Upgrade Scenarios for Non-CDB Oracle Databases

Review these topics to understand the upgrade scenarios and procedures for non-CDB Oracle Databases

Note:

Starting with Oracle Database 12c, release 1 (12.1), non-CDB architecture is deprecated. It can be desupported in a future release. Oracle Database deployed with the multitenant architecture is the default configuration option. All Oracle Database releases earlier than Oracle Database 12c release 1 (12.1.0.1) use non-CDB architecture.

Caution:

You cannot downgrade a database after you have set the compatible initialization parameter to 12.1.0.2. A pluggable database (PDB) downgrade is possible only if the compatibility is set to 12.1.0.1. There can be additional restrictions on downgrading.

Before starting an upgrade or a downgrade, Oracle strongly recommends that you upgrade your source and target databases to the most recent Quarterly Release Update (Update), Release Update Revision (Revision), bundle patch, or patch set update (BP or PSU).

Download the Latest Oracle Database Preupgrade Information Tool

To ensure that you obtain the most recent updates to checks to help to ensure a smooth upgrade, download the most recent Oracle Database Preupgrade tool.

The Oracle Database Preupgrade Information Tool continues to be developed after the initial software release. While the Preupgrade Information Tool that is packaged with your software can identify many issues to facilitate your upgrade, Oracle recommends that you always download and run the most recent version. Downloading the most recent version of the tool enables you obtain the benefit of new updates added to respond to any issues that emerge after the initial release. The most recent version of the tool is available from My Oracle Support document ID 884522.1.

Before you download the newer version of the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool, back up the version that came with your software. Then replace the files in your Oracle home with the files that you download from Oracle Support.

About Adopting a Non-CDB as a PDB Using a PDB Plugin

To manually adopt a non-CDB as a PDB, you generate an XML file that describes a non-CDB, and use the DBMS_PDB.DESCRIBE procedure. Afterward, plug in the non-CDB, just as you plug in an unplugged PDB.

If you choose not to use the Capture Replay method of automatically adopting and upgrading a non-CDB to a PDB, then you can use the manual procedure of describing the non-CDB, and then adopting the non-CDB to a PDB. Create the PDB with the CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE ... USING statement. When the non-CDB is plugged in to a CDB, it is a new PDB, but not usable until the data dictionary is converted, using the ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/noncdb_to_pdb.sql script.

Figure 4-1 Plug In a Non-CDB Using the DBMS_PDB.DESCRIBE Procedure

Description of Figure 4-1 follows
Description of "Figure 4-1 Plug In a Non-CDB Using the DBMS_PDB.DESCRIBE Procedure"

You can use the same technique to create a new application PDB in an application container.

Adopting a Non-CDB as a PDB

You can adopt (move) a non-CDB into a PDB by using the DBMS_PDB.DESCRIBE procedure.

This procedure enables you to update your non-CDB Oracle Database to a PDB on a CDB. To use this procedure, you must first install a new Oracle Database release with a CDB.
  1. Create the CDB if it does not exist.

  2. Ensure that the non-CDB is in a transactionally-consistent state.

  3. Place the non-CDB in read-only mode.

  4. Connect to the non-CDB, and run the DBMS_PDB.DESCRIBE procedure to construct an XML file that describes the non-CDB.

    The current user must have SYSDBA administrative privilege. The user must exercise the privilege using AS SYSDBA at connect time.

    For example, to generate an XML file named ncdb.xml in the /disk1/oracle directory, run the following procedure:

    BEGIN
      DBMS_PDB.DESCRIBE(
        pdb_descr_file => '/disk1/oracle/ncdb.xml');
    END;
    /
    

    After the procedure completes successfully, you can use the XML file and the non-CDB database files to plug the non-CDB into a CDB.

  5. Run the DBMS_PDB.CHECK_PLUG_COMPATIBILITY function to determine whether the non-CDB is compatible with the CDB.

    When you run the function, set the following parameters:

    • pdb_descr_file - Set this parameter to the full path to the XML file.

    • pdb_name - Specify the name of the new PDB. If this parameter is omitted, then the PDB name in the XML file is used.

    For example, to determine whether a non-CDB described by the /disk1/oracle/ncdb.xml file is compatible with the current CDB, run the following PL/SQL block:

    SET SERVEROUTPUT ON
    DECLARE
      compatible CONSTANT VARCHAR2(3) := 
        CASE DBMS_PDB.CHECK_PLUG_COMPATIBILITY(
               pdb_descr_file => '/disk1/oracle/ncdb.xml',
               pdb_name       => 'NCDB')
        WHEN TRUE THEN 'YES'
        ELSE 'NO'
    END;
    BEGIN
      DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(compatible);
    END;
    /
    

    If the output is YES, then the non-CDB is compatible, and you can continue with the next step. If the output is NO, then the non-CDB is not compatible, and you can check the PDB_PLUG_IN_VIOLATIONS view to see why it is not compatible. All violations must be corrected before you continue. For example, any version or patch mismatches should be resolved by running an upgrade or the datapatch utility. After correcting the violations, run DBMS_PDB.CHECK_PLUG_COMPATIBILITY again to ensure that the non-CDB is compatible with the CDB.

  6. Shut down the non-CDB.

  7. Plug in the non-CDB.

    For example, the following SQL statement plugs in a non-CDB, copies its files to a new location, and includes only the tbs3 user tablespace from the non-CDB:

    CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE ncdb USING '/disk1/oracle/ncdb.xml'
      COPY
      FILE_NAME_CONVERT = ('/disk1/oracle/dbs/', '/disk2/oracle/ncdb/')
      USER_TABLESPACES=('tbs3');
    

    If there are no violations, then do not open the new PDB. You will open it in the following step.

    The USER_TABLESPACES clause enables you to separate data that was used for multiple tenants in a non-CDB into different PDBs. You can use multiple CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE statements with this clause to create other PDBs that include the data from other tablespaces that existed in the non-CDB.

  8. Run the ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/noncdb_to_pdb.sql script. This script must be run before the PDB can be opened for the first time.

    If the PDB was not a non-CDB, then running the noncdb_to_pdb.sql script is not required. To run the noncdb_to_pdb.sql script, complete the following steps:

    1. Access the PDB.

      The current user must have SYSDBA administrative privilege, and the privilege must be either commonly granted or locally granted in the PDB. The user must exercise the privilege using AS SYSDBA at connect time.

    2. Run the noncdb_to_pdb.sql script:

      @$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/noncdb_to_pdb.sql
      

    The script opens the PDB, performs changes, and closes the PDB when the changes are complete.

  9. Open the new PDB in read/write mode.

    You must open the new PDB in read/write mode for Oracle Database to complete the integration of the new PDB into the CDB. An error is returned if you attempt to open the PDB in read-only mode. After the PDB is opened in read/write mode, its status is NORMAL.

  10. Back up the PDB.

    A PDB cannot be recovered unless it is backed up.

    Note:

    If an error is returned during PDB creation, then the PDB being created can be in an UNUSABLE state. To check the state of a PDB, query the CDB_PDBS or DBA_PDBS view. You can learn more about PDB creation errors by checking the alert log. An unusable PDB can only be dropped. You must drop an unusable PDB before you try to create a PDB with the same name as the unusable PDB can be created.

Oracle Label Security Integration in a Multitenant Environment

You can use Oracle Label Security in a multitenant environment.

In a multitenant environment, pluggable databases (PDBs) can be plugged in and out of a multitenant container database (CDB) or an application container.

Note the following:

  • Each PDB has its own Oracle Label Security metadata, such as policies, labels, and user authorizations. The LBACSYS schema is a common user schema.

  • Before you plug a PDB into a CDB, if the database does not have Oracle Label Security installed, then ensure that you have run the $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/catols.sql script on the database to install the label-based framework, data dictionary, data types, and packages. This script creates the LBACSYS account.

  • Because Oracle Label Security policies are scoped to individual PDBs, you can create individual policies for each PDB. A policy defined for a PDB can be enforced on the local tables and schema objects contained in the PDB.

  • In a single CDB, there can be multiple PDBs, each configured with Oracle Label Security.

  • You cannot create Oracle Label Security policies in the CDB root or the application root.

  • You cannot enforce a local Oracle Label Security policy on a common CDB object or a common application object.

  • You cannot assign Oracle Label Security policy labels and privileges to common users and application common users in a pluggable database.

  • You cannot assign Oracle Label Security privileges to common procedures or functions and application common procedures or functions in a pluggable database.

  • If you are configuring Oracle Label Security with Oracle Internet Directory, then be aware that the same configuration must be used throughout with all PDBs contained in the CDB. You can determine if your database is configured for Oracle Internet Directory by querying the DBA_OLS_STATUS data dictionary view as follows from within any PDB:

    SELECT STATUS FROM DBA_OLS_STATUS WHERE NAME = 'OLS_DIRECTORY_STATUS';
    

    If it returns TRUE, then Oracle Label Security is Internet Directory-enabled. Otherwise, it returns FALSE.

Manually Upgrading Non-CDB Architecture Oracle Databases

This procedure provides steps for upgrading non-CDB architecture Oracle Databases.

Note:

Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1), non-CDB architecture is deprecated. It can be desupported in a future release.

Before using this procedure, complete the following steps:

  • Install the Oracle Database software

  • Prepare the new Oracle home

  • Run the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool

Steps:

  1. If you have not done so, run the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool. Review the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool output and correct all issues noted in the output before proceeding.

    For example, on Linux or Unix systems:

     $ORACLE_HOME/jdk/bin/java -jar /opt/oracle/product/19.0.0/rdbms/admin/preupgrade.jar FILE TEXT
  2. Ensure that you have a proper backup strategy in place.

  3. If you have not done so, prepare the new Oracle home.

  4. (Conditional) For Oracle RAC environments only, enter the following commands to set the initialization parameter value for CLUSTER_DATABASE to FALSE:

    ALTER SYSTEM SET CLUSTER_DATABASE=FALSE SCOPE=SPFILE;
  5. Shut down the database. For example:
    SQL> SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE
    
  6. If your operating system is Windows, then complete the following steps:

    1. Stop the OracleServiceSID Oracle service of the database you are upgrading, where SID is the instance name. For example, if your SID is ORCL, then enter the following at a command prompt:

      C:\> NET STOP OracleServiceORCL
      
    2. Delete the Oracle service at a command prompt using ORADIM. Refer to your platform guide for a complete list of the ORADIM syntax and commands.

      For example, if your SID is ORCL, then enter the following command.

      C:\> ORADIM -DELETE -SID ORCL
      
    3. Create the service for the new release Oracle Database at a command prompt using the ORADIM command of the new Oracle Database release.

      Use the following syntax, where SID is your database SID, PASSWORD is your system password, USERS is the value you want to set for maximum number of users, and ORACLE_HOME is your Oracle home:

      C:\> ORADIM -NEW -SID SID -SYSPWD PASSWORD -MAXUSERS USERS
           -STARTMODE AUTO -PFILE ORACLE_HOME\DATABASE\INITSID.ORA
      

      Most Oracle Database services log on to the system using the privileges of the Oracle software installation owner. The service runs with the privileges of this user. The ORADIM command prompts you to provide the password to this user account. You can specify other options using ORADIM.

      In the following example, if your SID is ORCL, your password (SYSPWD) is TWxy5791, the maximum number of users (MAXUSERS) is 10, and the Oracle home path is C:\ORACLE\PRODUCT\19.0.0\DB, then enter the following command:

      C:\> ORADIM -NEW -SID ORCL -SYSPWD TWxy5791 -MAXUSERS 10
      -STARTMODE AUTO -PFILE C:\ORACLE\PRODUCT\19.0.0\DB\DATABASE\INITORCL.ORA
      

      ORADIM writes a log file to the ORACLE_HOME\database directory.

      Note:

      If you use an Oracle Home User account to own the Oracle home, then the ORADIM command prompts you for that user name and password.
  7. If your operating system is Linux or UNIX, then perform the following checks:

    1. Your ORACLE_SID is set correctly

    2. The oratab file points to the new Oracle home

    3. The following environment variables point to the new Oracle Database directories:

      • ORACLE_HOME

      • PATH

    4. Any scripts that clients use to set the $ORACLE_HOME environment variable must point to the new Oracle home.

    Note:

    If you are upgrading an Oracle Real Application Clusters database, then perform these checks on all Oracle Grid Infrastructure nodes where the Oracle Real Application Clusters database has instances configured.

  8. Log in to the system as the Oracle installation owner for the new Oracle Database release.

  9. Start SQL*Plus in the new Oracle home from the admin directory in the new Oracle home directory.

    For example:

    $ cd $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin
    $ pwd
    /u01/app/oracle/product/19.0.0/dbhome_1/rdbms/admin
    $ sqlplus
  10. Copy the SPFILE.ORA or INIT.ORA file from the old Oracle home to the new Oracle home.

  11. Connect to the database that you want to upgrade using an account with SYSDBA privileges:
    SQL> connect / as sysdba
    
  12. Start the non-CDB Oracle Database in upgrade mode:

    SQL> startup upgrade

    If errors appear listing desupported initialization parameters, then make a note of the desupported initialization parameters and continue with the upgrade. Remove the desupported initialization parameters the next time you shut down the database.

    Note:

    Starting up the database in UPGRADE mode enables you to open a database based on an earlier Oracle Database release. It also restricts log-ins to AS SYSDBA sessions, disables system triggers, and performs additional operations that prepare the environment for the upgrade.

  13. Exit SQL*Plus.

    For example:

    SQL> EXIT
  14. Run the Parallel Upgrade Utility (catctl.pl) script, using the upgrade options that you require for your upgrade.

    You can run the Parallel Upgrade Utility as a command-line shell command by using the dbupgrade shell command, which is located in Oracle_home/bin. If you set the PATH environment variable to include Oracle_home/bin, then you can run the command directly from your command line. For example:

    $ dbupgrade 

    Note:

    • When you run the Parallel Upgrade Utility command, you can use the -l option to specify the directory that you want to use for spool log files.

  15. The database is shut down after a successful upgrade. Restart the instance so that you reinitialize the system parameters for normal operation. For example:

    SQL> STARTUP
    

    This restart, following the database shutdown, flushes all caches, clears buffers, and performs other housekeeping activities. These measures are an important final step to ensure the integrity and consistency of the upgraded Oracle Database software.

    Note:

    If you encountered a message listing desupported initialization parameters when you started the database, then remove the desupported initialization parameters from the parameter file before restarting it. If necessary, convert the SPFILE to a PFILE, so that you can edit the file to delete parameters.

  16. Run catcon.pl to start utlrp.sql, and to recompile any remaining invalid objects.

    For example:

    $ORACLE_HOME/perl/bin/perl catcon.pl -n 1 -e -b utlrp -d '''.''' utlrp.sql
    

    Because you run the command using -b utlrp, the log file utlrp0.log is generated as the script is run. The log file provides results of the recompile.

  17. Run postupgrade_fixups.sql. For example:

    SQL> @postupgrade_fixups.sql

    Note:

    If you did not specify to place the script in a different location, then it is in the default path Oracle_base/cfgtoollogs/SID/preupgrade, where Oracle_base is your Oracle base home path, and SID is your unique database name.

  18. Run utlusts.sql. The script verifies that all issues are fixed.

    For example:

    SQL> @$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/utlusts.sql

    The log file utlrp0.log is generated as the script is run, which provides the upgrade results. You can also review the upgrade report in upg_summary.log.

    To see information about the state of the database, run utlusts.sql as many times as you want, at any time after the upgrade is completed. If the utlusts.sql script returns errors, or shows components that do not have the status VALID, or if the version listed for the component is not the most recent release, then refer to the troubleshooting section in this guide.

  19. Ensure that the time zone data files are current by using the DBMS_DST PL/SQL package to upgrade the time zone file. You can also adjust the time zone data files after the upgrade.

  20. Exit from SQL*Plus

    For example:

    SQL> EXIT
    
  21. (Conditional) If you are upgrading an Oracle Real Application Clusters database, then use the following command syntax to upgrade the database configuration in Oracle Clusterware:

    srvctl upgrade database -db db-unique-name -oraclehome oraclehome

    In this syntax example, db-unique-name is the database name (not the instance name), and oraclehome is the Oracle home location in which the database is being upgraded. The SRVCTL utility supports long GNU-style options, in addition to short command-line interface (CLI) options used in earlier releases.

  22. (Conditional) For Oracle RAC environments only, after you have upgraded all nodes, enter the following commands to set the initialization parameter value for CLUSTER_DATABASE to TRUE, and start the database, where db_unique_name is the name of the Oracle RAC database:

    ALTER SYSTEM SET CLUSTER_DATABASE=TRUE SCOPE=SPFILE;
    srvctl start database -db db_unique_name

Your database is now upgraded. You are ready to complete post-upgrade procedures.

Caution:

If you retain the old Oracle software, then never start the upgraded database with the old software. Only start Oracle Database using the start command in the new Oracle Database home.

Before you remove the old Oracle environment, relocate any data files in that environment to the new Oracle Database environment.

See Also:

Oracle Database Administrator’s Guide for information about relocating data files

Upgrading Oracle Database Using Fleet Patching and Provisioning

In Oracle Database 12c release 2 (12.2) and later releases, you can use Fleet Patching and Provisioning to upgrade an earlier release Oracle Database.

You upgrade a database with Fleet Patching and Provisioning by creating a copy of the new Oracle Database release, and using the command rhpctl upgrade database to upgrade the earlier release Oracle Database. The upgrade is an out-of-place upgrade. After the upgrade is complete, listeners and other initialization variables are set to point to the new Oracle home. Refer to Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for more information about how to create Fleet Patching and Provisioning images.

Use this overview of the steps to understand how to upgrade an earlier Oracle Database release by using Fleet Patching and Provisioning:

  1. Install a new Oracle Database release.

  2. Patch, test, and configure the database to your specifications for a standard operating environment (SOE).

  3. Create a Fleet Patching and Provisioning Gold Image from the SOE release Oracle Database home.

  4. Complete an upgrade to a new Oracle Grid Infrastructure release on the servers where the databases you want to upgrade are located. You can complete this upgrade by using Fleet Patching and Provisioning. (Note: Your Oracle Grid Infrastraucture software must always be the same or a more recent release than Oracle Database software.)

  5. Deploy a copy of the new release Oracle Database Fleet Patching and Provisioning gold image to the servers with earlier release Oracle Databases that you want to upgrade.

  6. Run the Fleet Patching and Provisioning command rhpctl upgrade database. This command use the new release Fleet Patching and Provisioning gold image to upgrade the earlier release databases. You can upgrade one, many or all of the earlier release Oracle Database instances on the servers provisioned with the new release Oracle Database gold image.