Document Information


Part I Introduction

1.  Overview

2.  Using the Tutorial Examples

Part II The Web Tier

3.  Getting Started with Web Applications

4.  JavaServer Faces Technology

5.  Introduction to Facelets

6.  Expression Language

7.  Using JavaServer Faces Technology in Web Pages

8.  Using Converters, Listeners, and Validators

9.  Developing with JavaServer Faces Technology

10.  JavaServer Faces Technology: Advanced Concepts

11.  Using Ajax with JavaServer Faces Technology

12.  Composite Components: Advanced Topics and Example

13.  Creating Custom UI Components and Other Custom Objects

14.  Configuring JavaServer Faces Applications

Using Annotations to Configure Managed Beans

Using Managed Bean Scopes

Eager Application-Scoped Beans

Application Configuration Resource File

Ordering of Application Configuration Resource Files

Configuring Managed Beans

Using the managed-bean Element

Initializing Properties Using the managed-property Element

Referencing a Java Enum Type

Referencing a Context Initialization Parameter

Initializing Map Properties

Initializing Array and List Properties

Initializing Managed Bean Properties

Initializing Maps and Lists

Using Default Validators

Registering a Custom Validator

Registering a Custom Converter

Configuring Navigation Rules

To Configure a Navigation Rule

Implicit Navigation Rules

Registering a Custom Renderer with a Render Kit

Registering a Custom Component

Basic Requirements of a JavaServer Faces Application

Configuring an Application with a Web Deployment Descriptor

Identifying the Servlet for Lifecycle Processing

To Specify a Path to an Application Configuration Resource File

To Specify Where State Is Saved

Configuring Project Stage

Including the Classes, Pages, and Other Resources

15.  Java Servlet Technology

16.  Uploading Files with Java Servlet Technology

17.  Internationalizing and Localizing Web Applications

Part III Web Services

18.  Introduction to Web Services

19.  Building Web Services with JAX-WS

20.  Building RESTful Web Services with JAX-RS

21.  JAX-RS: Advanced Topics and Example

Part IV Enterprise Beans

22.  Enterprise Beans

23.  Getting Started with Enterprise Beans

24.  Running the Enterprise Bean Examples

25.  A Message-Driven Bean Example

26.  Using the Embedded Enterprise Bean Container

27.  Using Asynchronous Method Invocation in Session Beans

Part V Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform

28.  Introduction to Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform

29.  Running the Basic Contexts and Dependency Injection Examples

30.  Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform: Advanced Topics

31.  Running the Advanced Contexts and Dependency Injection Examples

Part VI Persistence

32.  Introduction to the Java Persistence API

33.  Running the Persistence Examples

34.  The Java Persistence Query Language

35.  Using the Criteria API to Create Queries

36.  Creating and Using String-Based Criteria Queries

37.  Controlling Concurrent Access to Entity Data with Locking

38.  Using a Second-Level Cache with Java Persistence API Applications

Part VII Security

39.  Introduction to Security in the Java EE Platform

40.  Getting Started Securing Web Applications

41.  Getting Started Securing Enterprise Applications

42.  Java EE Security: Advanced Topics

Part VIII Java EE Supporting Technologies

43.  Introduction to Java EE Supporting Technologies

44.  Transactions

45.  Resources and Resource Adapters

46.  The Resource Adapter Example

47.  Java Message Service Concepts

48.  Java Message Service Examples

49.  Bean Validation: Advanced Topics

50.  Using Java EE Interceptors

Part IX Case Studies

51.  Duke's Bookstore Case Study Example

52.  Duke's Tutoring Case Study Example

53.  Duke's Forest Case Study Example



Registering Application Messages

Application messages can include any strings displayed to the user, as well as custom error messages (which are displayed by the message and messages tags) for your custom converters or validators. To make messages available at application startup time, do one of the following:

  • Queue an individual message onto the javax.faces.context.FacesContext instance programmatically, as described in Using FacesMessage to Create a Message

  • Register all the messages with your application using the application configuration resource file

Here is the section of the faces-config.xml file that registers the messages for the Duke’s Bookstore case study application:


This set of elements causes the application to be populated with the messages that are contained in the specified resource bundle.

The resource-bundle element represents a set of localized messages. It must contain the fully qualified path to the resource bundle containing the localized messages (in this case, dukestutoring.web.messages.Messages). The var element defines the EL name by which page authors refer to the resource bundle.

The locale-config element lists the default locale and the other supported locales. The locale-config element enables the system to find the correct locale based on the browser’s language settings.

The supported-locale and default-locale tags accept the lowercase, two-character codes defined by ISO 639 (see Make sure your resource bundle actually contains the messages for the locales you specify with these tags.

To access the localized message, the application developer merely references the key of the message from the resource bundle.

You can pull localized text into an alt tag for a graphic image, as in the following example:

<h:graphicImage id="mapImage" 
                usemap="#bookMap" />

The alt attribute can accept value expressions. In this case, the alt attribute refers to localized text that will be included in the alternative text of the image rendered by this tag.

Using FacesMessage to Create a Message

Instead of registering messages in the application configuration resource file, you can access the java.util.ResourceBundle directly from managed bean code. The code snippet below locates an email error message:

String message = "";
message = ExampleBean.loadErrorMessage(context,
    new FacesMessage(message));

These lines call the bean’s loadErrorMessage method to get the message from the ResourceBundle. Here is the loadErrorMessage method:

public static String loadErrorMessage(FacesContext context,
     String basename, String key) {
    if ( bundle == null ) {
         try {
            bundle = ResourceBundle.getBundle(basename,
        } catch (Exception e) {
            return null;
    return bundle.getString(key);

Referencing Error Messages

A JavaServer Faces page uses the message or messages tags to access error messages, as explained in Displaying Error Messages with the h:message and h:messages Tags.

The error messages these tags access include:

  • The standard error messages that accompany the standard converters and validators that ship with the API. See Section of the JavaServer Faces specification for a complete list of standard error messages.

  • Custom error messages contained in resource bundles registered with the application by the application architect using the resource-bundle element in the configuration file.

When a converter or validator is registered on an input component, the appropriate error message is automatically queued on the component.

A page author can override the error messages queued on a component by using the following attributes of the component’s tag:

  • converterMessage: References the error message to display when the data on the enclosing component can not be converted by the converter registered on this component.

  • requiredMessage: References the error message to display when no value has been entered into the enclosing component.

  • validatorMessage: References the error message to display when the data on the enclosing component cannot be validated by the validator registered on this component.

All three attributes are enabled to take literal values and value expressions. If an attribute uses a value expression, this expression references the error message in a resource bundle. This resource bundle must be made available to the application in one of the following ways:

  • By the application architect using the resource-bundle element in the configuration file

  • By the page author using the f:loadBundle tag

Conversely, the resource-bundle element must be used to make available to the application those resource bundles containing custom error messages that are queued on the component as a result of a custom converter or validator being registered on the component.

The following tags show how to specify the requiredMessage attribute using a value expression to reference an error message:

<h:inputText id="ccno" size="19"
    requiredMessage="#{customMessages.ReqMessage}" >
<h:message styleClass="error-message" for="ccno"/>

The value expression used by requiredMessage in this example references the error message with the ReqMessage key in the resource bundle, customMessages.

This message replaces the corresponding message queued on the component and will display wherever the message or messages tag is placed on the page.