both TDE column encryption and TDE tablespace encryption. The instructions for setting a software or hardware TDE master encryption key explain how to generate a tDE master encryption key.

Creating, Tagging, and Backing Up a TDE Master Encryption Key

The ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement enables you to create, tag, and back up a TDE master encryption key.

  1. Log in to the database instance as a user who has been granted the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT or SYSKM privilege.

    For example:

    sqlplus sec_admin as syskm
    Enter password: password
    Connected.
    
  2. Create and back up the TDE master encryption key, and apply a tag, by using the following syntax:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SET ENCRYPTION KEY 
    [USING TAG 'tag'] 
    [FORCE KEYSTORE] 
    IDENTIFIED BY [EXTERNAL STORE | keystore_password] 
    WITH BACKUP [USING 'backup_identifier'];
    

    In this specification:

    • tag is the tag that you want to create. Enclose this tag in single quotation marks (' ').

    • FORCE KEYSTORE temporarily opens the password-protected keystore for this operation. You must open the keystore for this operation.

    • IDENTIFIED BY can be one of the following settings:

      • EXTERNAL STORE uses the keystore password stored in the external store to perform the keystore operation.

      • keystore_password is either software_keystore_password or hardware_keystore_credentials. As with software passwords, it is case sensitive. You must enclose the password string in double quotation marks (" "). Separate user_name and password with a colon (:).

    • WITH BACKUP backs the TDE master encryption key up in the same location as the key, as identified by the WRL_PARAMETER column of the V$ENCRYPTION_WALLET view. To find the WRL_PARAMETER values for all of the database instances, query the GV$ENCRYPTION_WALLET view.

      You must back up password-based software keystores. You do not need to use it for auto-login or local auto-login software keystores. Optionally, include the USING backup_identifier clause to add a description of the backup. Enclose this identifier in single quotation marks (' ').

    For example:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SET ENCRYPTION KEY 
    USING TAG 'backups" 
    IDENTIFIED BY password 
    WITH BACKUP USING 'hr.emp_key_backup';
    
    keystore altered.
    

Oracle Database uses the keystore in the keystore location specified by the WALLET_ROOT parameter in the initialization parameter file to store the TDE master encryption key.

About Rekeying the TDE Master Encryption Key

Oracle Database uses a unified TDE Master Encryption Key for both TDE column encryption and TDE tablespace encryption.

When you rekey the TDE master encryption key for TDE column encryption, the TDE Master Encryption Key for TDE tablespace encryption also is rekeyed. Rekey the TDE Master Encryption Key only if it was compromised or as per the security policies of the organization. This process deactivates the previous TDE master encryption key.

For better security and to meet compliance regulations, periodically rekey the TDE master encryption key. This process deactivates the previous TDE master encryption key, creates a new TDE master encryption key, and then activates it. You can check the keys that were created recently by querying the CREATION_TIME column in the V$ENCRYPTION_KEYS view. To find the keys that were activated recently, query the ACTIVATION_TIME column in the V$ENCRYPTION_KEYS view.

You cannot change the TDE master encryption key or rekey a TDE master encryption key for an auto-login keystore. Because auto-login keystores do not have a password, an administrator or a privileged user can change the keys without the knowledge of the security officer. However, if both the auto-login and the password-based keystores are present in the configured location (as set in the sqlnet.ora file), then when you rekey the TDE master encryption key, a TDE master encryption key is added to both the auto-login and password-based keystores. If the auto-login keystore is in use in a location that is different from that of the password-based keystore, then you must re-create the auto-login keystore.

Do not perform a rekey operation of the master key concurrently with an online tablespace rekey operation. You can find if an online tablespace is in the process of being TDE Master Encryption Keyed by issuing the following query:

SELECT TS#,ENCRYPTIONALG,STATUS FROM V$ENCRYPTED_TABLESPACES;

A status of REKEYING means that the corresponding tablespace is still being rekeyed.

Note:

You cannot add new information to auto-login keystores separately.

Rekeying the TDE Master Encryption Key

You can use the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement to rekey a TDE master encryption key.

  1. Log in to the database instance as a user who has been granted the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT or SYSKM privilege.

    For example:

    sqlplus sec_admin as syskm
    Enter password: password
    Connected.
    
  2. If you are rekeying the TDE master encryption key for a keystore that has auto login enabled, then ensure that both the auto login keystore, identified by the .sso file, and the encryption keystore, identified by the .p12 file, are present.

    You can find the location of these files by querying the WRL_PARAMETER column of the V$ENCRYPTION_WALLET view. To find the WRL_PARAMETER values for all of the database instances, query the GV$ENCRYPTION_WALLET view.

  3. Rekey the TDE master encryption key by using the following syntax:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SET [ENCRYPTION] KEY 
    [FORCE KEYSTORE]
    [USING TAG 'tag_name'] 
    IDENTIFIED BY [EXTERNAL STORE | keystore_password] 
    [WITH BACKUP [USING 'backup_identifier']];
    

    In this specification:

    • tag is the associated attributes and information that you define. Enclose this setting in single quotation marks (' ').

    • FORCE KEYSTORE temporarily opens the password-protected keystore for this operation. You must open the keystore for this operation.

    • IDENTIFIED BY can be one of the following settings:

      • EXTERNAL STORE uses the keystore password stored in the external store to perform the keystore operation.

      • keystore_password is the mandatory keystore password that you created when you created the keystore in Step 2: Create the Software Keystore.

    • WITH BACKUP creates a backup of the keystore. You must use this option for password-based and hardware keystores. Optionally, you can use the USING clause to add a brief description of the backup. Enclose this description in single quotation marks (' '). This identifier is appended to the named keystore file (for example, ewallet_time-stamp_emp_key_backup.p12). Follow the file naming conventions that your operating system uses.

    For example:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SET KEY 
    FORCE KEYSTORE
    IDENTIFIED BY keystore_password 
    WITH BACKUP USING 'emp_key_backup';
    
    keystore altered.
    
Changing the TDE Master Encryption Key for a Tablespace

You can use the ENCRYPT and REKEY clauses of the ALTER TABLESPACE statement to encrypt a tablespace.

  1. Ensure that the tablespace open in read-write mode.

    You can query the STATUS column of the V$INSTANCE dynamic view to find if a database is open and the OPEN_MODE column of the V$DATABASE view to find if it in read-write mode.

  2. If necessary, open the database in read-write mode.
    ALTER DATABASE OPEN READ WRITE;
  3. Run the ALTER TABLESPACE SQL statement to encrypt the tablespace.

    If the tablespace has not yet been encrypted, then use the ENCRYPT clause:

    ALTER TABLESPACE encrypt_ts ENCRYPTION USING 'AES256' ENCRYPT;

    To change the encryption of the SYSTEM, SYSAUX, or UNDO tablespace, you must rekey the tablespace online. Use the ONLINE and REKEY clauses. For example, to change the encryption algorithm of the SYSTEM tablespace:

    ALTER TABLESPACE SYSTEM ENCRYPTION ONLINE USING 'AES256' REKEY;

Exporting and Importing the TDE Master Encryption Key

You can export and import the TDE master encryption key in different ways.

About Exporting and Importing the TDE Master Encryption Key

Oracle Database features such as transportable tablespaces and Oracle Data Pump move data that is possibly encrypted between databases.

These are some common scenarios in which you can choose to export and import TDE master encryption keys to move them between source and target keystores. For Data Guard (Logical Standby), you must copy the keystore that is in the primary database to the standby database. Instead of merging the primary database keystore with the standby database, you can export the TDE master encryption key that is in use and then import it to the standby database. Moving transportable tablespaces that are encrypted between databases requires that you export the TDE master encryption key at the source database and then import it into the target database.

About Exporting TDE Master Encryption Keys

You can use ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT EXPORT to export TDE master encryption keys from a keystore, and then import them into another keystore.

A TDE master encryption key is exported together with its key identifier and key attributes. The exported keys are protected with a password (secret) in the export file.

You can specify the TDE master encryption keys to be exported by using the WITH IDENTIFIER clause of the ADMINSITER KEY MANAGENT EXPORT statement. To export the TDE master encryption keys, you can either specify their key identifiers as a comma-separated list, or you can specify a query that enumerates their key identifiers. Be aware that Oracle Database executes the query determining the key identifiers within the current user's rights and not with definer's rights.

If you omit the WITH IDENTIFER clause, then all of the TDE master encryption keys of the database are exported.

Exporting a TDE Master Encryption Key

The ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement with the EXPORT [ENCRYPTION] KEYS WITH SECRET clause exports a TDE master encryption key.

  1. Log in to the database instance as a user who has been granted the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT or SYSKM privilege.

    For example:

    sqlplus sec_admin as syskm
    Enter password: password
    Connected.
    
  2. Export the TDE master encryption keys by using the following syntax:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT EXPORT [ENCRYPTION] KEYS 
    WITH SECRET "export_secret" 
    TO 'file_path' 
    [FORCE KEYSTORE]
    IDENTIFIED BY [EXTERNAL STORE | keystore_password]
    [WITH IDENTIFIER IN 'key_id1', 'key_id2', 'key_idn' | (SQL_query)];
    

    In this specification:

    • export_secret is a password that you can specify to encrypt the export the file that contains the exported keys. Enclose this secret in double quotation marks (" "), or you can omit the quotation marks if the secret has no spaces.

    • file_path is the complete path and name of the file to which the keys must be exported. Enclose this path in single quotation marks (' '). You can export to regular file systems only.

    • FORCE KEYSTORE temporarily opens the password-protected keystore for this operation. You must open the keystore for this operation.

    • IDENTIFIED BY can be one of the following settings:

      • EXTERNAL STORE uses the keystore password stored in the external store to perform the keystore operation.

      • software_keystore_password is the password of the keystore containing the keys.

    • key_id1, key_id2, key_idn is a string of one or more TDE master encryption key identifiers for the TDE master encryption key being exported. Separate each key identifier with a comma and enclose each of these key identifiers in single quotation marks (' '). To find a list of TDE master encryption key identifiers, query the KEY_ID column of the V$ENCRYPTION_KEYS dynamic view.

    • SQL_query is a query that fetches a list of the TDE master encryption key identifiers. It should return only one column which contains the TDE master encryption key identifiers. This query is executed with current user rights.

Example: Exporting a TDE Master Encryption Key by Using a Subquery

The ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT EXPORT ENCRYPTION KEYS statement can export a TDE master encryption key by using a subquery.

Example 4-5 shows how to export TDE master encryption keys whose identifiers are fetched by a query to a file called export.exp. The TDE master encryption keys in the file are encrypted using the secret my_secret. The SELECT statement finds the identifiers for the TDE master encryption keys to be exported.

Example 4-4 Exporting a List of TDE Master Encryption Key Identifiers to a File

ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT EXPORT ENCRYPTION KEYS 
WITH SECRET "my_secret" 
TO '/TDE/export.exp' 
FORCE KEYSTORE
IDENTIFIED BY password 
WITH IDENTIFIER IN 'AdoxnJ0uH08cv7xkz83ovwsAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA',
'AW5z3CoyKE/yv3cNT5CWCXUAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA';

keystore altered.
Example: Exporting a List of TDE Master Encryption Key Identifiers to a File

The ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT EXPORT ENCRYPTION KEYS WITH SECRET statement can export a list of TDE master encryption key identifiers to a file.

Example 4-4 shows how to export TDE master encryption keys by specifying their identifiers as a list, to a file called export.exp. TDE master encryption keys in the file are encrypted using the secret my_secret. The identifiers of the TDE master encryption key to be exported are provided as a comma-separated list.

Example 4-5 Exporting TDE Master Encryption Key Identifiers by Using a Subquery

ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT EXPORT ENCRYPTION KEYS 
WITH SECRET "my_secret" TO '/etc/TDE/export.exp' 
FORCE KEYSTORE
IDENTIFIED BY password 
WITH IDENTIFIER IN (SELECT KEY_ID FROM V$ENCRYPTION_KEYS WHERE ROWNUM <3);

keystore altered.
Example: Exporting All TDE Master Encryption Keys of the Database

The ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT EXPORT ENCRYPTION KEYS SQL statement can export all TDE master encryption keys of a database.

Example 4-6 shows how to export all of the TDE master encryption keys of the database to a file called export.exp. The TDE master encryption keys in the file are encrypted using the secret my_secret.

Example 4-6 Exporting All of the TDE Master Encryption Keys of the Database

ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT EXPORT ENCRYPTION KEYS 
WITH SECRET "my_secret" TO '/etc/TDE/export.exp' 
FORCE KEYSTORE
IDENTIFIED BY password;

keystore altered.
About Importing TDE Master Encryption Keys

The ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT IMPORT statement can import exported TDE master encryption keys from a key export file into a target keystore.

You cannot re-import TDE master encryption keys that have already been imported.

Importing a TDE Master Encryption Key

The ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement with the IMPORT [ENCRYPTION] KEYS WITH SECRET clause can import a TDE master encryption key.

  1. Log in to the database instance as a user who has been granted the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT or SYSKM privilege.

    sqlplus sec_admin as syskm
    Enter password: password
    Connected.
    
  2. Run the following SQL statement:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT IMPORT [ENCRYPTION] KEYS 
    WITH SECRET "import_secret"  
    FROM 'file_name' 
    [FORCE KEYSTORE] 
    IDENTIFIED BY [EXTERNAL STORE | keystore_password] 
    [WITH BACKUP [USING 'backup_identifier']];
    

    In this specification:

    • import_secret is the same password that was used to encrypt the keys during the export operation. Enclose this secret in double quotation marks (" "), or you can omit the quotation marks if the secret has no spaces.

    • file_name is the complete path and name of the file from which the keys need to be imported. Enclose this setting in single quotation marks (' ').

    • FORCE KEYSTORE temporarily opens the password-protected keystore for this operation. You must open the keystore for this operation.

    • IDENTIFIED BY can be one of the following settings:

      • EXTERNAL STORE uses the keystore password stored in the external store to perform the keystore operation.

      • software_keystore_password is the password of the software keystore where the keys are being imported.

    • WITH BACKUP must be used in case the target keystore was not backed up before the import operation. backup_identifier is an optional string that you can provide to identify the keystore backup. Enclose this setting in single quotation marks (' ').

Example: Importing a TDE Master Encryption Key

You can use the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT IMPORT KEYS SQL statement to import a TDE master encryption key.

Example 4-7 shows how to import the TDE master encryption key identifiers that are stored in the file export.exp and encrypted with the secret my_secret.

Example 4-7 Importing TDE Master Encryption Key Identifiers from an Export File

ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT IMPORT KEYS 
WITH SECRET "my_secret" 
FROM '/etc/TDE/export.exp' 
FORCE KEYSTORE
IDENTIFIED BY password WITH BACKUP;

keystore altered.
How Keystore Merge Differs from TDE Master Encryption Key Export or Import

The keystore merge operation differs from the TDE master encryption key export and import operations.

Even though both the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT MERGE statement and the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT EXPORT and IMPORT statements eventually move the TDE master encryption keys from one keystore to the next, there are differences in how these two statements function.

  • The MERGE statement merges two keystores whereas the EXPORT and IMPORT statements export the keys to a file or import the keys from a file. The keystore is different from the export file, and the two cannot be used interchangeably. The export file is not a keystore and cannot be configured to be used with a database as a keystore. Similarly, the IMPORT statement cannot extract the TDE master encryption keys from the keystore.

  • The MERGE statement merges all of the TDE master encryption keys of the specified keystores where as the EXPORT and IMPORT statements can be selective.

  • The EXPORT and IMPORT statements require the user to provide both a location (filepath) and the file name of the export file, whereas the MERGE statement only takes in the location of the keystores.

  • The file name of the keystores is fixed and is determined by the MERGE operation and can be either ewallet.p12 or cwallet.sso. The file names for the export files used in the EXPORT the IMPORT statements are specified by the user.

  • The keystores on Automatic Storage Management (ASM) disk groups or regular file systems can be merged with MERGE statements. The export files used in the EXPORT and the IMPORT statements can only be a regular operating system file and cannot be located on an ASM disk group.

  • The keystores merged using the MERGE statement do not need to be configured or in use with the database. The EXPORT statement can only export the keys from a keystore that is configured and in use with the database and is also open when the export is done. The IMPORT statement can only import the keys into a keystore that is open, configured, and in use with the database.

  • The MERGE statement never modifies the metadata associated with the TDE master encryption keys. The EXPORT and IMPORT operations can modify the metadata of the TDE master encryption keys when required, such as during a PDB plug operation.

Moving TDE Master Encryption Keys into a New Keystore

You can move an existing TDE master encryption key into a new keystore from an existing password-protected keystore.

About Moving TDE Master Encryption Keys into a New Keystore

You can move an unused (and safely archived) TDE master encryption key into a new keystore.

Use great caution when you decide to execute ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT MOVE KEYS. Even though this statement will not move an active master encryption key, it can still affect keys that are necessary for a range of database features. If you have deleted a key, then the data that was encrypted by that key is rendered permanently inaccessible (equivalent to deleting the data) for these features to be used. See Related Topics at the end of this topic for more information about features that are affected by deleted keystores.

Therefore, before you move the keystore, it is very important that you safely archive it. Delete the keystore only after a period of time has passed, to ensure that the keystore is no longer really useful.

To move a TDE master encryption key into a new keystore, you use the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT MOVE KEYS statement. This statement does not move the active TDE master encryption key (that is, the key that is currently in use at the time that ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT MOVE KEYS is issued) because the database is currently using it.

If you mistakenly use the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT MOVE KEYS statement instead of ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT MERGE KEYSTORE when you are configuring a new TDE keystore (for example, when you are changing the TDE keystore configuration from one where the software keystore is located in the operating system's file system to one where the software keystore is located in Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM)), then the following symptoms may help you to identify the TDE misconfiguration that was introduced by the use of the wrong key management command:

  • When you open the TDE keystore that was the target of the earlier ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT MOVE KEYS operation, an ORA-28374: typed master key not found in wallet error is seen, because the active TDE master encryption key was not moved to that keystore.
  • The value shown in the STATUS column of the V$ENCRYPTION_WALLET view is OPEN_NO_MASTER_KEY after you open the new keystore. The OPEN_NO_MASTER_KEY status is expected, because the new TDE keystore that was mistakenly populated by means of the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT MOVE KEYS statement does not contain the active TDE master encryption key.
Moving a TDE Master Encryption Key into a New Keystore

The ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT MOVE KEYS moves an existing TDE master encryption key into a new keystore from an existing keystore.

This feature enables you to delete unused keystores. Before you move the keystore, ensure that it is safely archived. After you move the encryption key to a new keystore, and when you are sure that the old keystore is no longer needed, you then can delete the old keystore.
  1. Log in to the database instance as a user who has been granted the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT or SYSKM privilege.
    For example:
    sqlplus sec_admin as syskm
    Enter password: password
    Connected.
    
  2. Query the KEY_ID column of the V$ENCRYPTION_KEYS view to find the key identifier of the keys you want to move to the "key archival" keystore.
    For example:
    SELECT KEY_ID FROM V$ENCRYPTION_KEYS; 
    
    KEY_ID
    ----------------------------------------------------
    ARaHD762tUkkvyLgPzAi6hMAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
  3. Move the key into a new keystore by using the following syntax:
    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT 
    MOVE [ENCRYPTION] KEYS
    TO NEW KEYSTORE 'keystore_location1'
    IDENTIFIED BY keystore1_password
    FROM [FORCE] KEYSTORE
    IDENTIFIED BY keystore_password
    [WITH IDENTIFIER IN
    { 'key_identifier' [, 'key_identifier' ]... | ( subquery ) } ]
    [WITH BACKUP [USING 'backup_identifier'] ];

    In this specification:

    • keystore_location1 is the path to the wallet directory that will store the new keystore .p12 file. By default, this directory is in $ORACLE_BASE/admin/db_unique_name/wallet.

    • keystore1_password is the password for the keystore from which the new keystore is moved.

    • keystore_password is the password for the keystore from which the key is moving.

    • key_identifier is the key identifier that you find from querying the KEY_ID column of the V$ENCRYPTION_KEYS view. Enclose this setting in single quotation marks (' ').

    • subquery can be used to find the exact key identifier that you want.

    • backup_identifier is an optional description of the backup. Enclose backup_identifier in single quotation marks (' ').

    For example:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT MOVE KEYS 
    TO NEW KEYSTORE $ORACLE_BASE/admin/orcl/wallet 
    IDENTIFIED BY keystore_password 
    FROM FORCE KEYSTORE 
    IDENTIFIED BY keystore_password 
    WITH IDENTIFIER IN 
    (SELECT KEY_ID FROM V$ENCRYPTION_KEYS WHERE ROWNUM < 2);
  4. To delete the old keystore, go to the wallet directory and then manually delete the .p12 file containing the keystore.
    To find the location of the keystore, open the keystore, and then query the WRL_PARAMETER column of the V$ENCRYPTION_WALLET view.

Management of TDE Master Encryption Keys Using Oracle Key Vault

You can use Oracle Key Vault to manage and share TDE master encryption keys across an enterprise.

Oracle Key Vault securely stores the keys in a central repository, along with other security objects such as credential files and Java keystores, and enables you to share these objects with other TDE-enabled databases.

Storing Oracle Database Secrets

Secrets are data that support internal Oracle Database features that integrate external clients such as Oracle GoldenGate into the database.

About Storing Oracle Database Secrets in a Keystore

Keystores can store secrets that support internal Oracle Database features and integrate external clients such as Oracle GoldenGate.

The secret key must be a string adhering to Oracle identifier rules. You can add, update, or delete a client secret in an existing keystore. The Oracle GoldenGate Extract process must have data encryption keys to decrypt the data that is in data files and in REDO or UNDO logs. Keys are encrypted with shared secrets when you share the keys between an Oracle database and an Oracle GoldenGate client. The software keystore stores the shared secrets.

Depending on your site's requirements, you may require automated open keystore operations even when a hardware security module is configured. For this reason, the hardware security module password can be stored in a software auto-login keystore, which enables the auto-login capability for the hardware security module. The Oracle Database side can also store the credentials for the database to log in to an external storage server in the software keystore.

You can store Oracle Database secrets in both software keystores and hardware keystores:

  • Software keystores: You can store secrets in software password-based, auto-login, and local auto-login software keystores. If you want to store secrets in an auto-login (or auto-login local) keystore, then note the following:

    • If the software auto-login keystore is in the same location as its corresponding password-based software keystore, then the secrets are added automatically.

    • If the software auto-login keystore is in a different location from its corresponding password-based software keystore, then you must create the auto-login keystore again from the password-based keystore, and keep the two keystores in synchronization.

  • Hardware keystores: You can store secrets in standard hardware security modules.

Storage of Oracle Database Secrets in a Software Keystore

The ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT ADD SECRET|UPDATE SECRET|DELETE SECRET statements can add secrets, update secrets, and delete secrets from a keystore.

As with all of the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statements, you must have the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT or the SYSKM administrative privilege. To find information about existing secrets, you can query the V$CLIENT_SECRETS dynamic view.

  • Adding a secret: Use the following syntax:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT
    ADD SECRET 'secret' FOR CLIENT 'client_identifier' 
    [USING TAG 'tag']
    [TO [[LOCAL] AUTO_LOGIN] KEYSTORE keystore_location  
    [FORCE KEYSTORE]  
    IDENTIFIED BY [EXTERNAL STORE | keystore_password]
    [WITH BACKUP [USING backup_id];
  • Updating a secret: Use the following syntax:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT
    UPDATE SECRET 'secret' FOR CLIENT 'client_identifier' 
    [USING TAG 'tag']
     [TO [[LOCAL] AUTO_LOGIN] KEYSTORE keystore_location 
    [FORCE KEYSTORE]  
    IDENTIFIED BY [EXTERNAL STORE | keystore_password]
    [WITH BACKUP [USING backup_id];
    
  • Deleting a secret: Use the following syntax:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT
    DELETE SECRET FOR CLIENT 'client_identifier' 
    [FROM [[LOCAL] AUTO_LOGIN] KEYSTORE keystore_location 
    [FORCE KEYSTORE]  
    IDENTIFIED BY [EXTERNAL STORE | keystore_password]
    [WITH BACKUP [USING backup_id];
    

In all of these statements, the specification is as follows:

  • secret is the client secret key to be stored, updated, or deleted. Enclose this setting in single quotation marks (' ') or omit the quotation marks if the secret has no spaces. To find information about existing secrets and their client identifiers, query the V$CLIENT_SECRETS dynamic view.

  • client_identifier is an alphanumeric string used to identify the secret key. client_identifier does not have a default value. Enclose this setting in single quotation marks (' ').

  • TO [[LOCAL] AUTO_LOGIN] KEYSTORE refers to the location of an auto-login keystore, which is specified in the sqlnet.ora file.

  • tag is an optional, user-defined description for the secret key to be stored. You can use tag with the ADD and UPDATE operations. Enclose this setting in single quotation marks (' '). This tag appears in the SECRET_TAG column of the V$CLIENT_SECRETS view.

    WITH BACKUP is required in case the keystore was not backed up before the ADD, UPDATE, or DELETE operation. backup_identifier is an optional user-defined description for the backup. Enclose backup_identifier in single quotation marks (' ').

  • [TO | FROM [[LOCAL] AUTOLLOGIN] KEYSTORE specifies the location of the auto-login or password keystore, which is set in the sqlnet.ora file.

  • FORCE KEYSTORE temporarily opens the password-protected keystore for this operation if an auto-login keystore is open (and in use) or if the keystore is closed.

  • IDENTIFIED BY can be one of the following settings:

    • EXTERNAL STORE uses the keystore password stored in the external store to perform the keystore operation.

    • keystore_password is the password for the keystore.

Example: Adding an HSM Password to a Software Keystore

The ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT ADD SECRET statement can add an HSM password to a software keystore.

Example 4-8 shows how to add a hardware security module (HSM) password as a secret to a software keystore.

Example 4-8 Adding an Oracle Database Secret to a Software Keystore

ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT 
ADD SECRET 'psmith:password' FOR CLIENT 'HSM_PASSWORD' 
USING TAG 'HSM credentials' FORCE KEYSTORE 
IDENTIFIED BY password WITH BACKUP;

In this version, the keystore password is in an external store, so the EXTERNAL STORE setting is used for IDENTIFIED BY:

ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT 
ADD SECRET 'psmith:password' FOR CLIENT 'HSM_PASSWORD' 
USING TAG 'HSM credentials' FORCE KEYSTORE 
IDENTIFIED BY EXTERNAL STORE WITH BACKUP;

Example: Changing an HSM Password Stored as a Secret in a Software Keystore

The ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT UPDATE SECRET statement can change an HSM password that is stored as a secret in a software keystore.

Example 4-9 shows how to change an HSM password that is stored as a secret in a software keystore.

Example 4-9 Changing an Oracle Database Secret to a Software Keystore

ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT
UPDATE SECRET admin_password FOR CLIENT 'admin@myhost' 
USING TAG 'new_host_credentials' FORCE KEYSTORE
IDENTIFIED BY software_keytore_password;

In this version, the password for the keystore is in an external store:

DMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT
UPDATE SECRET admin_password FOR CLIENT 'admin@myhost' 
USING TAG 'new_host_credentials' FORCE KEYSTORE
IDENTIFIED BY EXTERNAL STORE;

Example: Deleting an HSM Password Stored as a Secret in a Software Keystore

The ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT DELETE SECRET statement can delete HSM passwords that are stored as secrets in a software keystore.

Example 4-10 shows how to delete an HSM password that is stored as a secret in the software keystore.

Example 4-10 Deleting an Oracle Database Secret in a Software Keystore

ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT 
DELETE SECRET FOR CLIENT 'HSM_PASSWORD' 
FORCE KEYSTORE
IDENTIFIED BY password WITH BACKUP;

In this version, the password for the keystore is in an external store:

ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT 
DELETE SECRET FOR CLIENT 'HSM_PASSWORD'
FORCE KEYSTORE 
IDENTIFIED BY EXTERNAL STORE WITH BACKUP;

Storage of Oracle Database Secrets in a Hardware Keystore

The ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT ADD SECRET|UPDATE SECRET|DELETE SECRET statements can add, update, and delete secrets.

As with all ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statements, you must have the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT or the SYSKM administrative privilege. When you add, update, or delete secrets from a keystore that is in use or presently open, then you must run ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT in the root.

You can store Oracle Database secrets in both HSM and Oracle Key Vault hardware keystores, but be aware that automatic logins do not work if you store the HSM_PASSWORD in a Key Vault keystore.

Note:

Before you attempt to add a secret to a hardware security module, ensure that it has PKCS#11 data object support.

  • Adding a secret: Use the following syntax:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT ADD SECRET 'secret' 
    FOR CLIENT 'client_identifier' [USING TAG 'tag']
    [TO [[LOCAL] AUTO_LOGIN] KEYSTORE keystore_location 
    [FORCE KEYSTORE]
    IDENTIFIED BY "hardware_keystore_credentials" 
    [WITH BACKUP [USING backup_id]];
  • Updating a secret: Use the following syntax:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT UPDATE SECRET 'secret' 
    FOR CLIENT 'client_identifier' [USING TAG 'tag'] 
    [TO [[LOCAL] AUTO_LOGIN] KEYSTORE keystore_location 
    [FORCE KEYSTORE]
    IDENTIFIED BY "hardware_keystore_credentials" 
    [WITH BACKUP [USING backup_id]];
    
  • Deleting a secret: Use the following syntax:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT DELETE SECRET 
    FOR CLIENT 'client_identifier' 
    [FROM [[LOCAL] AUTO_LOGIN] KEYSTORE keystore_location 
    [FORCE KEYSTORE]
    IDENTIFIED BY "hardware_keystore_credentials" 
    [WITH BACKUP [USING backup_id]];
    

In all of these statements, the specification as follows:

  • secret is the client secret key to be stored, updated, or deleted. Enclose this setting in double quotation marks (' ') or omit the quotation marks if the secret has no spaces. To find information about existing secrets and their client identifiers, query the V$CLIENT_SECRETS dynamic view.

  • client_identifier is an alphanumeric string used to identify the secret key. client_identifier does not have a default value. Enclose this setting in single quotation marks (' ').

  • tag is an optional, user-defined description for the secret key to be stored. You can use tag with the ADD and UPDATE operations. Enclose this setting in single quotation marks (' '). This tag appears in the SECRET_TAG column of the V$CLIENT_SECRETS view.

  • [TO | FROM [[LOCAL] AUTO_LOGIN] KEYSTORE specifies the location of the keystore used for the hardware keystore.

  • hardware_keystore_credentials refers to the credentials for either an HSM or an Oracle Key Vault hardware keystore. For an HSM, specify the credentials using this format, enclosed in quotation marks and separating the components with a colon: user_name:password, with user_name being the user who created the HSM and password being this user’s password. For Oracle Key Vault, enter only the password of the user who created the keystore. Enclose this password with quotation marks.

Example: Adding an Oracle Database Secret to a Hardware Keystore

The ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT ADD SECRET statement can add an Oracle Database secret to a hardware keystore.

Example 4-11 shows how to add a password for a user to a hardware keystore.

Example 4-11 Adding an Oracle Database Secret to a Hardware Keystore

ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT ADD SECRET 'password' 
FOR CLIENT 'admin@myhost' USING TAG 'myhost admin credentials' 
IDENTIFIED BY "psmith:password";

In this version, the keystore password is in an external store, so the EXTERNAL STORE setting is used for IDENTIFIED BY:

ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT ADD SECRET 'password' 
FOR CLIENT 'admin@myhost' USING TAG 'myhost admin credentials' 
IDENTIFIED BY EXTERNAL STORE;

Example: Changing an Oracle Database Secret in a Hardware Keystore

The ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT UPDATE SECRET statement can change an Oracle Database secret in a hardware keystore.

Example 4-12 shows how to change a password that is stored as a secret in a hardware keystore.

Example 4-12 Changing an Oracle Database Secret in a Hardware Keystore

ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT UPDATE SECRET 'password2' 
FOR CLIENT 'admin@myhost' USING TAG 'New host credentials' 
IDENTIFIED BY "psmith:password";

In this version, the password for the keystore is in an external store:

ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT UPDATE SECRET 'password2' 
FOR CLIENT 'admin@myhost' USING TAG 'New host credentials' 
IDENTIFIED BY EXTERNAL STORE;

Example: Deleting an Oracle Database Secret in a Hardware Keystore

The ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT DELETE SECRET FOR CLIENT statement can delete an Oracle Database secret that is in a hardware keystore.

Example 4-13 shows how to delete a hardware security module password that is stored as a secret in the hardware keystore.

Example 4-13 Deleting an Oracle Database Secret in a Hardware Keystore

ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT DELETE SECRET FOR CLIENT 'admin@myhost' 
IDENTIFIED BY "psmith:password";

In this version, the password for the keystore is in an external store:

ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT DELETE SECRET FOR CLIENT 'admin@myhost' 
IDENTIFIED BY EXTERNAL STORE;

Configuring Auto-Login Hardware Security Modules

A hardware security module can be configured to use the auto-login capability.

About Configuring Auto-Login Hardware Security Modules

An auto-login hardware security module stores the hardware security module credentials in an auto-login keystore.

This configuration reduces the security of the system as a whole. However, this configuration does support unmanned or automated operations and is useful in deployments where automatic re-login to the hardware security module is necessary.

Be aware that executing the query SELECT * FROM V$ENCRYPTION_WALLET will automatically open an auto-login hardware security module. For example, suppose you have an auto-login hardware security module configured. If you close the keystore and query the V$ENCRYPTION_WALLET view, then the output will indicate that a keystore is open. This is because V$ENCRYPTION_WALLET opened up the auto-login hardware keystore and then displayed the status of the auto-login keystore.

To enable the auto-login capability for a hardware keystore, you must store the hardware keystore's credentials in an auto-login wallet.

When you use the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement, there are conceptually two sets of commands that act on client secrets:

  • ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT commands that act on the wallet that is currently in use (in other words, a wallet that contains an active TDE master encryption key).
  • ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT commands that act on a wallet that is not currently being used to hold the active TDE master encryption key. Oracle recommends that you use this approach when you configure an auto-login hardware keystore.
Configuring an Auto-Login Hardware Security Module

To configure the auto-login HSM, you must use the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement to add or update a client secret that is to be used to authenticate to the HSM.

Before you begin this procedure, ensure that you have configured the TDE hardware keystore.
In this procedure, the wallet that is created does not contain any keys. It only holds the client secret. So, when you query the V$ENCRYPTION_WALLET dynamic view for this wallet, the STATUS column shows OPEN_NO_MASTER_KEY rather than OPEN, because the wallet only contains the client secret.
  1. Reconfigure the WALLET_ROOT parameter in the init.ora file to include the keystore location of the software keystore, if it is not already present.

    The software keystore location may already be present if you had previously migrated to using the HSM.

    For example:

    WALLET_ROOT=/etc/ORACLE/WALLETS/orcl
  2. Add or update the secret in the software keystore.

    The secret is the hardware security module password and the client is the HSM_PASSWORD. HSM_PASSWORD is an Oracle-defined client name that is used to represent the HSM password as a secret in the software keystore.

    For example:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT ADD SECRET 'user_name:password' 
    FOR CLIENT 'HSM_PASSWORD' 
    TO LOCAL AUTO_LOGIN KEYSTORE software_keystore_location 
    WITH BACKUP;

    In this example:

    • software_keystore_location is the location of the software keystore within the WALLET_ROOT location that you just defined in Step 1.

      For the CDB root and for any PDB that is configured in united mode, the value to use for the software_keystore_location location is WALLET_ROOT/tde.

      For any PDB that is configured in isolated mode, the value to use for the software_keystore_location location is WALLET_ROOT/pdb_guid/tde. When you are in the PDB, execute the following query to find this GUID: SELECT GUID FROM V$PDBS;

    • LOCAL creates a local auto-login wallet file, cwallet.sso, to hold the credentials for the HSM. This wallet is tied to the host on which it was created.

      For an Oracle Real Application Clusters environment, omit the LOCAL keyword, because each Oracle RAC node has a different host name, yet they all use the same HSM. If you configure a local auto-login wallet for the Oracle RAC instance, then only the first Oracle RAC node, where the cwallet.sso file was created, would be able to access the HSM credentials. If you try to open the keystore from another node instead of from that first node, there would be a problem auto-opening cwallet.sso, and so it would result in a failure to auto-open the auto-login HSM. This restriction applies if you are using a shared location to hold the cwallet.sso file for the Oracle RAC cluster, because using LOCAL only works if you have a separate cwallet.sso file (containing the same credentials) on each node of the Oracle RAC environment.

At this stage, the next time a TDE operation executes, the hardware security module auto-login keystore opens automatically. An example of a TDE operation is to query the V$ENCRYPTION_WALLET view, for example:

SELECT * FROM V$ENCRYPTION_WALLET;

Storing Oracle GoldenGate Secrets in a Keystore

You can store Oracle GoldenGate secrets in Transparent Data Encryption keystores.

About Storing Oracle GoldenGate Secrets in Keystores

You can use a keystore to store secret keys for tools and external clients such as Oracle GoldenGate.

The secret key must be a string adhering to Oracle identifier rules. You can add, update, or delete a client secret in an existing keystore. This section describes how to capture Transparent Data Encryption encrypted data in the Oracle GoldenGate Extract (Extract) process using classic capture mode.

TDE support when Extract is in classic capture mode requires the exchange of the following keys:

  • TDE support for Oracle GoldenGate in the classic capture mode of the Extract process requires that an Oracle database and the Extract process share the secret to encrypt sensitive information being exchanged. The shared secret is stored securely in the Oracle database and Oracle GoldenGate domains. The shared secret is stored in the software keystore or the HSM as the database secret.

  • The decryption key is a password known as the shared secret that is stored securely in the Oracle database and Oracle GoldenGate domains. Only a party that has possession of the shared secret can decrypt the table and redo log keys.

After you configure the shared secret, Oracle GoldenGate Extract uses the shared secret to decrypt the data. Oracle GoldenGate Extract does not handle the TDE master encryption key itself, nor is it aware of the keystore password. The TDE master encryption key and password remain within the Oracle database configuration.

Oracle GoldenGate Extract only writes the decrypted data to the Oracle GoldenGate trail file, which Oracle GoldenGate persists during transit. You can protect this file using your site's operating system standard security protocols, as well as the Oracle GoldenGate AES encryption options. Oracle GoldenGate does not write the encrypted data to a discard file (specified with the DISCARDFILE parameter). The word ENCRYPTED will be written to any discard file that is in use.

Oracle GoldenGate does require that the keystore be open when processing encrypted data. There is no performance effect of Oracle GoldenGate feature on the TDE operations.

Oracle GoldenGate Extract Classic Capture Mode TDE Requirements

Ensure that you meet the requirements for Oracle GoldenGate Extract to support Transparent Data Encryption capture.

The requirements are as follows:

  • To maintain high security standards, ensure that the Oracle GoldenGate Extract process runs as part of the Oracle user (the user that runs the Oracle database). That way, the keys are protected in memory by the same privileges as the Oracle user.

  • Run the Oracle GoldenGate Extract process on the same computer as the Oracle database installation.

Configuring Keystore Support for Oracle GoldenGate

You can configure Transparent Data Encryption keystore support for Oracle GoldenGate by using a shared secret for the keystore.

Step 1: Decide on a Shared Secret for the Keystore

A shared secret for a keystore is a password.

  • Decide on a shared secret that meets or exceeds Oracle Database password standards.

Do not share this password with any user other than trusted administrators who are responsible for configuring Transparent Data Encryption to work with Oracle GoldenGate Extract.

Step 2: Configure Oracle Database for TDE Support for Oracle GoldenGate

The DBMS_INTERNAL_CLKM PL/SQL package enables you to configure TDE support for Oracle GoldenGate.

  1. Log in to the database instance as user SYS with the SYSDBA administrative privilege.

    For example

    sqlplus sys as sysdba
    Enter password: password
    Connected.
    
  2. Load the Oracle Database-supplied DBMS_INTERNAL_CLKM PL/SQL package.

    For example:

    @?/app/oracle/product/12.2/rdbms/admin/prvtclkm.plb
    

    The prvtclkm.plb file also enables Oracle GoldenGate to extract encrypted data from an Oracle database.

  3. Grant the EXECUTE privilege on the DBMS_INTERNAL_CLKM PL/SQL package to the Oracle GoldenGate Extract database user.

    For example:

    GRANT EXECUTE ON DBMS_INTERNAL_CLKM TO psmith;
    

    This procedure enables the Oracle database and Oracle GoldenGate Extract to exchange information.

  4. Exit SQL*Plus.

Step 3: Store the TDE GoldenGate Shared Secret in the Keystore

The ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement can store a TDE GoldenGate shared secret in a keystore.

Before you begin this procedure, ensure that you have configured the TDE software or hardware keystore, based on Configuring a Software Keystore and Configuring a Hardware Keystore.
  1. Set the Oracle GoldenGate-TDE key in the keystore by using the following syntax.

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT ADD|UPDATE|DELETE SECRET 'secret' 
    FOR CLIENT 'secret_identifier' [USING TAG 'tag'] 
    IDENTIFIED BY keystore_password [WITH BACKUP [USING 'backup_identifier']];
    

    In this specification:

    • secret is the client secret key to be stored, updated, or deleted. Enclose this setting in single quotation marks (' ').

    • secret_identifier is an alphanumeric string used to identify the secret key. secret_identifier does not have a default value. Enclose this setting in single quotation marks (' ').

    • tag is an optional, user-defined description for the secret key to be stored. tag can be used with the ADD and UPDATE operations. Enclose this setting in single quotation marks (' '). This tag appears in the SECRET_TAG column of the V$CLIENT_SECRETS view. Creating Custom TDE Master Encryption Key Attributes for Reports

    • keystore_password is the password for the keystore that is configured.

    • WITH BACKUP is required in case the keystore was not backed up before the ADD, UPDATE or DELETE operation. backup_identifier is an optional user-defined description for the backup. Enclose backup_identifier in single quotation marks (' ').

    The following example adds a secret key to the keystore and creates a backup in the same directory as the keystore:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT ADD SECRET 'some_secret' 
    FOR CLIENT 'ORACLE_GG' USING TAG 'GoldenGate Secret' 
    IDENTIFIED BY password WITH BACKUP USING 'GG backup';
    
  2. Verify the entry that you just created.

    For example:

    SELECT CLIENT, SECRET_TAG FROM V$CLIENT_SECRETS WHERE CLIENT = 'ORACLEGG';
    
    CLIENT   SECRET_TAG
    -------- ------------------------------------------
    ORACLEGG some_secret
    
  3. Switch the log files.

    CONNECT / AS SYSDBA
    
    ALTER SYSTEM SWITCH LOGFILE;
    

See Also:

Step 4: Set the TDE Oracle GoldenGate Shared Secret in the Extract Process

The GoldenGate Software Command Interface (GGSCI) utility sets the TDE Oracle GoldenGate shared secret in the extract process.

  1. Start the GGSCI utility.

    For example:

    ggsci
    
  2. In the GGSCI utility, run the ENCRYPT PASSWORD command to encrypt the shared secret within the Oracle GoldenGate Extract parameter file.

    ENCRYPT PASSWORD shared_secret algorithm ENCRYPTKEY keyname
    

    In this specification:

    • shared_secret is the clear-text shared secret that you created when you decided on a shared secret for the keystore. This setting is case sensitive.

    • algorithm is one of the following values to specify AES encryption:

      • AES128

      • AES192

      • AES256

    • keyname is the logical name of the encryption key in the ENCKEYS lookup file. Oracle GoldenGate uses this name to look up the actual key in the ENCKEYS file.

    For example:

    ENCRYPT PASSWORD password AES256 ENCRYPTKEY mykey1
    
  3. In the Oracle GoldenGate Extract parameter file, set the DBOPTIONS parameter with the DECRYPTPASSWORD option.

    As input, supply the encrypted shared secret and the Oracle GoldenGate-generated or user-defined decryption key.

    DBOPTIONS DECRYPTPASSWORD shared_secret algorithm ENCRYPTKEY keyname
    

    In this specification:

    • shared_secret is the clear-text shared secret that you created when you decided on a shared secret for the keystore. This setting is case sensitive.

    • algorithm is one of the following values to specify AES encryption:

      • AES128

      • AES192

      • AES256

    • keyname is the logical name of the encryption key in the ENCKEYS lookup file.

      For example:

      DBOPTIONS DECRYPTPASSWORD AACAAAAAAAAAAAIALCKDZIRHOJBHOJUH AES256 ENCRYPTKEY mykey1