11.9 ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE

Purpose

Use the ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE statement to modify a pluggable database (PDB). The PDB can be a traditional PDB, an application container, or an application PDB.

This statement enables you to perform the following tasks:

  • Unplug a PDB from a multitenant container database (CDB) (using the pdb_unplug_clause)

  • Modify the settings of a PDB (using the pdb_settings_clauses)

  • Bring PDB data files online or take them offline (using the pdb_datafile_clause)

  • Back up and recover a PDB (using the pdb_recovery_clauses)

  • Modify the state of a PDB (using the pdb_change_state clause)

  • Modify the state of multiple PDBs within a CDB (using the pdb_change_state_from_root clause)

  • Perform operations on applications in an application container (using the application_clauses)

  • Create and manage PDB snapshots using the snapshot_clauses

Note:

You can perform all ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE tasks by connecting to a PDB and running the corresponding ALTER DATABASE statement. This functionality is provided to maintain backward compatibility for applications that have been migrated to a CDB environment. The exception is modifying PDB storage limits, for which you must use the pdb_storage_clause of ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE.

See Also:

CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE for information on creating PDBs

Prerequisites

You must be connected to a CDB.

To specify the pdb_unplug_clause, the current container must be the root or the application root, you must be authenticated AS SYSDBA or AS SYSOPER, and the SYSDBA or SYSOPER privilege must be either granted to you commonly, or granted to you locally in the root and locally in the PDB you want to unplug.

To specify the pdb_settings_clauses, the current container must be the PDB whose settings you want to modify and you must have the ALTER DATABASE privilege, either granted commonly or granted locally in the PDB. To specify the pdb_logging_clauses or the RENAME GLOBAL_NAME clause, you must also have the RESTRICTED SESSION privilege, either granted commonly or granted locally in the PDB being renamed, and the PDB must be in READ WRITE RESTRICTED mode.

To specify the pdb_datafile_clause, the current container must be the PDB whose datafiles you want to bring online or take offline and you must have the ALTER DATABASE privilege, either granted commonly or granted locally in the PDB.

To specify the pdb_recovery_clauses, the current container must be the PDB you want to back up or recover and you must have the ALTER DATABASE privilege, either granted commonly or granted locally in the PDB.

To specify the pdb_change_state clause, the current container must be the PDB whose state you want to change and you must be authenticated AS SYSBACKUP, AS SYSDBA, AS SYSDG, or AS SYSOPER.

To specify the pdb_change_state_from_root clause, the current container must be the root or the application root, you must be authenticated AS SYSBACKUP, AS SYSDBA, AS SYSDG, or AS SYSOPER, and the SYSBACKUP, SYSDBA, SYSDG, or SYSOPER privilege must be either granted to you commonly, or granted to you locally in the root or application root, and locally in the PDB(s) whose state(s) you want to change.

To specify the application_clauses, the current container must be an application container, you must be authenticated AS SYSBACKUP or AS SYSDBA, and the SYSBACKUP or SYSDBA privilege must be either granted to you commonly, or granted to you locally in the application root and locally in the application PDB(s) in which you want to perform application operations.

Syntax

lost_write_protection ::=

The usage for the lost_write_protection clause with the ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE statement is identical to the ALTER DATABASE statement. Look here ALTER DATABASE for syntax details.

Semantics

database_clause

Specify the PLUGGABLE DATABASE option for a container database.

pdb_name

Specify the name of the database to be altered. If you omit db_name, then Oracle Database alters the database identified by the value of the initialization parameter DB_NAME. You can alter only the database whose control files are specified by the initialization parameter CONTROL_FILES. The database identifier is not related to the Oracle Net database specification.

pdb_unplug_clause

This clause lets you unplug a PDB from a CDB. When you unplug a PDB, Oracle stores information about the PDB in a file on your operating system. You can subsequently use this file to plug the PDB into a CDB.

For pdb_name, specify the name of the PDB you want to unplug. The PDB must be closed—that is, the open mode must be MOUNTED. In an Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) environment, the PDB must be closed in all Oracle RAC instances

For filename, specify the full path name of the operating system file in which to store information about the PDB. The file name that you specify determines the type of information stored and how it is stored.

  • If you specify a file name that ends with the extension .xml, then Oracle creates an XML file containing metadata about the PDB. You can then copy the XML file and the PDB's data files to a new location and specify the XML file name when plugging the PDB into a CDB. In this case, you must copy the PDB's data files separately.

  • If you specify a file name that ends with the extension .pdb, then Oracle creates a .pdb archive file. This is a compressed file that includes an XML file containing metadata about the PDB, as well as the PDB's data files. You can then copy this single archive file to a new location and specify the archive file name when plugging the PDB into a CDB. This eliminates having to copy the PDB's data files separately. When you use a .pdb archive file when plugging in a PDB, this file is extracted when you plug in the PDB, and the PDB’s files are placed in the same directory as the .pdb archive file.

After a PDB is unplugged, it remains in the CDB with an open mode of MOUNTED and a status of UNPLUGGED. The only operation you can perform on an unplugged PDB is DROP PLUGGABLE DATABASE, which will remove it from the CDB. You must drop the PDB before you can plug it into the same CDB or another CDB.

See Also:

pdb_unplug_encrypt

You must have the SYSKM privilege to execute this command.

United PDBs

  • ENCRYPT USING transport_secret is optional.

  • If TDE is in use, you must specify this clause. If TDE is not in use, the statement throws the following error ORA-46680:master keys of the container database must be exported.

  • The wallet must be open in ROOT if TDE is in use.

  • Keys are encrypted using the provided transport secret and exported into the .XML or archive file

Unplugging a PDB Into an XML Metadata File: Example

ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE CDB1_PDB2 UNPLUG INTO '/tmp/cdb1_pdb2.xml' ENCRYPT USING transport_secret

Unplugging a PDB Into an Archive File: Example

ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE CDB1_PDB1_1 UNPLUG INTO '/tmp/CDB1_PDB1_1.pdb' ENCRYPT USING transport_secret

For PDBs in isolated mode, you need not specify ENCRYPT USING transport_secret. This is not required because the wallet file of the PDB is copied during the creation of the pluggable database from an XML file. If you are unplugging a PDB as an archive file, the wallet file of the PDB is added to the zipped archive with the .pdb extension.

If the ewallet.p12 file already exists at the destination, a backup is automatically initiated. The backup file has the following format: ewallet_PLGDB_2017090517455564.p12.

pdb_settings_clauses

These clauses lets you modify various settings for a PDB.

pdb_name

You can optionally use pdb_name to specify the name of the PDB whose settings you want to modify.

DEFAULT EDITION Clause

Use this clause to designate the specified edition as the default edition for the PDB. For the full semantics of this clause, refer to "DEFAULT EDITION Clause" in the ALTER DATABASE documentation.

SET DEFAULT TABLESPACE Clause

Use this clause to specify or change the default type of tablespaces subsequently created in the PDB. For the full semantics of this clause, refer to "SET DEFAULT TABLESPACE Clause" in the ALTER DATABASE documentation.

DEFAULT TABLESPACE Clause

Use this clause to establish or change the default permanent tablespace of the PDB. For the full semantics of this clause, refer to "DEFAULT TABLESPACE Clause" in the ALTER DATABASE documentation.

DEFAULT TEMPORARY TABLESPACE Clause

Use this clause to change the default temporary tablespace of the PDB to a new tablespace or tablespace group. For the full semantics of this clause, refer to "DEFAULT [LOCAL] TEMPORARY TABLESPACE Clause" in the ALTER DATABASE documentation.

RENAME GLOBAL_NAME TO Clause

Use this clause to change the global name of the PDB. The new global name must be unique within the CDB. For an Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) database, the PDB must be open in READ WRITE RESTRICTED mode on the current instance only. The PDB must be closed on all other instances. For the full semantics of this clause, refer to "RENAME GLOBAL_NAME Clause" in the ALTER DATABASE documentation.

Note:

When you change the global name of a PDB, be sure to change the PLUGGABLE DATABASE property for database services that are used to connect to the PDB.

set_time_zone_clauses

Use this clause to modify the time zone setting for the PDB. For the full semantics of this clause, refer to set_time_zone_clause in the ALTER DATABASE documentation.

database_file_clauses

Use this clause to modify data files and temp files for the PDB. For the full semantics of this clause, refer to database_file_clauses in the ALTER DATABASE documentation.

supplemental_db_logging

Use these clauses to instruct Oracle Database to add or stop adding supplemental data into the log stream for the PDB.

  • Specify the ADD SUPPLEMENTAL LOG clause to add supplemental data into the log stream for the PDB. In order to issue this clause, supplemental logging must have been enabled for the CDB root with the ALTER DATABASE ... ADD SUPPLEMENTAL LOG ... statement. The level of supplemental logging that you specify for the PDB does not need to match that of the CDB root. That is, you can specify any of the clauses DATA, supplemental_id_key_clause, or supplemental_plsql_clause for the PDB, regardless of which clause was specified when enabling supplemental logging for the CDB root.

  • Specify the DROP SUPPLEMENTAL LOG clause to stop adding supplemental data into the log stream for the PDB.

ADD SUPPLEMENTAL LOG DATA SUBSET DATABASE REPLICATION, of ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE enables low impact minimal supplemental logging on the PDB.

  • You can only execute this DDL on a pluggable database.

  • You can execute this DDL only when the enable_goldengate_replication parameter is TRUE, and database compatible is 19.0 or higher.

  • You must enable minimal supplemental logging in CDB$ROOT to run this command.

  • After you execute this DDL, minimal supplemental logging will become low impact for the pluggable database. SYS.PROP$ will be updated to indicate that low impact minimal supplemental logging is enabled at the PDB level for this pluggable database.

DROP SUPPLEMENTAL LOG DATA SUBSET DATABASE REPLICATION, of ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE disables low impact minimal supplemental logging on the PDB.

  • You can only execute this DDL on a pluggable database.

  • You can execute this DDL only when the enable_goldengate_replication parameter is TRUE, and database compatible is 19.0 or higher.

  • You must enable minimal supplemental logging in CDB$ROOT to run this command.

  • After you execute this command, minimal supplemental logging will become low impact for the pluggable database.SYS.PROP$ will be updated to indicate that supplemental logging for subset database replication is disabled at the PDB level for this pluggable database. If supplemental logging for subset database replication is also disabled at CDB$ROOT (CDB level), then low impact minimal supplemental logging will be disabled for this pluggable database.

For the full semantics of this clause, refer to supplemental_db_logging in the ALTER DATABASE documentation.

pdb_storage_clause

Use this clause to modify the storage limits for a PDB.

This clause has the same semantics as the pdb_storage_clause in the CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE documentation, with the following additions:

  • If you specify MAXSIZE size_clause, then the value you specify for size_clause must be greater than or equal to the combined size of the existing tablespaces belonging to the PDB. Otherwise, an error occurs.

  • If you specify MAX_AUDIT_SIZE size_clause, then the value you specify for size_clause must be greater than or equal to the amount of storage used by the existing unified audit OS spillover (.bin format) files in the PDB. Otherwise, an error occurs.

  • If you specify MAX_DIAG_SIZE size_clause, then the value you specify for size_clause must be greater than or equal to the amount of storage for diagnostics in the Automatic Diagnostic Repository (ADR) that is currently used by the PDB. Otherwise an error occurs.

pdb_logging_clauses

Use these clauses to set or change the logging characteristics of the PDB.

logging_clause

Use this clause to change the default logging attribute for tablespaces subsequently created within the PDB. This clause has the same semantics as the logging_clause in the CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE documentation.

pdb_force_logging_clause

Use this clause to place a PDB into, or take it out of, one of four logging modes.

Force logging mode instructs the database to log all changes in the PDB, except changes in temporary tablespaces and temporary segments. Force nologging mode instructs the database to not log any changes in the PDB.

Standby nologging instructs the database to not log operations that qualify to be done without logging. The database sends the data blocks that were created by the operation to each qualifying standby database in the Data Guard configuration, typically resulting in those standbys not having invalid blocks.

CDB-wide force logging mode takes precedence over any other setting. PDB-level force logging mode and force nologging mode take precedence over and are independent of any LOGGING, NOLOGGING, or FORCE LOGGING settings you specify for individual tablespaces in the PDB and any LOGGING or NOLOGGING settings you specify for individual database objects in the PDB.

  • Specify ENABLE FORCE LOGGING to place the PDB in force logging mode. If the PDB is currently in force nologging mode, then specifying this clause results in an error. You must first specify DISABLE FORCE NOLOGGING.

  • Specify DISABLE FORCE LOGGING to take the PDB out of force logging mode. If the PDB is not currently in force logging mode, then specifying this clause results in an error.

  • Specify ENABLE FORCE NOLOGGING to place the PDB in force nologging mode. If the PDB is currently in force logging mode, then specifying this clause results in an error. You must first specify DISABLE FORCE LOGGING. The nonlogged operations will use classic invalidation redo, even if the CDB has a standby nologging mode set.

  • Specify DISABLE FORCE NOLOGGING to take the PDB out of force nologging mode. If the PDB is not currently in force nologging mode, then specifying this clause results in an error.

  • Specify SET STANDBY NOLOGGING FOR LOAD PERFORMANCE to put the PDB into standby nologging for load performance mode. In this mode the data loaded as part of the nonlogged task is sent to the qualifying standbys via a private network connection, provided that doing so will not slow down the load process. If a slow down occurs, then the data is not sent but fetched automatically from the primary as each standby encounters the invalidation redo and will be retried until the data blocks are eventually received.

  • Specify SET STANDBY NOLOGGING FOR DATA AVAILABILITY to put the PDB into standby nologging for data availability mode. In this mode the data loaded as part of the nonlogged task is sent to the qualifying standbys either via a network connection to them, or if that fails, via block images in the redo. That is to say, in this mode the load will switch to be done in a logged fashion if the network connection or related processes prevent the sending of the data over the private network connection.

For the standby nologging modes a qualifying standby is one that is open for read, running managed recovery, and receiving redo into standby redo logs.

This clause does not change the default LOGGING or NOLOGGING mode of the PDB specified by the logging_clause.

pdb_refresh_mode_clause

Use this clause to change the refresh mode of a PDB. You can specify this clause only for a refreshable PDB, that is, a PDB whose current refresh mode is MANUAL or EVERY refresh_interval MINUTES or HOURS. You can switch a PDB from manual refresh to automatic refresh, or from automatic refresh to manual refresh. You can also use this clause to change the number of minutes between automatic refreshes. You can switch a PDB from manual or automatic refresh to no refresh, but you cannot enable manual or automatic refresh for a PDB that is not refreshable. For the complete semantics of this clause, refer to the pdb_refresh_mode_clause in the documentation on CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE.

REFRESH

Specify this clause to perform a manual refresh of a refreshable PDB, that is, a PDB whose current refresh mode is MANUAL or EVERY number MINUTES. The PDB must be closed. For more information on refreshable PDBs, refer to the pdb_refresh_mode_clause in the documentation on CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE.

pdb_refresh_switchover_clause

Use this clause to reverse roles between a refreshable clone PDB and a primary PDB. This clause makes the refreshable clone PDB into a primary PDB, which can be opened in read write mode. The former primary PDB becomes the refreshable clone..

  • This command must be executed from the primary PDB .

  • REFRESH MODE NONE may not be specified when issuing this statement.

  • The dblink should point to the Root of the CDB where the refreshable clone PDB currently resides.

  • After this operation, the current PDB will become the refreshable clone and can only be opened in READ ONLY mode.

  • The database link user must exist in the primary PDB, if the refreshable clone exists in a different CDB.

SET CONTAINER_MAP

Use this clause to specify the CONTAINER_MAP database property for an application container. The current container must be the application root. The map_object is of the form [schema.]table. For schema, specify the schema containing table. If you omit schema, then the database assumed that the table is in your own schema. For table, specify a range-, list-, or hash-partitioned table.

CONTAINERS DEFAULT TARGET

Use this clause to specify the default container for DML statements in an application container. You must be connect to the application root.

  • For container_name, specify the name of the default container. The default container can be any container in the application container, including the application root or an application PDB. You can specify only one default container.

  • If you specify NONE, then the default container is the CDB root. This is the default.

When a DML statement is issued in the application root without specifying containers in the WHERE clause, the DML statement affects the default container for the application container.

pdb_datafile_clause

This clause lets you bring data files associated with a PDB online or take them offline. The PDB must be closed when you issue this clause.

  • For pdb_name, specify the name of the PDB. If the current container is the PDB, then you can omit pdb_name.

  • The DATAFILE clauses let you specify the data files you want to bring online or take offline. Use filename or filenumber to identify specific data files by name or by number. You can view data file names and numbers by querying the NAME and FILE# columns of the V$DATAFILE dynamic performance view. Use ALL to specify all datafiles associated with the PDB.

  • Specify ONLINE to bring the data files online or OFFLINE to take the data files offline.

pdb_recovery_clauses

Use the pdb_recovery_clauses to back up and recover a PDB.

pdb_name

You can optionally use pdb_name to specify the name of the PDB you want to back up or recover.

pdb_general_recovery

This clause lets you control media recovery for the PDB or standby database or for specified tablespaces or files. The pdb_general_recovery clause has the same semantics as the general_recovery clause of ALTER DATABASE. Refer to the general_recovery clause of ALTER DATABASE for more information.

BACKUP Clauses

Use these clauses to move all of the data files in the PDB into or out of online backup mode (also called hot backup mode). These clauses have the same semantics in ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE and ALTER DATABASE. Refer to the "BACKUP Clauses" of ALTER DATABASE for more information.

RECOVERY Clauses

Use these clauses to enable or disable a PDB for recovery. The PDB must be closed—that is, the open mode must be MOUNTED.

  • Specify ENABLE RECOVERY to bring all data files that belong to a PDB online and enable the PDB for recovery.

  • Specify DISABLE RECOVERY to take all data files that belong to a PDB offline and disable the PDB for recovery.

See Also:

Oracle Data Guard Concepts and Administration for more information on the RECOVERY clauses

pdb_change_state

This clause enables you to change the state, or open mode, of a PDB. Table 11-2 lists the open modes of a PDB.

  • Specify the pdb_open clause to change the open mode to READ WRITE, READ ONLY, or MIGRATE.

  • Specify the pdb_close clause to change the open mode to MOUNTED.

Table 11-2 PDB Open Modes

Open Mode Description

READ WRITE

A PDB in open read/write mode allows queries and user transactions to proceed and allows users to generate redo logs.

READ ONLY

A PDB in open read-only mode allows queries but does not allow user changes.

MIGRATE

When a PDB is in open migrate mode, you can run database upgrade scripts on the PDB.

MOUNTED

When a PDB is in mounted mode, it behaves like a non-CDB in mounted mode. It does not allow changes to any objects, and it is accessible only to database administrators. It cannot read from or write to data files. Information about the PDB is removed from memory caches. Cold backups of the PDB are possible.

You can view the open mode of a PDB by querying the OPEN_MODE column of the V$PDBS view.

See Also:

Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for a complete description of PDB open modes

pdb_name

You can optionally use pdb_name to specify the name of the PDB whose open mode you want to change.

pdb_open

This clause lets you change the open mode of a PDB to READ WRITE, READ ONLY, or MIGRATE. When you specify this clause, the PDB must be in MOUNTED mode unless you specify the FORCE keyword.

If you do not specify READ WRITE or READ ONLY, then the default is READ WRITE. The exception is when the PDB belongs to a CDB that is used as a physical standby database, in which case the default is READ ONLY.

READ WRITE

Specify this clause to change the open mode to READ WRITE.

READ ONLY

Specify this clause to change the open mode to READ ONLY.

[READ WRITE] UPGRADE

Specify this clause to change the open mode to MIGRATE. The READ WRITE keywords are optional and are provided for semantic clarity.

RESTRICTED

If you specify the optional RESTRICTED keyword, then the PDB is accessible only to users with the RESTRICTED SESSION privilege in the PDB.

If the PDB is in READ WRITE or READ ONLY mode, and you specify the RESTRICTED and FORCE keywords while changing the open mode, then all sessions connected to the PDB that do not have the RESTRICTED SESSION privilege in the PDB are terminated, and their transactions are rolled back.

FORCE

Specify this keyword to change the open mode of a PDB from READ WRITE to READ ONLY, or from READ ONLY to READ WRITE. The FORCE keyword allows users to remain connected to the PDB while the open mode is changed.

When you specify FORCE to change the open mode of a PDB from READ WRITE to READ ONLY, any READ WRITE transaction that is open when you change the open mode will not be allowed to perform any more DML operations or to COMMIT.

Restriction on FORCE

You cannot specify the FORCE keyword if the PDB is currently in MIGRATE mode, and you cannot specify the FORCE keyword to change a currently open PDB to MIGRATE mode.

RESETLOGS

Specify this clause to create a new PDB incarnation and open the PDB in READ WRITE mode after point-in-time recovery of the PDB.

See Also:

Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide for more information on performing point-in-time recovery of CDBs and PDBs

instances_clause

In an Oracle Real Application Clusters environment, use this clause to modify the state of the PDB in the specified Oracle RAC instances. If you omit this clause, then the state of the PDB is modified only in the current instance.

  • Use instance_name to specify one or more instance names, in a comma-separated list enclosed in parenthesis. This modifies the state of the PDB only in those instances.

  • Specify ALL to modify the state of the PDB in all instances.

  • Specify ALL EXCEPT to modify the state of the PDB in all instances except the specified instances.

If the PDB is already open in one or more instances, then you can open it in additional instances, but it must be opened in the same mode as in the instances in which it is already open.

pdb_close

This clause lets you change the open mode of a PDB to MOUNTED. When you specify this clause, the PDB must be in READ WRITE, READ ONLY, or MIGRATE mode. This clause is the PDB equivalent of the SQL*Plus SHUTDOWN command.

IMMEDIATE

If you specify the optional IMMEDIATE keyword, then this clause is the PDB equivalent of the SQL*Plus SHUTDOWN command with the immediate mode. Otherwise, the PDB is shut down with the normal mode.

See Also:

SQL*Plus User's Guide and Reference for more information on the SQL*Plus SHUTDOWN command

ABORT

Specify ABORT to forcibly shut down the PDB.

instances_clause

In an Oracle Real Application Clusters environment, use this clause to modify the state of the PDB in the specified Oracle RAC instances. You can close a PDB in some instances and leave it open in others. Refer to the instances_clause for the full semantics of this clause.

relocate_clause

In an Oracle Real Application Clusters environment, use this clause to instruct the database to reopen the PDB on a different Oracle RAC instance.

  • Specify RELOCATE to reopen the PDB on a different instance that is selected by Oracle Database.

  • Specify RELOCATE TO 'instance_name' to reopen the PDB in the specified instance.

  • Specify NORELOCATE to close the PDB in the current instance. This is the default.

pdb_save_or_discard_state

Use this clause to instruct the database to save or discard the open mode of the PDB when the CDB restarts.

  • If you specify SAVE, then the PDB's open mode after the CDB restarts will be identical to its open mode just before the CDB restarted.

  • If you specify DISCARD, then the PDB's open mode after the CDB restarts will be MOUNTED. This is the default.

instances_clause

In an Oracle Real Application Clusters environment, use this clause to instruct the database to save or discard the open mode of the PDB in the specified Oracle RAC instances. If you omit this clause, then the database applies the SAVE or DISCARD setting only to the PDB in the current instance.

  • Use instance_name to specify one or more instance names, in a comma-separated list enclosed in parenthesis. This applies the SAVE or DISCARD setting to the PDB only in those instances.

  • Specify ALL to apply the SAVE or DISCARD setting to the PDB in all instances.

  • Specify ALL EXCEPT to apply the SAVE or DISCARD setting to the PDB in all instances except the specified instances.

pdb_change_state_from_root

This clause enables you to modify the state of one or more PDBs.

  • Specify the pdb_name for one or more PDBs whose state you want to modify.

  • Specify ALL to modify the state of all PDBs in the CDB.

  • Specify ALL EXCEPT to modify the state of all PDBs in the CDB except those specified by using pdb_name.

If a PDB is already in the specified state, then the PDB's state is unchanged and no error is returned. If the state of a PDB cannot be changed, then an error occurs only for that PDB.

application_clauses

The APPLICATION clauses allow you to perform the following operations in an application container:

  • Install, patch, upgrade, and uninstall applications

  • Register application versions and patch numbers

  • Sync applications between the application root and application PDBs

See Also:

Oracle Database Administrator’s Guide for more information on administering application containers

Specifying Application Names

Most of the application_clauses require you to specify an application name. The maximum length of an application name is 30 bytes. The name must satisfy the requirements listed in "Database Object Naming Rules". The application name must be unique within an application container.

Specifying Application Versions

Several of the application_clauses require you to specify an application version. The application version can be up to 30 bytes in length and can contain alphanumeric characters, punctuations marks, and spaces. The application version is case-sensitive and must be enclosed in single quotation marks.

Specifying Comments

Several of the application_clauses allow you to specify a comment to associate with an application install, patch, or upgrade operation. For comment, enter a character string enclosed in single quotation marks.

INSTALL Clauses

Use the INSTALL clauses when installing an application in an application container. The current container must be the application root, not an application PDB.

  • Specify the BEGIN INSTALL clause before you start installing the application.

    • Use app_name to assign a name to the application.

    • Use app_version to assign a version to the application.

    • The optional COMMENT clause allows you to enter a comment to be associated with the application version created by this installation.

  • Specify the END INSTALL clause after you have finished installing the application.

    • You must specify the same app_name that you specified for the corresponding BEGIN INSTALL clause.

    • You need not specify app_version, but if you do, then you must specify the same version that you specified for the corresponding BEGIN INSTALL clause.

PATCH Clauses

Use the PATCH clauses when patching an application in an application container. The current container must be the application root, not an application PDB.

  • Specify the BEGIN PATCH clause before you start patching the application.

    • For app_name, specify the name of the application you want to patch.

    • For number, specify the patch number.

    • The optional MINIMUM VERSION clause allows you to specify the minimum version at which the application must be before the patch can be applied. For app_version, specify the minimum application version. If the current application version is lower than the minimum application version, then an error occurs. If you omit this clause, then the minimum version is the current application version.

    • The optional COMMENT clause allows you to enter a comment to be associated with the patch.

  • Specify the END PATCH clause after you finish patching the application.

    • You must specify the same app_name that you specified for the corresponding BEGIN PATCH clause.

    • You need not specify number, but if you do, then you must specify the same value that you specified for the corresponding BEGIN PATCH clause.

UPGRADE Clauses

Use the UPGRADE clauses when upgrading an application in an application container. The current container must be the application root, not an application PDB.

If the application root is using TDE, then you must configure an external store before upgrading an application.

  • Specify the BEGIN UPGRADE clause before you start upgrading the application.

    • For app_name, specify the name of the application you want to upgrade.

    • For start_app_version, specify the version from which you are upgrading the application. If this version does not match the current application version, then an error occurs.

    • For end_app_version, specify the version to which you are upgrading the application.

    • The optional COMMENT clause allows you to enter a comment to be associated with the upgrade.

  • Specify the END UPGRADE clause after you finish upgrading the application.

    • You must specify the same app_name that you specified for the corresponding BEGIN UPGRADE clause.

    • You need not specify TO end_app_version, but if you do, then you must specify the same version that you specified for the corresponding BEGIN UPGRADE clause.

UNINSTALL Clauses

Use the UNINSTALL clauses when uninstalling an application from an application container. The current container must be the application root, not an application PDB.

  • Specify the BEGIN UNINSTALL clause before you start uninstalling the application.

    • For app_name, specify the name of the application you want to uninstall.

  • Specify the END UNINSTALL clause after you have finished uninstalling the application.

    • You must specify the same app_name that you specified for the corresponding BEGIN UNINSTALL clause.

SET PATCH

Use the SET PATCH clause to register the patch number of an application that is already installed in an application container. This clause allows you to assign a patch number to an application that was not patched using the PATCH clauses. This is useful if the application was migrated from a PDB in an earlier Oracle Database release, when the PATCH clauses were not available. The current container can be the application root or an application PDB.

  • For app_name, specify the name of an existing application.

  • Use number to assign a patch number to the existing application.

SET VERSION

Use the SET VERSION clause to register the version of an application that is already installed in an application container. This clause allows you to assign a name and a version to an application that was not installed using the INSTALL clauses. This is useful if the application was migrated from a PDB in an earlier Oracle Database release, when the INSTALL clauses were not available. The current container can be the application root or an application PDB.

  • Use app_name to assign a name to the existing application.

  • Use app_version to assign a version to the existing application.

SET COMPATIBILITY VERSION

Use the SET COMPATIBILITY VERSION clause to set the compatibility version for an application.

The compatibility version of an application is the earliest version of the application possible for the application PDBs that belong to the application container. The current container must be the application root, not an application PDB.

Note:

You cannot plug in an application PDB that uses an application version earlier than the compatibility setting of the application container.
  • Use app_name to specify the name of the application.

  • Use app_version to specify the compatibility version for the application.

  • If you specify CURRENT, then the compatibility version is set to the version of the application in the application root.

The compatibility version is enforced when the compatibility version is set and when an application PDB is created. If there are application root clones that resulted from application upgrades, then all application root clones that correspond to versions earlier than the compatibility version are implicitly dropped.

SYNC TO

You can synchronize an application to a particular version or a patch number. There are two variations:

  1. SYNC TO app_version

  2. SYNC TO PATCH patch_number

Example

Assume that you perform the following operations on application salesapp :

  1. Install version 1.0

  2. Patch 101

  3. Upgrade to version 2.0

  4. Patch 102

  5. Upgrade to 3.0

ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE APPLICATION salesapp SYNC TO 2.0 replays all statements up to and including ' Upgrade to version 2.0'.

ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE APPLICATION salesapp SYNC TO PATCH 102 replays all statements up to and including ' Patch 102'.

SYNC

Use the SYNC clause to sync an application in an application PDB to the version and patch level of the same application in the application root. This is useful after changes have been made to the application in the application root. The current container must be an application PDB.

  • For app_name, specify the name of an application that exists in the application root. The application may or may not exist in the application PDB.

ALL SYNC

Use the ALL SYNC clause to sync all applications in an application PDB with all applications in the application root. This clause is useful if you have recently added the application PDB to the CDB and would like to sync its applications with the application container. The current container must be an application PDB.

snapshot_clauses

The snapshot clauses allow you to create and manage snapshots of the PDB for the lifetime of the PDB.

pdb_snapshot_clause

Specify this clause to enable the creation of PDB snapshots. You can also specify this clause in the CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE statement.

  • NONE is the default and means that no snapshots of the PDB can be created.

  • MANUAL means that a snapshot of the PDB can be created only manually.

  • If snapshot_interval is specified, PDB snapshots will be created automatically at the interval specified. In addition, a user will also be able to create PDB snapshots manually.

  • If expressed in minutes, the snapshot_interval must be less than 3000.

  • If expressed in hours, the snapshot_interval must be less than 2000.

materialize_clause

Use this clause to convert a snapshot PDB into a full PDB clone. You can delete and purge a PDB snapshot using the clause in this way.

  • This clause can only be specified for PDBs created as a snapshot.

  • All blocks in all datafiles belonging to the PDB will be copied.

create_snapshot_clause

Use this clause to manually create a PDB snapshot after connecting to the PDB.

  • This statement may be issued even if the PDB was set to have PDB snapshots created automatically.

  • If a PDB Snapshot with the specified name already exists, an error will be reported.

  • A PDB Snapshot with specified name will be created.

drop_snapshot_clause

Use this clause to manually drop a PDB snapshot after connecting to the PDB.

  • If this snapshot is being used by some PDB, an error will be reported.

set_max_pdb_snapshots

Use this clause to increase or decrease the maximum number of snapshots for a given PDB. You must first connect to the PDB.

  • If the PDB is not open in read/write mode when issuing the statement, an error is raised.

  • You can drop all PDB snapshots by setting the the max number to 0.

  • The maximum number of snapshots that you can set per PDB is 8.

prepare_clause

  • Use this clause to prepare mirror copies of the database. You must provide a mirror_name to identify the filegroup that is created. The created filegroup contains all the prepared files.

  • Specify the number of copies to be prepared by the REDUNDANCY options: EXTERNAL, NORMAL, or HIGH.

  • If you do not specify the redundancy of the mirror, the redundancy of the source database is used.

Prepare a Pluggable Database By Name: Example

If you specify the name ( pdb_name) of the pluggable database, it checks if pdb_name matches with the current PDB. If it matches, it runs.

ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE pdb_name PREPARE MIRROR COPY mirror_name WITH HIGH REDUNDANCY

Prepare a Pluggable Database Without a Name: Example

If you do not specify the name ( pdb_name) of the pluggable database, the statement runs on the current PDB.

ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE PREPARE MIRROR COPY mirror_name WITH HIGH REDUNDANCY

drop_mirror_copy

Use this clause to discard mirror copies of data and metadata created by the prepare statement. You must specify the same mirror name that you used for the prepare operation.

You cannot use this clause to drop a database that has already been split by the CREATE DATABASE or CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE statement.

lost_write_protection

Turn on Lost Write for a Pluggable Database : Example

 ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE 
   ENABLE LOST WRITE PROTECTION

Turn off Lost Write for a Pluggable Database : Example

 ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE 
   DISABLE LOST WRITE PROTECTION

Note that disabling lost write for the database does not deallocate the lost write storage. You must use the DROP TABLESPACE statement to deallocate lost write storage.

Examples

Unplugging a PDB from a CDB: Example

The following statement unplugs PDB pdb1 and stores metadata for the PDB into XML file /oracle/data/pdb1.xml:

ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE pdb1
  UNPLUG INTO '/oracle/data/pdb1.xml';

Modifying the Settings of a PDB: Example

The following statement changes the limit for the amount of storage used by all tablespaces in PDB pdb2 to 500M:

ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE pdb2
  STORAGE (MAXSIZE 500M);

Taking the Data Files of a PDB Offline: Example

The following statement takes the data files associated with PDB pdb3 offline:

ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE pdb3
  DATAFILE ALL OFFLINE;

Changing the State of a PDB: Examples

Assume that PDB pdb4 is closed—that is, its open mode is MOUNTED. The following statement opens pdb4 with open mode READ ONLY:

ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE pdb4
  OPEN READ ONLY;

The following statement uses the FORCE keyword to change the open mode of pdb4 from READ ONLY to READ WRITE:

ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE pdb4
  OPEN READ WRITE FORCE;

The following statement closes PDB pdb4:

ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE pdb4
  CLOSE;

The following statement opens PDB pdb4 with open mode READ ONLY. Because the RESTRICTED keyword is specified, the PDB is accessible only to users with the RESTRICTED SESSION privilege in the PDB.

ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE pdb4
  OPEN READ ONLY RESTRICTED;

Assume that PDB pdb5 is closed—that is, its open mode is MOUNTED. In an Oracle Real Application Clusters environment, the following statement opens PDB pdb5 with open mode READ WRITE in instances ORCLDB_1 and ORCLDB_2:

ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE pdb5
  OPEN READ WRITE INSTANCES = ('ORCLDB_1', 'ORCLDB_2');

In an Oracle Real Application Clusters environment, the following statement closes PDB pdb6 in the current instance and instructs the database to reopen pdb6 in instance ORCLDB_3:

ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE pdb6
  CLOSE RELOCATE TO 'ORCLDB_3';

Changing the State of All PDBs in a CDB: Example

Assume that the current container is the root. The following statement opens all PDBs in the CDB with open mode READ ONLY:

ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE ALL
  OPEN READ ONLY;