4.1 allocOperandList


Use the allocOperandList subclause to control options on a channel, which is a connection between RMAN and a database instance.



Syntax Element Description

CONNECT connectStringSpec

Specifies a connect string to the database instance where RMAN conducts the backup or restore operations. Use this parameter to spread the work across different instances in an Oracle RAC configuration.

If you do not specify this parameter, and if you did not specify the AUXILIARY option, then RMAN conducts all operations on the target database instance specified by the command-line CONNECT parameter or CONNECT command. Typically, do not use the CONNECT parameter with the AUXILIARY option.

See Also: connectStringSpec and RMAN


Specifies the format of image copies created on an auxiliary instance.

RMAN must be connected to the auxiliary instance with CONNECT AUXILIARY and have access to auxiliary channels.


Specifies a pattern for image copy names on an auxiliary instance.

The path must be valid on the auxiliary host.

See Also: formatSpec for valid substitution variables


Creates an image copy in the directory specified by the DB_CREATE_FILE_DEST initialization parameter of the auxiliary instance.

The image copy name is in an Oracle Managed Files format.

FORMAT formatSpec

Specifies the format to use for the names backup pieces or image copies created on this channel. Example 4-1 illustrates this technique.

The FORMAT parameter is useful if you allocate multiple disk channels and want each channel to write to a different directory. The FORMAT parameter specified in CONFIGURE CHANNEL or ALLOCATE CHANNEL is semantically equivalent to the FORMAT parameter specified in the BACKUP command (not the DATAFILECOPY FORMAT parameter in forRecoveryOfSpec). If you specify the FORMAT parameter in the BACKUP command, then it overrides the FORMAT parameter specified in CONFIGURE CHANNEL or ALLOCATE CHANNEL.

If you do not specify FORMAT, then RMAN uses %U by default, which guarantees a unique name for the names of the backup files. If the fast recovery area is configured, then RMAN creates the backup files in the default disk location. Otherwise, the default disk location is operating system-specific (for example, ?/dbs on Solaris).

You can specify up to four FORMAT strings. RMAN uses the second, third, and fourth values only when BACKUP COPIES, SET BACKUP COPIES, or CONFIGURE ... BACKUP COPIES is in effect. When choosing which format to use for each backup piece, RMAN uses the first format value for copy 1, the second format value for copy 2, and so forth. If the number of format values exceeds the number of copies, then the extra formats are not used. If the number of format values is less than the number of copies, then RMAN reuses the format values, starting with the first one.

Because the channels correspond to server sessions on the target database, the FORMAT string must use the conventions of the target host, not the client host. For example, if the RMAN client runs on a Windows host and the target database runs on a Linux host, then the FORMAT string must adhere to the naming conventions of a Linux file system or raw device.

See Also: formatSpec for available FORMAT parameters


Specifies the directory where the backup is created. This parameter is valid for disk and not SBT channels. The backup files are created in an Oracle Managed Files (OMF) directory. Backup skips the files only when backups do not exist in the specified TO DESTINATION.


Controls the maximum number of input files that a BACKUP command can have open at any given time (the default is 8). Use this parameter to prevent "Too many open files" error messages when backing up a large number of files into a single backup set.


Specifies the maximum size of each backup piece created on this channel. Example 4-2 illustrates this technique. Specify the size in bytes, kilobytes (K), megabytes (M), or gigabytes (G). The default setting is in bytes and is rounded down into kilobytes. For example, if you set MAXPIECESIZE to 5000, RMAN sets the maximum piece size at 4 kilobytes, which is the lower kilobyte boundary of 5000 bytes.

Note: You cannot use BACKUP ... SECTION SIZE with MAXPIECESIZE.

PARMS 'channel_parms'

Specifies parameters for the sbt channel. Example 4-3 illustrates this technique. Do not use this port-specific string if you have specified DEVICE TYPE DISK.

You can use the following formats for the channel parameters:

  • 'ENV=(var1=val1, var2=val2,...)'

    Specifies one or more environment variables required by the media manager in the server session corresponding to this RMAN client. Because RMAN is a client program, you can use the ENV parameter to set server session-specific variables that perform operations on behalf of the RMAN client, for example, PARMS 'ENV=(OB_DEVICE_1=tape1)'.

  • 'SBT_LIBRARY=lib_name'

    In cases where the media management library supports it, (for example, the OSB Cloud Module) you must use the SBT_PARMS parameter to specify environment variables. In all other scenarios, you use the ENV variable.

    Specifies which media library is used on this sbt channel, for example, PARMS="SBT_LIBRARY=/oracle/lib/mmv.so". The default library is operating system-specific (for example, libobk.so on Linux and ORASBT.DLL on Windows.

On Windows, parameters set using ENV are visible to all the channels. This may cause indeterministic behavior if a channel clears or overrides an environment variable that is being used by another channel. This restriction is caused by the Oracle architecture on Windows. It is recommended that you use the SEND command to set environment variables for the SBT library, instead of using ENV in the PARAMS option.

See Also: Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide to learn how to integrate media management libraries

RATE sizeSpec

Sets the maximum number of bytes (default), kilobytes (K), megabytes (M), or gigabytes (G) that RMAN reads each second on this channel. This parameter sets an upper limit for bytes read so that RMAN does not consume too much disk bandwidth and degrade performance.

SEND 'command'

Sends a vendor-specific command string to all allocated channels. For example, you could specify an Oracle Secure Backup media family with SEND 'OB_MEDIA_FAMILY datafile_mf'.

On Windows, to send command strings to the SBT library, it is recommended that you use the SEND option instead of using ENV in the PARAMS option.

See Also: Your media manager documentation to determine whether this feature is supported and when to use it.


This subclause specifies either a directory or an Automated Storage Management (ASM) disk group for a backup piece or image copy. Refer to toDestSpec::= for the syntax diagram.


Example 4-1 Specifying the Default Location for Disk Backups

This example allocates a disk channel that specifies a nondefault format, and then backs up the database to the nondefault location.


Example 4-2 Setting the Maximum Size of a Backup Piece

This example manually allocates an SBT channel, which specifies an Oracle Secure Backup tape drive, and makes a whole database backup. The MAXPIECESIZE parameter specifies that no backup piece written to tape can exceed 800 MB.

    PARMS 'SBT_LIBRARY=/usr/local/oracle/backup/lib/libobk.so, ENV=(OB_DEVICE_1=stape1)'

Example 4-3 Setting SBT Channel Parameters

This example configures the default SBT channel to use the Oracle Secure Backup tape drive named stape1 and makes a database backup with the default channel:


Later you decide to back up the database to drive stape2. The following examples uses a manually allocated SBT channel to back up the database to stape2.

    PARMS 'ENV=(OB_DEVICE_1=stape2)';