20 Spatial Operators
This chapter describes the operators that you can use when working with the spatial object data type.
For an overview of spatial operators, including how they differ from spatial procedures and functions, see Spatial Operators_ Procedures_ and Functions. Table 201 lists the main operators.
Table 201 Main Spatial Operators
Operator  Description 

Specifies which geometries may interact with a given geometry. 

Returns the minimum bounding rectangle of a geometry object. 

Performs a spatial join based on one or more topological relationships. 

Determines the nearest neighbor geometries to a geometry. 

Returns the distance of an object returned by the SDO_NN operator. 

Takes a set of rows whose first column is a point's xcoordinate value and the second column is a point's ycoordinate value, and returns those rows that are within a specified polygon geometry. 

Determines whether or not two geometries interact in a specified way. (See also Table 202 for convenient alternative operators for performing specific mask value operations.) 

Determines if two geometries are within a specified distance from one another. 
Table 202 lists operators, provided for convenience, that perform an SDO_RELATE operation of a specific mask type.
Table 202 Convenience Operators for SDO_RELATE Operations
Operator  Description 

Checks if any geometries in a table have the ANYINTERACT topological relationship with a specified geometry. 

Checks if any geometries in a table have the CONTAINS topological relationship with a specified geometry. 

Checks if any geometries in a table have the COVEREDBY topological relationship with a specified geometry. 

Checks if any geometries in a table have the COVERS topological relationship with a specified geometry. 

Checks if any geometries in a table have the EQUAL topological relationship with a specified geometry. 

Checks if any geometries in a table have the INSIDE topological relationship with a specified geometry. 

Checks if any geometries in a table have the ON topological relationship with a specified geometry. 

Checks if any geometries in a table have the OVERLAPBDYDISJOINT topological relationship with a specified geometry. 

Checks if any geometries in a table have the OVERLAPBDYINTERSECT topological relationship with a specified geometry. 

Checks if any geometries in a table overlap (that is, have the OVERLAPBDYDISJOINT or OVERLAPBDYINTERSECT topological relationship with) a specified geometry. 

Checks if any geometries in a table have the TOUCH topological relationship with a specified geometry. 
Note:
For any numbers in string (VARCHAR2) parameters to Spatial operators and subprograms, the period (.) must be used for any decimal points regardless of the locale. Example: 'distance=3.7'
The rest of this chapter provides reference information on the operators, listed in alphabetical order.
For information about using operators with topologies, see Oracle Spatial Topology and Network Data Model Developer's Guide.
 SDO_ANYINTERACT
 SDO_CONTAINS
 SDO_COVEREDBY
 SDO_COVERS
 SDO_EQUAL
 SDO_FILTER
 SDO_GEOM_MBR
 SDO_INSIDE
 SDO_JOIN
 SDO_NN
 SDO_NN_DISTANCE
 SDO_ON
 SDO_OVERLAPBDYDISJOINT
 SDO_OVERLAPBDYINTERSECT
 SDO_OVERLAPS
 SDO_POINTINPOLYGON
 SDO_RELATE
 SDO_TOUCH
 SDO_WITHIN_DISTANCE
Parent topic: Reference Information
20.1 SDO_ANYINTERACT
Format
SDO_ANYINTERACT(geometry1, geometry2);
Description
Checks if any geometries in a table have the ANYINTERACT topological relationship with a specified geometry. Equivalent to specifying the SDO_RELATE operator with 'mask=ANYINTERACT'
.
See the section on the SDO_RELATE operator in this chapter for information about the operations performed by this operator and for usage requirements.
Keywords and Parameters
Value  Description 

geometry1 
Specifies a geometry column in a table. A spatial index on this column is recommended. Data type is SDO_GEOMETRY. 
geometry2 
Specifies either a geometry from a table or a transient instance of a geometry. (Specified using a bind variable or SDO_GEOMETRY constructor.) Data type is SDO_GEOMETRY. 
Returns
The expression SDO_ANYINTERACT(geometry1,geometry2) = 'TRUE' evaluates to TRUE for object pairs that have the ANYINTERACT topological relationship, and FALSE otherwise.
Usage Notes
Note:
SDO_ANYINTERACToperator is not supported for 3D data in Oracle Autonomous Database Serverless deployments.
For an explanation of the topological relationships and the nineintersection model used by Spatial, see Spatial Relationships and Filtering.
For information about 3D support with spatial operators (which operators do and do not consider all three dimensions in their computations), see ThreeDimensional Spatial Objects.
Examples
The following example finds geometries that have the ANYINTERACT relationship with a query window (here, a rectangle with lowerleft, upperright coordinates 4,6, 8,8). (The example uses the definitions and data described and illustrated in Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data.)
SELECT c.mkt_id, c.name FROM cola_markets c WHERE SDO_ANYINTERACT(c.shape, SDO_GEOMETRY(2003, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1,1003,3), SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(4,6, 8,8)) ) = 'TRUE'; MKT_ID NAME   2 cola_b 1 cola_a 4 cola_d
Parent topic: Spatial Operators
20.2 SDO_CONTAINS
Format
SDO_CONTAINS(geometry1, geometry2);
Description
Checks if any geometries in a table have the CONTAINS topological relationship with a specified geometry. Equivalent to specifying the SDO_RELATE operator with 'mask=CONTAINS'
.
See the section on the SDO_RELATE operator in this chapter for information about the operations performed by this operator and for usage requirements.
Keywords and Parameters
Value  Description 

geometry1 
Specifies a geometry column in a table. A spatial index on this column is recommended. Data type is SDO_GEOMETRY. 
geometry2 
Specifies either a geometry from a table or a transient instance of a geometry. (Specified using a bind variable or SDO_GEOMETRY constructor.) Data type is SDO_GEOMETRY. 
Returns
The expression SDO_CONTAINS(geometry1,geometry2) = 'TRUE' evaluates to TRUE for object pairs that have the CONTAINS topological relationship, and FALSE otherwise.
Usage Notes
See the Usage Notes for the SDO_RELATE operator in this chapter.
For an explanation of the topological relationships and the nineintersection model used by Spatial, see Spatial Relationships and Filtering.
For information about 3D support with spatial operators (which operators do and do not consider all three dimensions in their computations), see ThreeDimensional Spatial Objects.
Examples
The following example finds geometries that have the CONTAINS relationship with a query window (here, a rectangle with lowerleft, upperright coordinates 2,2, 4,6). (The example uses the definitions and data described and illustrated in Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data.) In this example, only cola_a
contains the query window geometry.
SELECT c.mkt_id, c.name FROM cola_markets c WHERE SDO_CONTAINS(c.shape, SDO_GEOMETRY(2003, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1,1003,3), SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(2,2, 4,6)) ) = 'TRUE'; MKT_ID NAME   1 cola_a
Parent topic: Spatial Operators
20.3 SDO_COVEREDBY
Format
SDO_COVEREDBY(geometry1, geometry2);
Description
Checks if any geometries in a table have the COVEREDBY topological relationship with a specified geometry. Equivalent to specifying the SDO_RELATE operator with 'mask=COVEREDBY'
.
See the section on the SDO_RELATE operator in this chapter for information about the operations performed by this operator and for usage requirements.
Keywords and Parameters
Value  Description 

geometry1 
Specifies a geometry column in a table. A spatial index on this column is recommended. Data type is SDO_GEOMETRY. 
geometry2 
Specifies either a geometry from a table or a transient instance of a geometry. (Specified using a bind variable or SDO_GEOMETRY constructor.) Data type is SDO_GEOMETRY. 
Returns
The expression SDO_COVEREDBY(geometry1,geometry2) = 'TRUE' evaluates to TRUE for object pairs that have the COVEREDBY topological relationship, and FALSE otherwise.
Usage Notes
See the Usage Notes for the SDO_RELATE operator in this chapter.
For an explanation of the topological relationships and the nineintersection model used by Spatial, see Spatial Relationships and Filtering.
For information about 3D support with spatial operators (which operators do and do not consider all three dimensions in their computations), see ThreeDimensional Spatial Objects.
Examples
The following example finds geometries that have the COVEREDBY relationship with a query window (here, a rectangle with lowerleft, upperright coordinates 1,1, 5,8). (The example uses the definitions and data described and illustrated in Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data.) In this example, only cola_a
is covered by the query window geometry.
SELECT c.mkt_id, c.name FROM cola_markets c WHERE SDO_COVEREDBY(c.shape, SDO_GEOMETRY(2003, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1,1003,3), SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(1,1, 5,8)) ) = 'TRUE'; MKT_ID NAME   1 cola_a
Parent topic: Spatial Operators
20.4 SDO_COVERS
Format
SDO_COVERS(geometry1, geometry2);
Description
Checks if any geometries in a table have the COVERS topological relationship with a specified geometry. Equivalent to specifying the SDO_RELATE operator with 'mask=COVERS'
.
See the section on the SDO_RELATE operator in this chapter for information about the operations performed by this operator and for usage requirements.
Keywords and Parameters
Value  Description 

geometry1 
Specifies a geometry column in a table. A spatial index on this column is recommended. Data type is SDO_GEOMETRY. 
geometry2 
Specifies either a geometry from a table or a transient instance of a geometry. (Specified using a bind variable or SDO_GEOMETRY constructor.) Data type is SDO_GEOMETRY. 
Returns
The expression SDO_COVERS(geometry1,geometry2) = 'TRUE' evaluates to TRUE for object pairs that have the COVERS topological relationship, and FALSE otherwise.
Usage Notes
See the Usage Notes for the SDO_RELATE operator in this chapter.
For an explanation of the topological relationships and the nineintersection model used by Spatial, see Spatial Relationships and Filtering.
For information about 3D support with spatial operators (which operators do and do not consider all three dimensions in their computations), see ThreeDimensional Spatial Objects.
Examples
The following example finds geometries that have the COVERS relationship with a query window (here, a rectangle with lowerleft, upperright coordinates 1,1, 4,6). (The example uses the definitions and data described and illustrated in Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data.) In this example, only cola_a
covers the query window geometry.
SELECT c.mkt_id, c.name FROM cola_markets c WHERE SDO_COVERS(c.shape, SDO_GEOMETRY(2003, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1,1003,3), SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(1,1, 4,6)) ) = 'TRUE'; MKT_ID NAME   1 cola_a
Parent topic: Spatial Operators
20.5 SDO_EQUAL
Format
SDO_EQUAL(geometry1, geometry2);
Description
Checks if any geometries in a table have the EQUAL topological relationship with a specified geometry. Equivalent to specifying the SDO_RELATE operator with 'mask=EQUAL'
.
See the section on the SDO_RELATE operator in this chapter for information about the operations performed by this operator and for usage requirements.
Keywords and Parameters
Value  Description 

geometry1 
Specifies a geometry column in a table. A spatial index on this column is recommended. Data type is SDO_GEOMETRY. 
geometry2 
Specifies either a geometry from a table or a transient instance of a geometry. (Specified using a bind variable or SDO_GEOMETRY constructor.) Data type is SDO_GEOMETRY. 
Returns
The expression SDO_EQUAL(geometry1,geometry2) = 'TRUE' evaluates to TRUE for object pairs that have the EQUAL topological relationship, and FALSE otherwise.
Usage Notes
See the Usage Notes for the SDO_RELATE operator in this chapter.
For an explanation of the topological relationships and the nineintersection model used by Spatial, see Spatial Relationships and Filtering.
For information about 3D support with spatial operators (which operators do and do not consider all three dimensions in their computations), see ThreeDimensional Spatial Objects.
Examples
The following example finds geometries that have the EQUAL relationship with a query window (here, a rectangle with lowerleft, upperright coordinates 1,1, 5,7). (The example uses the definitions and data described and illustrated in Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data.) In this example, cola_a
(and only cola_a
) has the same boundary and interior as the query window geometry.
SELECT c.mkt_id, c.name FROM cola_markets c WHERE SDO_EQUAL(c.shape, SDO_GEOMETRY(2003, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1,1003,3), SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(1,1, 5,7)) ) = 'TRUE'; MKT_ID NAME   1 cola_a
Parent topic: Spatial Operators
20.6 SDO_FILTER
Format
SDO_FILTER(geometry1, geometry2, param);
Description
Identifies either the set of spatial objects that are likely to interact spatially with a given object (such as an area of interest), or pairs of spatial objects that are likely to interact spatially. Objects interact spatially if they are not disjoint.
This operator performs only a primary filter operation. The secondary filtering operation, performed by the SDO_RELATE operator, can be used to determine with certainty if objects interact spatially.
Keywords and Parameters
Value  Description 

geometry1 
Specifies a geometry column in a table. A spatial index on this column is recommended. Data type is SDO_GEOMETRY. 
geometry2 
Specifies either a geometry from a table or a transient instance of a geometry. (Specified using a bind variable or SDO_GEOMETRY constructor.) Data type is SDO_GEOMETRY. 
param 
Optionally specifies either or both of the The The 
Returns
The expression SDO_FILTER(geometry1,geometry2) = 'TRUE' evaluates to TRUE for object pairs that are nondisjoint, and FALSE otherwise.
Usage Notes
Note:
SDO_FILTERoperator is not supported for 3D data in Oracle Autonomous Database Serverless deployments.
The SDO_FILTER operator must always be used in a WHERE clause and the condition that includes the operator should be an expression of the form SDO_FILTER(arg1, arg2) = 'TRUE'. (The expression must not equate to any value other than 'TRUE'.)
geometry2
can come from a table or be a transient SDO_GEOMETRY object, such as a bind variable or SDO_GEOMETRY constructor.

If the
geometry2
column is not spatially indexed, the operator indexes the query window in memory and performance is very good. 
If two or more geometries from
geometry2
are passed to the operator, the ORDERED optimizer hint must be specified, and the table ingeometry2
must be specified first in the FROM clause.
If geometry1
and geometry2
are based on different coordinate systems, geometry2
is temporarily transformed to the coordinate system of geometry1
for the operation to be performed, as described in Different Coordinate Systems for Geometries with Operators and Functions.
Note:
If the DBMS_RLS.ADD_POLICY procedure has been used to add a finegrained access control policy to a table or view, and if the specified policy function uses a spatial operator, the operator must be SDO_FILTER. No other spatial operators are supported in that context.
For information about 3D support with spatial operators (which operators do and do not consider all three dimensions in their computations), see ThreeDimensional Spatial Objects.
Examples
The following example selects the geometries that are likely to interact with a query window (here, a rectangle with lowerleft, upperright coordinates 4,6, 8,8). (The example uses the definitions and data described and illustrated in Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data.)
SELECT c.mkt_id, c.name FROM cola_markets c WHERE SDO_FILTER(c.shape, SDO_GEOMETRY(2003, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1,1003,3), SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(4,6, 8,8)) ) = 'TRUE'; MKT_ID NAME   2 cola_b 1 cola_a 4 cola_d
The following example is the same as the preceding example, except that it includes only geometries where at least one side of the geometry's MBR is equal to or greater than 4.1. In this case, only cola_a
and cola_b
are returned, because their MBRs have at least one side with a length greater than or equal to 4.1. The circle cola_d
is excluded, because its MBR is a square whose sides have a length of 4.
SELECT c.mkt_id, c.name FROM cola_markets c WHERE SDO_FILTER(c.shape, SDO_GEOMETRY(2003, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1,1003,3), SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(4,6, 8,8)), 'min_resolution=4.1' ) = 'TRUE'; MKT_ID NAME   2 cola_b 1 cola_a
The following example selects the GID values from the POLYGONS table where the GEOMETRY column objects are likely to interact spatially with the GEOMETRY column object in the QUERY_POLYS table that has a GID value of 1.
SELECT A.gid FROM Polygons A, query_polys B WHERE B.gid = 1 AND SDO_FILTER(A.Geometry, B.Geometry) = 'TRUE';
The following example selects the GID values from the POLYGONS table where the GEOMETRY column object is likely to interact spatially with the geometry stored in the aGeom
variable.
Select A.Gid FROM Polygons A WHERE SDO_FILTER(A.Geometry, :aGeom) = 'TRUE';
The following example selects the GID values from the POLYGONS table where the GEOMETRY column object is likely to interact spatially with the specified rectangle having the lowerleft coordinates (x1,y1) and the upperright coordinates (x2, y2).
Select A.Gid FROM Polygons A WHERE SDO_FILTER(A.Geometry, sdo_geometry(2003,NULL,NULL, sdo_elem_info_array(1,1003,3), sdo_ordinate_array(x1,y1,x2,y2)) ) = 'TRUE';
The following example selects the GID values from the POLYGONS table where the GEOMETRY column object is likely to interact spatially with any GEOMETRY column object in the QUERY_POLYS table. In this example, the ORDERED optimizer hint is used and the QUERY_POLYS (geometry2
) table is specified first in the FROM clause, because multiple geometries from geometry2
are involved (see the Usage Notes).
SELECT /*+ ORDERED */ A.gid FROM query_polys B, polygons A WHERE SDO_FILTER(A.Geometry, B.Geometry) = 'TRUE';
Related Topics
Parent topic: Spatial Operators
20.7 SDO_GEOM_MBR
SDO_GEOM_MBR(geometry);
Description
SDO_GEOM_MBR is a SQL operator that determines the minimum bounding rectangle of a geometry object.
Though it is functionally identical to the SDO_GEOM.SDO_MBR function, it provides better performance.
Keywords and Parameters
Value  Description 

geometry 
Specifies a geometry column in a table. A spatial index on this column is recommended. Data type is SDO_GEOMETRY. 
Returns
SDO_GEOM_MBR returns a single rectangle that minimally encloses the geometry.
Usage Notes
See the Usage Notes for the SDO_GEOM.SDO_MBR subprogram.
Examples
The following example returns the minimum bounding rectangle of the cola_d
geometry in the COLA_MARKETS table. (The example uses the definitions and data from Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data. Since cola_d
is a circle, the minimum bounding rectangle in this case is a square.)
 Return the minimum bounding rectangle of cola_d (a circle). SELECT SDO_GEOM_MBR(c.shape) FROM cola_markets c WHERE c.name = 'cola_d'; SDO_GEOM_MBR(C.SHAPE)(SDO_GTYPE, SDO_SRID, SDO_POINT(X, Y, Z), SDO_ELEM_INFO, SD  SDO_GEOMETRY(2003, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1003, 3), SDO_ORDINATE_ARR AY(6, 7, 10, 11))
Parent topic: Spatial Operators
20.8 SDO_INSIDE
Format
SDO_INSIDE(geometry1, geometry2);
Description
Checks if any geometries in a table have the INSIDE topological relationship with a specified geometry. Equivalent to specifying the SDO_RELATE operator with 'mask=INSIDE'
.
See the section on the SDO_RELATE operator in this chapter for information about the operations performed by this operator and for usage requirements.
Keywords and Parameters
Value  Description 

geometry1 
Specifies a geometry column in a table. A spatial index on this column is recommended. Data type is SDO_GEOMETRY. 
geometry2 
Specifies either a geometry from a table or a transient instance of a geometry. (Specified using a bind variable or SDO_GEOMETRY constructor.) Data type is SDO_GEOMETRY. 
Returns
The expression SDO_INSIDE(geometry1,geometry2) = 'TRUE' evaluates to TRUE for object pairs that have the INSIDE topological relationship, and FALSE otherwise.
Usage Notes
Note:
SDO_INSIDEoperator is not supported for 3D data in Oracle Autonomous Database Serverless deployments.
See the Usage Notes for the SDO_RELATE operator in this chapter.
For an explanation of the topological relationships and the nineintersection model used by Spatial, see Spatial Relationships and Filtering.
For information about 3D support with spatial operators (which operators do and do not consider all three dimensions in their computations), see ThreeDimensional Spatial Objects.
Examples
The following example finds geometries that have the INSIDE relationship with a query window (here, a rectangle with lowerleft, upperright coordinates 5,6, 12,12). (The example uses the definitions and data described and illustrated in Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data.) In this example, only cola_d
(the circle) is inside the query window geometry.
SELECT c.mkt_id, c.name FROM cola_markets c WHERE SDO_INSIDE(c.shape, SDO_GEOMETRY(2003, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1,1003,3), SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(5,6, 12,12)) ) = 'TRUE'; MKT_ID NAME   4 cola_d
Parent topic: Spatial Operators
20.9 SDO_JOIN
Format
SDO_JOIN(table_name1, column_name1, table_name2, column_name2, params,preserve_join_order, table1_partition, table2_partition) RETURN SDO_ROWIDSET;
Description
Performs a spatial join based on one or more topological relationships.
Keywords and Parameters
Value  Description 

table_name1 
Name of the first table to be used in the spatial join operation. The table must have a column of type SDO_GEOMETRY. Data type is VARCHAR2. 
column_name1 
Name of the spatial column of type SDO_GEOMETRY in 
table_name2 
Name of the second table to be used in the spatial join operation. (It can be the same as or different from 
column_name2 
Name of the spatial column of type SDO_GEOMETRY in 
params 
Optional parameter string of keywords and values; available only if 
preserve_join_order 
Optional parameter to specify if the join order is guaranteed to be preserved during processing of the operator. If the value is 
table1_partition 
Name of the table partition in 
table2_partition 
Name of the table partition in 
Returns
SDO_JOIN returns an object of SDO_ROWIDSET, which consists of a table of objects of SDO_ROWIDPAIR. Oracle Spatial defines the type SDO_ROWIDSET as:
CREATE TYPE sdo_rowidset as TABLE OF sdo_rowidpair;
Oracle Spatial defines the object type SDO_ROWIDPAIR as:
CREATE TYPE sdo_rowidpair AS OBJECT (rowid1 VARCHAR2(24), rowid2 VARCHAR2(24));
In the SDO_ROWIDPAIR definition, rowid1
refers to a rowid from table_name1
, and rowid2
refers to a rowid from table_name2
.
Usage Notes
SDO_JOIN is technically not an operator, but a table function. (For an explanation of table functions, see Oracle Database PL/SQL Language Reference.) However, it is presented in the chapter with spatial operators because its usage is similar to that of the operators, and because it is not part of a package with other functions and procedures.
This table function is recommended when you need to perform full table joins.
The geometries in column_name1
and column_name2
must have the same SRID (coordinate system) value and the same number of dimensions.
For best performance, use the /*+ ORDERED */
optimizer hint, and specify the SDO_JOIN table function first in the FROM clause.
If a table is versionenabled (using the Workspace Manager feature), you must specify the <table_name>
_LT
table created by Workspace Manager. For example, if the COLA_MARKETS table is versionenabled and you want to perform a spatial join operation on that table, specify COLA_MARKETS_LT (not COLA_MARKETS) with the SDO_JOIN table function. (However, for all other spatial functions, procedures, and operators, do not use the <table_name>
_LT
name.)
Table 203 shows the keywords for the params
parameter.
Table 203 params Keywords for the SDO_JOIN Operator
Keyword  Description 

mask 
The topological relationship of interest.Valid values are 'mask=<value>' where <value> is one or more of the mask values valid for the SDO_RELATE operator ( If this parameter is null or contains an empty string, 
distance 
Specifies a numeric distance value that is added to the tolerance value (explained in Tolerance) before the relationship checks are performed. For example, if the tolerance is 10 meters and you specify 
unit 
Specifies a unit of measurement to be associated with the distance value (for example, 
Before you call SDO_JOIN, you must commit any previous DML statements in your session. Otherwise, the following error will be returned: ORA13236: internal error in Rtree processing: [SDO_Join in active txns not supported]
For information about 3D support with spatial operators (which operators do and do not consider all three dimensions in their computations), see ThreeDimensional Spatial Objects.
Optimizing SelfJoins
If you are performing a selfjoin (that is, if table_name1
and table_name2
specify the same table), you can improve the performance by optimizing the selfjoin.
If SDO_JOIN is called without a mask (for example, ANYINTERACT
) or distance specification, it compares only the index structure of the two geometry columns being joined. This can quickly identify geometry pairs that are "likely" to interact. If SDO_JOIN is called with a mask or distance specification, after the index is used to identify geometry pairs that are likely to interact, geometry coordinates are also compared to see if the geometry pairs actually do interact. Coordinate comparison is the most expensive part of the SDO_JOIN operation.
In a selfjoin, where the same geometry column is compared to itself, each geometry pair is returned twice in the result set. For example:

For the geometry pair with ID values (1,2), the pair (2,1) is also returned. The undesired effect in SDO_JOIN is that the coordinates of the same geometry pair are compared twice, instead of once.

ID pairs that are equal are returned twice. For example, a table with 50,000 rows will return ID pair (1,1) twice, ID pair (2,2) twice, and so on. This is also an undesired effect.
When calling SDO_JOIN in a selfjoin scenario, you can eliminate the undesired effects by eliminating duplicate comparison of geometry pairs and all coordinate comparisons where the ID values of the pairs match. This optimization uses SDO_JOIN for the primary filter only, and calls the SDO_GEOM.RELATE function to compare geometry coordinates. The following statement accomplishes this optimization by adding "AND b.rowid < c.rowid
" as a predicate to the WHERE
clause.
SQL> set autotrace trace explain SQL> SELECT /*+ ordered use_nl (a,b) use_nl (a,c) */ b.id, c.id FROM TABLE(sdo_join('GEOD_STATES','GEOM','GEOD_STATES','GEOM')) a, GEOD_STATES b, GEOD_STATES c WHERE a.rowid1 = b.rowid AND a.rowid2 = c.rowid AND b.rowid < c.rowid AND SDO_GEOM.RELATE (b.geom, 'ANYINTERACT', c.geom, .05) = 'TRUE' Execution Plan  Plan hash value: 1412731386   Id  Operation  Name  Rows  Bytes  Cost (%CPU) Time    0  SELECT STATEMENT   1  1124  12787 (1) 00:02:34   1  NESTED LOOPS   1  1124  12787 (1) 00:02:34   2  NESTED LOOPS   4574  2514K 8206 (1) 00:01:39   3  COLLECTION ITERATOR PICKLER FETCH SDO_JOIN     * 4  TABLE ACCESS BY USER ROWID  GEOD_STATES  1  561 1 (0) 00:00:01  * 5  TABLE ACCESS BY USER ROWID  GEOD_STATES  1  561 1 (0) 00:00:01  Predicate Information (identified by operation id):  4  access(CHARTOROWID(VALUE(KOKBF$))) 5  access(CHARTOROWID(VALUE(KOKBF$))) filter("B".ROWID<"C".ROWID AND "SDO_GEOM"."RELATE"("B"."GEOM",'ANYINTERACT',"C"."GEOM",.05)='TRUE') SQL> set autotrace off
In the preceding example, It is very important that AND b.rowid < c.rowid
be before the call to SDO_GEOM.RELATE in the WHERE
clause. This will omit the undesired scenarios for the invocation of the SDO_GEOM.RELATE function. Also, note that the example uses the ORDERED
and USE_NL
hints, and that the execution plan does not contain TABLE ACCESS FULL
or HASH JOIN
.
CrossSchema Invocation of SDO_JOIN
You can invoke the SDO_JOIN table function on an indexed table that is not in your schema, if you have been granted SELECT access to both the spatial table and to the index table for the spatial index that was created on the spatial table. To find the name of the index table for a spatial index, query the SDO_INDEX_TABLE column in the USER_SDO_INDEX_METADATA view. For example, the following statement returns the name of the index table for the COLA_MARKETS_IDX spatial index:
SELECT sdo_index_table FROM user_sdo_index_metadata WHERE sdo_index_name = 'COLA_SPATIAL_IDX';
Assume that user A owns spatial table T1 (with index table MDRT_F9AA$), and that user B owns spatial table T2 and wants to join geometries from both T1 and T2. Assume also that the geometry column in both tables is named GEOMETRY.
User A or a suitably privileged user must connect as user A and execute the following statements:
GRANT select on T1 to B; GRANT select on MDRT_F9AA$ to B;
User B can now connect and execute an SDO_JOIN query, such as the following:
SELECT COUNT(*) FROM (SELECT * FROM TABLE(SDO_JOIN('A.T1', 'GEOMETRY', 'B.T2', 'GEOMETRY', 'mask=anyinteract')) );
Examples
The following example joins the COLA_MARKETS table with itself to find, for each geometry, all other geometries that have any spatial interaction with it. (The example uses the definitions and data from Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data.) In this example, rowid1
and rowid2
correspond to the names of the attributes in the SDO_ROWIDPAIR type definition. Note that in the output, cola_d
(the circle) interacts only with itself, and not with any of the other geometries.
SELECT /*+ ordered */ a.name, b.name FROM TABLE(SDO_JOIN('COLA_MARKETS', 'SHAPE', 'COLA_MARKETS', 'SHAPE', 'mask=ANYINTERACT')) c, cola_markets a, cola_markets b WHERE c.rowid1 = a.rowid AND c.rowid2 = b.rowid ORDER BY a.name; NAME NAME   cola_a cola_c cola_a cola_b cola_a cola_a cola_b cola_c cola_b cola_b cola_b cola_a cola_c cola_c cola_c cola_b cola_c cola_a cola_d cola_d 10 rows selected.
Related Topics
Parent topic: Spatial Operators
20.10 SDO_NN
Format
SDO_NN(geometry1, geometry2, param [, number]);
Description
Identifies the nearest neighbors for a geometry.
Keywords and Parameters
Value  Description 

geometry1 
Specifies a geometry column in a table. A spatial index on this column is required. Data type is SDO_GEOMETRY. 
geometry2 
Specifies either a geometry from a table or a transient instance of a geometry. The nearest neighbor or neighbors to 
param 
Determines the behavior of the operator. The available keywords are listed in Table 204. If you do not specify this parameter, the operator returns all rows in increasing distance order from 
number 
If the SDO_NN_DISTANCE ancillary operator is included in the call to SDO_NN, specifies the same number used in the call to SDO_NN_DISTANCE. Data type is NUMBER. 
Table 204 lists the keywords for the param
parameter.
Table 204 Keywords for the SDO_NN Param Parameter
Keyword  Description 

distance 
Specifies the number of distance units after which to stop searching for nearest neighbors. If you do not also specify the For example: 'distance=10 unit=mile' 
ellipsoidal 
Specifies if ellipsoidal distance is always used with geodetic data ( For example: 'ellipsoidal=true' 
sdo_batch_size 
Specifies the number of rows to be evaluated at a time when the SDO_NN expression may need to be evaluated multiple times in order to return the desired number of results that satisfy the WHERE clause. Available only when an Rtree index is used. If you specify For example: 'sdo_batch_size=10' 
sdo_num_res 
Specifies the number of results (nearest neighbors) to be returned. If neither For example: 'sdo_num_res=5' 
unit 
If the For example: 'unit=KM' 
Returns
This operator returns the sdo_num_res
number of objects from geometry1
that are nearest to geometry2
in the query. In determining how near two geometry objects are, the shortest possible distance between any two points on the surface of each object is used.
Usage Notes
Note:
SDO_NNoperator is not supported for 3D data in Oracle Autonomous Database Serverless deployments.
The operator is disabled if the table does not have a spatial index or if the number of dimensions for the query window does not match the number of dimensions specified when the index was created.
The operator must always be used in a WHERE clause, and the condition that includes the operator should be an expression of the form SDO_NN(arg1, arg2, '<some_parameter>') = 'TRUE'. (The expression must not equate to any value other than 'TRUE'.)
The operator can be used in the following ways:

If all geometries in the layer are candidates, use the
sdo_num_res
keyword to specify the number of geometries returned.The
sdo_num_res
keyword is especially useful when you are concerned only with proximity (for example, the three closest banks, regardless of bank name). 
If any geometries in the table might be nearer than the geometries specified in the WHERE clause, use the
sdo_batch_size
keyword and use the WHERE clause (including the ROWNUM pseudocolumn) to limit the number of geometries returned.The
sdo_batch_size
keyword is especially useful when you need to consider one or more columns from the same table as the nearest neighbor search column in the WHERE clause (for example, the three closest banks whose name contains MegaBank). 
You can also specify both the
sdo_num_res
andsdo_batch_size
keywords, as explained later in these Usage Notes.
As an example of the sdo_batch_size
keyword, assume that a RESTAURANTS table contains different types of restaurants, and you want to find the two nearest Italian restaurants to your hotel but only if they are within two miles. The query might look like the following:
SELECT r.name FROM restaurants r WHERE SDO_NN(r.geometry, :my_hotel, 'sdo_batch_size=10 distance=2 unit=mile') = 'TRUE' AND r.cuisine = 'Italian' AND ROWNUM <=2;
In this example, the ROWNUM <=2
clause is necessary to limit the number of results returned to no more than 2 where CUISINE is Italian
. However, if the sdo_batch_size
keyword is not specified in this example, and if sdo_num_res=2
is specified instead of ROWNUM <=2
, only the two nearest restaurants within two miles are considered, regardless of their CUISINE value; and if the CUISINE value of these two rows is not Italian
, the query may return no rows.
The sdo_batch_size
value can affect the performance of nearest neighbor queries. A good general guideline is to specify the number of candidate rows likely to satisfy the WHERE clause. Using the preceding example of a query for Italian restaurants, if approximately 20 percent of the restaurants nearest to the hotel are Italian and if you want 2 restaurants, an sdo_batch_size
value of 10 will probably result in the best performance. On the other hand, if only approximately 5 percent of the restaurants nearest to the hotel are Italian and if you want 2 restaurants, an sdo_batch_size
value of 40 would be better.
You can specify sdo_batch_size=0
, which causes Spatial to calculate a batch size that is suitable for the result set size. However, the calculated batch size may not be optimal, and the calculation incurs some processing overhead; if you can determine a good sdo_batch_size
value for a query, the performance will probably be better than if you specify sdo_batch_size=0
.
Specify the number
parameter only if you are using the SDO_NN_DISTANCE ancillary operator in the call to SDO_NN. See the information about the SDO_NN_DISTANCE operator in this chapter.
If two or more objects from geometry1
are an equal distance from geometry2
, any of the objects can be returned on any call to the function. For example, if item_a
, item_b
, and item_c
are nearest to and equally distant from geometry2,
and if sdo_num_res=2
, two of those three objects are returned, but they can be any two of the three.
If the SDO_NN operator uses a partitioned spatial index (see Using Partitioned Spatial Indexes), the requested number of geometries is returned for each partition that contains candidate rows based on the query criteria. For example, if you request the 5 nearest restaurants to a point and the spatial index has 4 partitions, the operator returns up to 20 (5*4) geometries. In this case, you must use the ROWNUM pseudocolumn (here, WHERE ROWNUM <=5
) to return the 5 nearest restaurants.
If geometry1
and geometry2
are based on different coordinate systems, geometry2
is temporarily transformed to the coordinate system of geometry1
for the operation to be performed, as described in Different Coordinate Systems for Geometries with Operators and Functions.
SDO_NN is not supported for spatial joins.
In some situations the SDO_NN operator will not use the spatial index unless an optimizer hint forces the index to be used. This can occur when a query involves a join; and if the optimizer hint is not used in such situations, an internal error occurs. To prevent such errors, you should always specify an optimizer hint to use the spatial index with the SDO_NN operator, regardless of how simple or complex the query is. For example, the following excerpt from a query specifies to use the COLA_SPATIAL_IDX index that is defined on the COLA_MARKETS table:
SELECT /*+ INDEX(c cola_spatial_idx) */ c.mkt_id, c.name, ... FROM cola_markets c, ...;
However, if the column predicate in the WHERE clause specifies any nonspatial column in the table for geometry1
that has an associated index, be sure that this index is not used by specifying the NO_INDEX hint for that index. For example, if there was an index named COLA_NAME_IDX defined on the NAME column, you would need to specify the hints in the preceding example as follows:
SELECT /*+ INDEX(c cola_spatial_idx) NO_INDEX(c cola_name_idx) */ c.mkt_id, c.name, ... FROM cola_markets c, ...;
(Note, however, that there is no index named COLA_NAME_IDX in the example in Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data.)
If you join two or more tables with the SDO_NN operator and the sdo_num_res
keyword, specify the LEADING hint for the outer table, USE_NL hint to have a nested loops join, and the INDEX hint for the inner table (the table with the spatial index). For example:
SELECT /*+ LEADING(b) USE_NL(b a) INDEX(a cola_spatial_idx) */ a.gid FROM cola_qry b, cola_markets a WHERE SDO_NN(a.shape, b.shape, 'sdo_num_res=1')='TRUE';
However, if you join two or more tables with the SDO_NN operator, the sdo_batch_size
keyword, and the ROWNUM clause, the best way to implement the logic is to use a PL/SQL block. For example:
BEGIN FOR item IN ( SELECT b.shape FROM cola_qry b) LOOP SELECT /*+ INDEX(a cola_spatial_idx) */ a.gid INTO local_gid FROM cola_markets a WHERE SDO_NN(a.shape, item.shape, 'sdo_batch_size=10')='TRUE' and a.name like 'cola%' and ROWNUM <2; END LOOP; END;
For detailed information about using optimizer hints, see Oracle Database SQL Tuning Guide.
For information about 3D support with spatial operators (which operators do and do not consider all three dimensions in their computations), see ThreeDimensional Spatial Objects.
Examples
The following example finds the two objects from the SHAPE column in the COLA_MARKETS table that are nearest to a specified point (10,7). (The example uses the definitions and data described and illustrated in Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data.)
SELECT /*+ INDEX(c cola_spatial_idx) */ c.mkt_id, c.name FROM cola_markets c WHERE SDO_NN(c.shape, sdo_geometry(2001, NULL, sdo_point_type(10,7,NULL), NULL, NULL), 'sdo_num_res=2') = 'TRUE'; MKT_ID NAME   2 cola_b 4 cola_d
The following example uses the sdo_batch_size
keyword to find the two objects (ROWNUM <=2), with a NAME value less than 'cola_d', from the SHAPE column in the COLA_MARKETS table that are nearest to a specified point (10,7). The value of 3 for sdo_batch_size
represents a best guess at the number of nearest geometries that need to be evaluated before the WHERE clause condition is satisfied. (The example uses the definitions and data from Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data.)
SELECT /*+ INDEX(c cola_spatial_idx) */ c.mkt_id, c.name FROM cola_markets c WHERE SDO_NN(c.shape, sdo_geometry(2001, NULL, sdo_point_type(10,7,NULL), NULL, NULL), 'sdo_batch_size=3') = 'TRUE' AND c.name < 'cola_d' AND ROWNUM <= 2; MKT_ID NAME   2 cola_b 3 cola_c
See also the more complex SDO_NN examples in SDO_NN Examples.
Related Topics
Parent topic: Spatial Operators
20.11 SDO_NN_DISTANCE
Format
SDO_NN_DISTANCE(number);
Description
Returns the distance of an object returned by the SDO_NN operator. Valid only within a call to the SDO_NN operator.
Keywords and Parameters
Value  Description 

number 
Specifies a number that must be the same as the last parameter passed to the SDO_NN operator. Data type is NUMBER. 
Returns
This operator returns the distance of an object returned by the SDO_NN operator. In determining how near two geometry objects are, the shortest possible distance between any two points on the surface of each object is used.
Usage Notes
SDO_NN_DISTANCE is an ancillary operator to the SDO_NN operator. It returns the distance between the specified geometry and a nearest neighbor object. This distance is passed as ancillary data to the SDO_NN operator. (For an explanation of how operators can use ancillary data, see the section on ancillary data in Oracle Database Data Cartridge Developer's Guide.)
You can choose any arbitrary number for the number
parameter. The only requirement is that it must match the last parameter in the call to the SDO_NN operator.
Use a bind variable to store and operate on the distance value.
Examples
The following example finds the two objects from the SHAPE column in the COLA_MARKETS table that are nearest to a specified point (10,7), and it finds the distance between each object and the point. (The example uses the definitions and data described and illustrated in Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data.)
SELECT /*+ INDEX(c cola_spatial_idx) */ c.mkt_id, c.name, SDO_NN_DISTANCE(1) dist FROM cola_markets c WHERE SDO_NN(c.shape, sdo_geometry(2001, NULL, sdo_point_type(10,7,NULL), NULL, NULL), 'sdo_num_res=2', 1) = 'TRUE' ORDER BY dist; MKT_ID NAME DIST    4 cola_d .828427125 2 cola_b 2.23606798
Note the following about this example:

1 is used as the
number
parameter for SDO_NN_DISTANCE, and 1 is also specified as the last parameter to SDO_NN (after'sdo_num_res=2'
). 
The column alias
dist
holds the distance between the object and the point. (For geodetic data, the distance unit is meters; for nongeodetic data, the distance unit is the unit associated with the data.)
The following example uses the sdo_batch_size
keyword in selecting the two closest Italian restaurants to your hotel from a YELLOW_PAGES table that contains different types of businesses:
SELECT * FROM (SELECT /*+ FIRST_ROWS */ y.name FROM YELLOW_PAGES y WHERE SDO_NN(y.geometry, :my_hotel, 'sdo_batch_size=100', 1) = 'TRUE' AND y.business = 'Italian Restaurant' ORDER BY SDO_NN_DISTANCE(1)) WHERE ROWNUM <=10;
In the preceding query, the FIRST_ROWS hint enables the optimizer to improve performance by pushing the ORDER BY operation into the spatial index. :my_hotel
can be either a bind variable or a literal value.
The FIRST_ROWS hint is also available to a local partitioned spatial index. In the preceding example, if the YELLOW_PAGES table is partitioned by name, the query will be executed as follows:

For each partition, the ORDER BY operation is processed using the spatial index until 10 rows are found.

After all partitions are completed, all rows found in the preceding step are sorted, and the top 10 rows are returned.
Related Topics
Parent topic: Spatial Operators
20.12 SDO_ON
Format
SDO_ON(geometry1, geometry2);
Description
Checks if any geometries in a table have the ON topological relationship with a specified geometry. Equivalent to specifying the SDO_RELATE operator with 'mask=ON'
.
See the section on the SDO_RELATE operator in this chapter for information about the operations performed by this operator and for usage requirements.
Keywords and Parameters
Value  Description 

geometry1 
Specifies a geometry column in a table. A spatial index on this column is recommended. Data type is SDO_GEOMETRY. 
geometry2 
Specifies either a geometry from a table or a transient instance of a geometry. (Specified using a bind variable or SDO_GEOMETRY constructor.) Data type is SDO_GEOMETRY. 
Returns
The expression SDO_ON(geometry1,geometry2) = 'TRUE' evaluates to TRUE for object pairs that have the ON topological relationship, and FALSE otherwise.
Usage Notes
See the Usage Notes for the SDO_RELATE operator in this chapter.
For an explanation of the topological relationships and the nineintersection model used by Spatial, see Spatial Relationships and Filtering.
For information about 3D support with spatial operators (which operators do and do not consider all three dimensions in their computations), see ThreeDimensional Spatial Objects.
Examples
The following example finds geometries that have the ON relationship with a query window (here, a rectangle with lowerleft, upperright coordinates 4,6, 8,8). (The example uses the definitions and data described and illustrated in Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data.) This example returns no rows because there are no line string geometries in the SHAPE column.
SELECT c.mkt_id, c.name FROM cola_markets c WHERE SDO_ON(c.shape, SDO_GEOMETRY(2003, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1,1003,3), SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(4,6, 8,8)) ) = 'TRUE'; no rows selected
Parent topic: Spatial Operators
20.13 SDO_OVERLAPBDYDISJOINT
Format
SDO_OVERLAPBDYDISJOINT(geometry1, geometry2);
Description
Checks if any geometries in a table have the OVERLAPBDYDISJOINT topological relationship with a specified geometry. Equivalent to specifying the SDO_RELATE operator with 'mask=OVERLAPBDYDISJOINT'
.
See the section on the SDO_RELATE operator in this chapter for information about the operations performed by this operator and for usage requirements.
Keywords and Parameters
Value  Description 

geometry1 
Specifies a geometry column in a table. A spatial index on this column is recommended. Data type is SDO_GEOMETRY. 
geometry2 
Specifies either a geometry from a table or a transient instance of a geometry. (Specified using a bind variable or SDO_GEOMETRY constructor.) Data type is SDO_GEOMETRY. 
Returns
The expression SDO_OVERLAPBDYDISJOINT(geometry1,geometry2) = 'TRUE' evaluates to TRUE for object pairs that have the OVERLAPBDYDISJOINT topological relationship, and FALSE otherwise.
Usage Notes
See the Usage Notes for the SDO_RELATE operator in this chapter.
For an explanation of the topological relationships and the nineintersection model used by Spatial, see Spatial Relationships and Filtering.
For information about 3D support with spatial operators (which operators do and do not consider all three dimensions in their computations), see ThreeDimensional Spatial Objects.
Examples
The following example finds geometries that have the OVERLAPBDYDISJOINT relationship with a line string geometry (here, a horizontal line from 0,6 to 2,6). (The example uses the definitions and data described and illustrated inSimple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data.) In this example, only cola_a
has the OVERLAPBDYDISJOINT relationship with the line string geometry.
SELECT c.mkt_id, c.name FROM cola_markets c WHERE SDO_OVERLAPBDYDISJOINT(c.shape, SDO_GEOMETRY(2002, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1,2,1), SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(0,6, 2,6)) ) = 'TRUE'; MKT_ID NAME   1 cola_a
Parent topic: Spatial Operators
20.14 SDO_OVERLAPBDYINTERSECT
Format
SDO_OVERLAPBDYINTERSECT(geometry1, geometry2);
Description
Checks if any geometries in a table have the OVERLAPBDYINTERSECT topological relationship with a specified geometry. Equivalent to specifying the SDO_RELATE operator with 'mask=OVERLAPBDYINTERSECT'
.
See the section on the SDO_RELATE operator in this chapter for information about the operations performed by this operator and for usage requirements.
Keywords and Parameters
Value  Description 

geometry1 
Specifies a geometry column in a table. A spatial index on this column is recommended. Data type is SDO_GEOMETRY. 
geometry2 
Specifies either a geometry from a table or a transient instance of a geometry. (Specified using a bind variable or SDO_GEOMETRY constructor.) Data type is SDO_GEOMETRY. 
Returns
The expression SDO_OVERLAPBDYINTERSECT(geometry1,geometry2) = 'TRUE' evaluates to TRUE for object pairs that have the OVERLAPBDYINTERSECT topological relationship, and FALSE otherwise.
Usage Notes
See the Usage Notes for the SDO_RELATE operator in this chapter.
For an explanation of the topological relationships and the nineintersection model used by Spatial, see Spatial Relationships and Filtering.
For information about 3D support with spatial operators (which operators do and do not consider all three dimensions in their computations), see ThreeDimensional Spatial Objects.
Examples
The following example finds geometries that have the OVERLAPBDYINTERSECT relationship with a query window (here, a rectangle with lowerleft, upperright coordinates 4,6, 8,8). (The example uses the definitions and data described and illustrated in Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data.) In this example, cola_a
, cola_b
, and cola_d
have the OVERLAPBDYINTERSECT relationship with the query window geometry.
SELECT c.mkt_id, c.name FROM cola_markets c WHERE SDO_OVERLAPBDYINTERSECT(c.shape, SDO_GEOMETRY(2003, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1,1003,3), SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(4,6, 8,8)) ) = 'TRUE'; MKT_ID NAME   2 cola_b 1 cola_a 4 cola_d
Parent topic: Spatial Operators
20.15 SDO_OVERLAPS
Format
SDO_OVERLAPS(geometry1, geometry2);
Description
Checks if any geometries in a table overlap (that is, have the OVERLAPBDYDISJOINT or OVERLAPBDYINTERSECT topological relationship with) a specified geometry. Equivalent to specifying the SDO_RELATE operator with 'mask=OVERLAPBDYDISJOINT+OVERLAPBDYINTERSECT'
.
See the section on the SDO_RELATE operator in this chapter for information about the operations performed by this operator and for usage requirements.
For information about 3D support with Spatial operators (which operators do and do not consider all three dimensions in their computations), see ThreeDimensional Spatial Objects.
Keywords and Parameters
Value  Description 

geometry1 
Specifies a geometry column in a table. A spatial index on this column is recommended. Data type is SDO_GEOMETRY. 
geometry2 
Specifies either a geometry from a table or a transient instance of a geometry. (Specified using a bind variable or SDO_GEOMETRY constructor.) Data type is SDO_GEOMETRY. 
Returns
The expression SDO_OVERLAPS(geometry1,geometry2) = 'TRUE' evaluates to TRUE for object pairs that have the OVERLAPBDYDISJOINT or OVERLAPBDYINTERSECT topological relationship, and FALSE otherwise.
Usage Notes
For the operator to evaluate to TRUE, the geometries must two polygons, two lines, or two multipoints. For example, if one geometry is a line and other is a polygon, they cannot overlap.
See also the Usage Notes for the SDO_RELATE operator in this chapter.
For an explanation of the topological relationships and the nineintersection model used by Spatial, see Spatial Relationships and Filtering.
Examples
The following example finds geometries that overlap a query window (here, a rectangle with lowerleft, upperright coordinates 4,6, 8,8). (The example uses the definitions and data described and illustrated in Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data.) In this example, three of the geometries in the SHAPE column overlap the query window geometry.
SELECT c.mkt_id, c.name FROM cola_markets c WHERE SDO_OVERLAPS(c.shape, SDO_GEOMETRY(2003, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1,1003,3), SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(4,6, 8,8)) ) = 'TRUE'; MKT_ID NAME   2 cola_b 1 cola_a 4 cola_d
Parent topic: Spatial Operators
20.16 SDO_POINTINPOLYGON
Format
SDO_POINTINPOLYGON(cur, geom_obj, tol, params) RETURN ANYDATASET;
Description
Takes a set of rows, and returns those rows that are within a specified polygon geometry.
Keywords and Parameters
Value  Description 

cur 
One of the following:

geom_obj 
Spatial geometry object: either a geometry from a table or a transient instance of a geometry, against which all of the selected points from 
tol 
Tolerance value (see Tolerance). Must be greater than 0.0. Data type is NUMBER. 
params 
Optional parameter string of keywords and values. Determines the behavior of the operator. See Table 205 in the Usage Notes for information about the available keywords. Data type is VARCHAR2. Default is NULL. 
Returns
SDO_POINTINPOLYGON returns an object of ANYDATASET TYPE, which is described in Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference. The ANYDATASET output columns are those specified by the cur
parameter.
Usage Notes
SDO_POINTINPOLYGON is technically not an operator, but a table function. (For an explanation of table functions, see Oracle Database PL/SQL Language Reference.) However, it is presented in the chapter with spatial operators because its usage is similar to that of the operators, and because it is not part of a package with other functions and procedures.
The SQL statement used in the cur
parameter can have any number of predicates in the WHERE clause. This feature can be used to filter the data on other attributes before passing the resulting rows into the SDO_POINTINPOLYGON operator.
The output columns are identical to the input columns, but the only rows returned are those matching the selection criteria.
Table 205 shows the keywords for the params
parameter.
Table 205 params Keywords for the SDO_POINTINPOLYGON Operator
Keyword  Description 

mask 
The topological relationship of interest. Valid values are 'mask=<value>' where <value> is one or more of the following: If If this parameter is null or contains an empty string, 
sdo_batch_size 
Specifies the maximum number of rows that are processed in a batch. The default value is 4000 and the maximum value is 32768. Data type is NUMBER. For example: 'sdo_batch_size=5000' 
To use parallel query servers, you must do either of the following:

Specify the
/*+ PARALLEL(
<table alias>, <n>
) */
optimizer hint, where <table_alias> is the specified table alias and <n> is the degreeofparallelism. 
Enable parallel query execution by entering the following command from a suitably privileged account:
ALTER SESSION FORCE PARALLEL QUERY;
Examples
The following example creates a new table named COLA_MARKET_POINTS based on the data from the COLA_MARKETS table, which is described and illustrated in Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data. The example then selects a point within each geometry where the MKT_ID column value is greater than 1. (It uses the SDO_UTIL.INTERIOR_POINT function to get a point that is guaranteed to be inside each geometry that matches the query criteria.)
 Create a new table with a different name based on the data from the  COLA_MARKETS table. This table has four columns: X, Y, MKT_ID, and NAME. CREATE TABLE cola_market_points AS SELECT a.point.sdo_point.x X, a.point.sdo_point.y Y, MKT_ID, NAME FROM ( SELECT mkt_id, name, sdo_util.interior_point(shape) point FROM cola_markets) a;  Limit to MKT_ID > 1. Also, use the PARALLEL hint. SELECT /*+ PARALLEL(a, 4) */ * FROM TABLE(sdo_PointInPolygon( CURSOR(select * from cola_market_points where mkt_id > 1), SDO_GEOMETRY( 2003, NULL, NULL, MDSYS.SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1003, 1), MDSYS.SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(1, 1, 8, 1, 8, 6, 5, 7, 1, 1)), 0.05)) a; X Y MKT_ID NAME     6.3125 2.875 2 cola_b 4.6875 3.875 3 cola_c
The following example does the same SDO_POINTINPOLYGON query as the previous one, but without the need to create a COLA_MARKET_POINTS table, and where for each row with a MKT_ID column value greater than 1, a point geometry is returned instead the just the X and Y coordinate pair. (The output has been reformatted for readability.)
 Limit to MKT_ID > 1. Also, use the PARALLEL hint. SELECT /*+ PARALLEL(a, 4) */ name, mkt_id, point FROM TABLE(sdo_PointInPolygon( CURSOR(select sdo_util.interior_point(shape) point, mkt_id, name from cola_markets where mkt_id > 1), SDO_GEOMETRY 2003, NULL, NULL, MDSYS.SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1003, 1), MDSYS.SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(1, 1, 8, 1, 8, 6, 5, 7, 1, 1)), 0.05)) a; NAME MKT_ID POINT(SDO_GTYPE, SDO_SRID, SDO_POINT(X, Y, Z), SDO_ELEM_INFO, SDO_ORDINATES)    cola_b 2 SDO_GEOMETRY(2001, NULL, SDO_POINT_TYPE(6.3125, 2.875, NULL), NULL, NULL) cola_c 3 SDO_GEOMETRY(2001, NULL, SDO_POINT_TYPE(4.6875, 3.875, NULL), NULL, NULL)
The following example uses a bind variable in the WHERE clause, and it specifies a params
string. It assumes the existence of a table named PIP_DATA.
DECLARE my_cursor SYS_REFCURSOR; my_pip_cursor SYS_REFCURSOR; stmt varchar2(2000); cnt number; BEGIN stmt := 'SELECT count(*) FROM '  ' TABLE (Sdo_PointInPolygon('  'CURSOR(select * from pip_data where x < :x1),'  ' :g1, :tol, ''mask=DISJOINT sdo_batch_size=6000'')) '; open my_cursor for stmt using 100,  :x1 SDO_GEOMETRY( 2003, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1003, 1), SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(10, 10, 70,10, 70, 70, 50,70, 40,50, 20,70, 10,70, 10,10)),  :g1 0.05;  :tol FETCH my_cursor into cnt; dbms_output.put_line(to_char(cnt)); END; /
Related Topics
Parent topic: Spatial Operators
20.17 SDO_RELATE
Format
SDO_RELATE(geometry1, geometry2, param);
Description
Identifies either the spatial objects that have a particular spatial interaction with a given object such as an area of interest, or pairs of spatial objects that have a particular spatial interaction.
This operator performs both primary and secondary filter operations.
Keywords and Parameters
Value  Description 

geometry1 
Specifies a geometry column in a table. A spatial index on this column is recommended. Data type is SDO_GEOMETRY. 
geometry2 
Specifies either a geometry from a table or a transient instance of a geometry. (Specified using a bind variable or SDO_GEOMETRY constructor.) Data type is SDO_GEOMETRY. 
param 
Specifies the The The The For backward compatibility, any additional keywords for the 
Returns
The expression SDO_RELATE(geometry1,geometry2, 'mask = <some_mask_val>') = 'TRUE' evaluates to TRUE for object pairs that have the topological relationship specified by <some_mask_val>, and FALSE otherwise.
Usage Notes
The operator is disabled if the number of dimensions for the query window does not match the number of dimensions specified when the index was created.
The operator must always be used in a WHERE clause, and the condition that includes the operator should be an expression of the form SDO_RELATE(arg1, arg2, 'mask = <some_mask_val>') = 'TRUE'. (The expression must not equate to any value other than 'TRUE'.)
geometry2
can come from a table or be a transient SDO_GEOMETRY object, such as a bind variable or SDO_GEOMETRY constructor.

If the
geometry2
column is not spatially indexed, the operator indexes the query window in memory and performance is very good. 
If
geometry2
passed to the operator originates from a table or view, the LEADING optimizer hint is not required, but may be helpful to inform the optimizer the driving table or view in the query should be the one that containsgeometry2
. The table or view specified in the LEADING hint should correspond to the table name or view name that containsgeometry2
. If the table or view is aliased in the FROM clause, the alias should be specified in the LEADING hint.
If geometry1
and geometry2
are based on different coordinate systems, geometry2
is temporarily transformed to the coordinate system of geometry1
for the operation to be performed, as described in Different Coordinate Systems for Geometries with Operators and Functions.
Unlike with the SDO_GEOM.RELATE function, DISJOINT and DETERMINE masks are not allowed in the relationship mask with the SDO_RELATE operator. This is because SDO_RELATE uses the spatial index (if one is available) to find candidates that may interact, and the information to satisfy DISJOINT or DETERMINE is not present in the index.
Multiple masks can be combined using the logical Boolean operator OR, for example, 'mask=touch+coveredby'
. Effective with Release 12.1, if you set the SPATIAL_VECTOR_ACCELERATION system parameter to TRUE
(highly recommended, as explained in SPATIAL_VECTOR_ACCELERATION System Parameter), you do not need to use UNION ALL with such masks. However, if you are not setting SPATIAL_VECTOR_ACCELERATION to TRUE
, better performance may result if the spatial query specifies each mask individually and uses the UNION ALL syntax to combine the results. This is due to internal optimizations that Spatial can apply under certain conditions when masks are specified singly rather than grouped within the same SDO_RELATE operator call. (There are two exceptions, inside+coveredby
and contains+covers
, where the combination performs better than the UNION ALL alternative.)
For example, consider the following query using the logical Boolean operator OR to group multiple masks:
SELECT a.gid FROM polygons a, query_polys B WHERE B.gid = 1 AND SDO_RELATE(A.Geometry, B.Geometry, 'mask=touch+coveredby') = 'TRUE';
If SPATIAL_VECTOR_ACCELERATION is TRUE
, then preceding query is simplest and has the best performance. However, if SPATIAL_VECTOR_ACCELEERATION is FALSE
, the preceding query may result in better performance if it is expressed as follows, using UNION ALL to combine results of multiple SDO_RELATE operator calls, each with a single mask:
SELECT a.gid FROM polygons a, query_polys B WHERE B.gid = 1 AND SDO_RELATE(A.Geometry, B.Geometry, 'mask=touch') = 'TRUE' UNION ALL SELECT a.gid FROM polygons a, query_polys B WHERE B.gid = 1 AND SDO_RELATE(A.Geometry, B.Geometry, 'mask=coveredby') = 'TRUE';
The following considerations apply to relationships between lines and a multipoint geometry (points in a point cluster). Assume the example of a line and a multipoint geometry (for example, SDO_GTYPE = 2005) consisting of three points.

If none of the points has any interaction with the line, the relationship between the line and the point cluster is DISJOINT.

If one of the points is on the interior of the line and the other two points are disjoint, the relationship between the line and the point cluster is OVERLAPBDYDISJOINT.

If one of the points is on the boundary of the line (that is, if it is on the start point or end point of the line) and the other two points are disjoint, the relationship between the line and the point cluster is TOUCH.

If one of the points is on the boundary of the line (that is, if it is on the start point or end point of the line), another point is on the interior of the line, and the third point is disjoint, the relationship between the line and the point cluster is OVERLAPBDYDISJOINT (not OVERLAPBDYINTERSECT).
For information about 3D support with spatial operators (which operators do and do not consider all three dimensions in their computations), see ThreeDimensional Spatial Objects.
Examples
The following examples are similar to those for the SDO_FILTER operator; however, they identify a specific type of interaction (using the mask
keyword), and they determine with certainty (not mere likelihood) if the spatial interaction occurs.
The following example selects the geometries that have any interaction with a query window (here, a rectangle with lowerleft, upperright coordinates 4,6, 8,8). (The example uses the definitions and data described and illustrated in Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data.)
SELECT c.mkt_id, c.name FROM cola_markets c WHERE SDO_RELATE(c.shape, SDO_GEOMETRY(2003, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1,1003,3), SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(4,6, 8,8)), 'mask=anyinteract') = 'TRUE'; MKT_ID NAME   2 cola_b 1 cola_a 4 cola_d
The following example is the same as the preceding example, except that it includes only geometries where at least one side of the geometry's MBR is equal to or greater than 4.1. In this case, only cola_a
and cola_b
are returned, because their MBRs have at least one side with a length greater than or equal to 4.1. The circle cola_d
is excluded, because its MBR is a square whose sides have a length of 4.
SELECT c.mkt_id, c.name FROM cola_markets c WHERE SDO_RELATE(c.shape, SDO_GEOMETRY(2003, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1,1003,3), SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(4,6, 8,8)), 'mask=anyinteract min_resolution=4.1') = 'TRUE'; MKT_ID NAME   2 cola_b 1 cola_a
The following example selects the GID values from the POLYGONS table where the GEOMETRY column objects have any spatial interaction with the GEOMETRY column object in the QUERY_POLYS table that has a GID value of 1.
SELECT A.gid FROM Polygons A, query_polys B WHERE B.gid = 1 AND SDO_RELATE(A.Geometry, B.Geometry, 'mask=ANYINTERACT') = 'TRUE';
The following example selects the GID values from the POLYGONS table where a GEOMETRY column object has any spatial interaction with the geometry stored in the aGeom
variable.
SELECT A.Gid FROM Polygons A WHERE SDO_RELATE(A.Geometry, :aGeom, 'mask=ANYINTERACT') = 'TRUE';
The following example selects the GID values from the POLYGONS table where a GEOMETRY column object has any spatial interaction with the specified rectangle having the lowerleft coordinates (x1,y1) and the upperright coordinates (x2, y2).
SELECT A.Gid FROM Polygons A WHERE SDO_RELATE(A.Geometry, sdo_geometry(2003,NULL,NULL, sdo_elem_info_array(1,1003,3), sdo_ordinate_array(x1,y1,x2,y2)), 'mask=ANYINTERACT') = 'TRUE';
The following example selects the GID values from the POLYGONS table where the GEOMETRY column object has any spatial interaction with any GEOMETRY column object in the QUERY_POLYS table. In this example, the LEADING optimizer hint is used and QUERY_POLYS (geometry2
) table is specified first in the FROM clause, because multiple geometries from geometry2
are involved (see the Usage Notes).
SELECT /*+ LEADING(B) */ A.gid FROM query_polys B, polygons A WHERE SDO_RELATE(A.Geometry, B.Geometry, 'mask=ANYINTERACT') = 'TRUE';
Related Topics
Parent topic: Spatial Operators
20.18 SDO_TOUCH
Format
SDO_TOUCH(geometry1, geometry2);
Description
Checks if any geometries in a table have the TOUCH topological relationship with a specified geometry. Equivalent to specifying the SDO_RELATE operator with 'mask=TOUCH'
.
See the section on the SDO_RELATE operator in this chapter for information about the operations performed by this operator and for usage requirements.
Keywords and Parameters
Value  Description 

geometry1 
Specifies a geometry column in a table. A spatial index on this column is recommended. Data type is SDO_GEOMETRY. 
geometry2 
Specifies either a geometry from a table or a transient instance of a geometry. (Specified using a bind variable or SDO_GEOMETRY constructor.) Data type is SDO_GEOMETRY. 
Returns
The expression SDO_TOUCH(geometry1,geometry2) = 'TRUE' evaluates to TRUE for object pairs that have the TOUCH topological relationship, and FALSE otherwise.
Usage Notes
See the Usage Notes for the SDO_RELATE operator in this chapter.
For an explanation of the topological relationships and the nineintersection model used by Spatial, see Spatial Relationships and Filtering.
For information about 3D support with spatial operators (which operators do and do not consider all three dimensions in their computations), see ThreeDimensional Spatial Objects.
Examples
The following example finds geometries that have the TOUCH relationship with a query window (here, a rectangle with lowerleft, upperright coordinates 1,1, 5,7). (The example uses the definitions and data in Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data.) In this example, only cola_b
has the TOUCH relationship with the query window geometry.
SELECT c.mkt_id, c.name FROM cola_markets c WHERE SDO_TOUCH(c.shape, SDO_GEOMETRY(2003, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1,1003,3), SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(1,1, 5,7)) ) = 'TRUE'; FROM cola_markets c MKT_ID NAME   2 cola_b
Parent topic: Spatial Operators
20.19 SDO_WITHIN_DISTANCE
Format
SDO_WITHIN_DISTANCE(geometry1, aGeom, params);
Description
Identifies the set of spatial objects that are within some specified distance of a given object, such as an area of interest or point of interest.
Keywords and Parameters
Value  Description 

geometry1 
Specifies a geometry column in a table. The column has the set of geometry objects that will be operated on to determine if they are within the specified distance of the given object ( 
aGeom 
Specifies the object to be checked for distance against the geometry objects in 
params 
A quoted string containing one or more keywords (with values) that determine the behavior of the operator. The remaining items ( 
distance 
Specifies the distance value. If a coordinate system is associated with the geometry, the distance unit is assumed to be the unit associated with the coordinate system. This is a required keyword. Data type is NUMBER. 
ellipsoidal 
Specifies if ellipsoidal distance is always used with geodetic data ( For example: 'ellipsoidal=true' 
max_resolution 
Includes only geometries for which at least one side of the geometry's MBR is less than or equal to the specified value. For example, 
min_resolution 
Includes only geometries for which at least one side of the geometry's MBR is equal to or greater than the specified value. For example, 
querytype 
Set 
unit 
Specifies the unit of measurement: a quoted string with 
Returns
The expression SDO_WITHIN_DISTANCE(arg1, arg2, arg3) = 'TRUE' evaluates to TRUE for object pairs that are within the specified distance, and FALSE otherwise.
Usage Notes
Note:
SDO_WITHIN_DISTANCEoperator is not supported for 3D data in Oracle Autonomous Database Serverless deployments.
The distance between two extended objects (nonpoint objects such as lines and polygons) is defined as the minimum distance between these two objects. The distance between two adjacent polygons is zero.
The operator is disabled if the number of dimensions for the query window does not match the number of dimensions specified when the spatial index (if one is being used) was created.
The operator must always be used in a WHERE clause and the condition that includes the operator should be an expression of the form:
SDO_WITHIN_DISTANCE(arg1, arg2, 'distance = <some_dist_val>') = 'TRUE'
(The expression must not equate to any value other than 'TRUE'.)
The geometry column must have a spatial index built on it. If the data is geodetic, the spatial index must be an Rtree index.
SDO_WITHIN_DISTANCE is not supported for spatial joins. See WithinDistance Operator for a discussion on how to perform a spatial join withindistance operation.
For information about 3D support with spatial operators (which operators do and do not consider all three dimensions in their computations), see ThreeDimensional Spatial Objects.
Examples
The following example selects the geometries that are within a distance of 10 from a query window (here, a rectangle with lowerleft, upperright coordinates 4,6, 8,8). (The example uses the definitions and data described and illustrated in Simple Example: Inserting_ Indexing_ and Querying Spatial Data. In this case, all geometries shown in that figure are returned.)
SELECT c.name FROM cola_markets c WHERE SDO_WITHIN_DISTANCE(c.shape, SDO_GEOMETRY(2003, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1,1003,3), SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(4,6, 8,8)), 'distance=10') = 'TRUE'; NAME  cola_b cola_a cola_c cola_d
The following example is the same as the preceding example, except that it includes only geometries where at least one side of the geometry's MBR is equal to or greater than 4.1. In this case, only cola_a
and cola_b
are returned, because their MBRs have at least one side with a length greater than or equal to 4.1. The trapezoid cola_c
is excluded, because its MBR has sides with lengths of 3 and 2; and the circle cola_d
is excluded, because its MBR is a square whose sides have a length of 4.
SELECT c.name FROM cola_markets c WHERE SDO_WITHIN_DISTANCE(c.shape, SDO_GEOMETRY(2003, NULL, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1,1003,3), SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(4,6, 8,8)), 'distance=10 min_resolution=4.1') = 'TRUE'; NAME  cola_b cola_a
The following example selects the GID values from the POLYGONS table where the GEOMETRY column object is within 10 distance units of the geometry stored in the aGeom
variable.
SELECT A.GID FROM POLYGONS A WHERE SDO_WITHIN_DISTANCE(A.Geometry, :aGeom, 'distance = 10') = 'TRUE';
The following example selects the GID values from the POLYGONS table where the GEOMETRY column object is within 10 distance units of the specified rectangle having the lowerleft coordinates (x1,y1) and the upperright coordinates (x2, y2).
SELECT A.GID FROM POLYGONS A WHERE SDO_WITHIN_DISTANCE(A.Geometry, sdo_geometry(2003,NULL,NULL, sdo_elem_info_array(1,1003,3), sdo_ordinate_array(x1,y1,x2,y2)), 'distance = 10') = 'TRUE';
The following example selects the GID values from the POLYGONS table where the GID value in the QUERY_POINTS table is 1 and a POLYGONS.GEOMETRY object is within 10 distance units of the QUERY_POINTS.GEOMETRY object.
SELECT A.GID FROM POLYGONS A, Query_Points B WHERE B.GID = 1 AND SDO_WITHIN_DISTANCE(A.Geometry, B.Geometry, 'distance = 10') = 'TRUE';
See also the more complex SDO_WITHIN_DISTANCE examples in SDO_WITHIN_DISTANCE Examples.
Related Topics
Parent topic: Spatial Operators