Document Information


Part I Introduction

1.  Overview

2.  Using the Tutorial Examples

Part II The Web Tier

3.  Getting Started with Web Applications

4.  JavaServer Faces Technology

5.  Introduction to Facelets

6.  Expression Language

7.  Using JavaServer Faces Technology in Web Pages

8.  Using Converters, Listeners, and Validators

9.  Developing with JavaServer Faces Technology

10.  JavaServer Faces Technology: Advanced Concepts

11.  Using Ajax with JavaServer Faces Technology

12.  Composite Components: Advanced Topics and Example

13.  Creating Custom UI Components and Other Custom Objects

14.  Configuring JavaServer Faces Applications

Using Annotations to Configure Managed Beans

Using Managed Bean Scopes

Eager Application-Scoped Beans

Configuring Managed Beans

Using the managed-bean Element

Initializing Properties Using the managed-property Element

Referencing a Java Enum Type

Referencing a Context Initialization Parameter

Initializing Map Properties

Initializing Array and List Properties

Initializing Managed Bean Properties

Initializing Maps and Lists

Registering Application Messages

Using FacesMessage to Create a Message

Referencing Error Messages

Using Default Validators

Registering a Custom Validator

Registering a Custom Converter

Configuring Navigation Rules

To Configure a Navigation Rule

Implicit Navigation Rules

Registering a Custom Renderer with a Render Kit

Registering a Custom Component

Basic Requirements of a JavaServer Faces Application

Configuring an Application with a Web Deployment Descriptor

Identifying the Servlet for Lifecycle Processing

To Specify a Path to an Application Configuration Resource File

To Specify Where State Is Saved

Configuring Project Stage

Including the Classes, Pages, and Other Resources

15.  Java Servlet Technology

16.  Uploading Files with Java Servlet Technology

17.  Internationalizing and Localizing Web Applications

Part III Web Services

18.  Introduction to Web Services

19.  Building Web Services with JAX-WS

20.  Building RESTful Web Services with JAX-RS

21.  JAX-RS: Advanced Topics and Example

Part IV Enterprise Beans

22.  Enterprise Beans

23.  Getting Started with Enterprise Beans

24.  Running the Enterprise Bean Examples

25.  A Message-Driven Bean Example

26.  Using the Embedded Enterprise Bean Container

27.  Using Asynchronous Method Invocation in Session Beans

Part V Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform

28.  Introduction to Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform

29.  Running the Basic Contexts and Dependency Injection Examples

30.  Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform: Advanced Topics

31.  Running the Advanced Contexts and Dependency Injection Examples

Part VI Persistence

32.  Introduction to the Java Persistence API

33.  Running the Persistence Examples

34.  The Java Persistence Query Language

35.  Using the Criteria API to Create Queries

36.  Creating and Using String-Based Criteria Queries

37.  Controlling Concurrent Access to Entity Data with Locking

38.  Using a Second-Level Cache with Java Persistence API Applications

Part VII Security

39.  Introduction to Security in the Java EE Platform

40.  Getting Started Securing Web Applications

41.  Getting Started Securing Enterprise Applications

42.  Java EE Security: Advanced Topics

Part VIII Java EE Supporting Technologies

43.  Introduction to Java EE Supporting Technologies

44.  Transactions

45.  Resources and Resource Adapters

46.  The Resource Adapter Example

47.  Java Message Service Concepts

48.  Java Message Service Examples

49.  Bean Validation: Advanced Topics

50.  Using Java EE Interceptors

Part IX Case Studies

51.  Duke's Bookstore Case Study Example

52.  Duke's Tutoring Case Study Example

53.  Duke's Forest Case Study Example



Application Configuration Resource File

JavaServer Faces technology provides a portable configuration format (as an XML document) for configuring application resources. One or more XML documents, called application configuration resource files, may use this format to register and configure objects and resources, and to define navigation rules for applications. An application configuration resource file is usually named faces-config.xml.

You need an application configuration resource file in the following cases:

  • To specify configuration elements for your application that are not available through managed bean annotations, such as localized messages and navigation rules

  • To override managed bean annotations when the application is deployed

The application configuration resource file must be valid against the XML schema located at

In addition, each file must include the following information, in the following order:

  • The XML version number, usually with an encoding attribute:

    <?xml version="1.0" encoding='UTF-8'?>
  • A faces-config tag enclosing all the other declarations:

    <faces-config version="2.0" xmlns="" 

You can have more than one application configuration resource file for an application. The JavaServer Faces implementation finds the configuration file or files by looking for the following:

  • A resource named /META-INF/faces-config.xml in any of the JAR files in the web application’s /WEB-INF/lib/ directory and in parent class loaders. If a resource with this name exists, it is loaded as a configuration resource. This method is practical for a packaged library containing some components and renderers. In addition, any file with a name that ends in faces-config.xml is also considered a configuration resource and is loaded as such.

  • A context initialization parameter, javax.faces.application.CONFIG_FILES, in your web deployment descriptor file that specifies one or more (comma-delimited) paths to multiple configuration files for your web application. This method is most often used for enterprise-scale applications that delegate to separate groups the responsibility for maintaining the file for each portion of a big application.

  • A resource named faces-config.xml in the /WEB-INF/ directory of your application. Simple web applications make their configuration files available in this way.

To access the resources registered with the application, an application developer can use an instance of the javax.faces.application.Application class, which is automatically created for each application. The Application instance acts as a centralized factory for resources that are defined in the XML file.

When an application starts up, the JavaServer Faces implementation creates a single instance of the Application class and configures it with the information you provided in the application configuration resource file.

Ordering of Application Configuration Resource Files

Because JavaServer Faces technology allows the use of multiple application configuration resource files stored in different locations, the order in which they are loaded by the implementation becomes important in certain situations (for example, when using application-level objects). This order can be defined through an ordering element and its subelements in the application configuration resource file itself. The ordering of application configuration resource files can be absolute or relative.

Absolute ordering is defined by an absolute-ordering element in the file. With absolute ordering, the user specifies the order in which application configuration resource files will be loaded. The following example shows an entry for absolute ordering:

File my-faces-config.xml:


In this example, A, B, and C are different application configuration resource files and are to be loaded in the listed order.

If there is an absolute-ordering element in the file, only the files listed by the subelement name are processed. To process any other application configuration resource files, an others subelement is required. In the absence of the others subelement, all other unlisted files will be ignored at load time.

Relative ordering is defined by an ordering element and its subelements before and after. With relative ordering, the order in which application configuration resource files will be loaded is calculated by considering ordering entries from the different files. The following example shows some of these considerations. In the following example, config-A, config-B, and config-C are different application configuration resource files.

File config-A contains the following elements:


File config-B (not shown here) does not contain any ordering elements.

File config-C contains the following elements:


Based on the before subelement entry, file config-A will be loaded before the config-B file. Based on the after subelement entry, file config-C will be loaded after the config-B file.

In addition, a subelement others can also be nested within the before and after subelements. If the others element is present, the specified file may receive highest or lowest preference among both listed and unlisted configuration files.

If an ordering element is not present in an application configuration file, then that file will be loaded after all the files that contain ordering elements.