Oracle9i Real Application Clusters Concepts
Release 1 (9.0.1)

Part Number A89867-02
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Title and Copyright Information

List of Figures

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What's New in Oracle Cluster Software?

New Terminology
Installation and Configuration
Cache Fusion and Resource Management
SRVCTL Utility
Oracle Enterprise Manager
Listener Load Balancing and Failover for Dedicated Servers
Diagnostic Features
High Availability Features
Shutdown Transactional Local Command
Quiesce Database Feature
New SQL Scripts
New Parameters
Obsolete Parameters
New Views
Replacement Views
Previous Cluster Software Product Features
Oracle8i Release 3 (8.1.7) New Features
Oracle8i Release 2 (8.1.6) New Features

Part I Cluster Database Processing Fundamentals

1 Introduction to Real Application Clusters

Prerequisite Knowledge
Real Applications Clusters Terminology
What is Real Applications Clusters?
Benefits of Real Applications Clusters
High Availability

2 Real Application Clusters Architecture

Overview of Clustered Systems Components
Real Application Clusters Software Components
Overview of Components for Clustered Systems
Cluster Manager
Failure Detection
The Node Monitor
Diagnosability Daemon
The Global Cache Service and Global Enqueue Service
Transparency in the Global Cache Service and Global Enqueue Service
Distributed Architecture in the Global Cache Service and Global Enqueue Service
Fault Tolerance in the Global Cache Service and Global Enqueue Service
Resource Mastering in the Global Cache Service and Global Enqueue Service
Resource Affinity in the Global Cache Service and Global Enqueue Service
Example of Global Cache Service Processing
Interaction of the Global Cache Service and Global Enqueue Service with the Cluster Manager
Cluster Interconnect and Interprocess Communication (Node-to-Node)
Disk Subsystems

3 Cluster Hardware Architecture

Overview of Cluster Hardware Components
Node Components
Memory, Interconnect, and Storage
Memory Access
The High Speed IPC Interconnect
Storage Access in Clustered Systems
Uniform Disk Access
Non-Uniform Disk Access
Clusters: Nodes and the Interconnect
Interoperability with Other Systems

Part II Resource Coordination in Real Application Clusters

4 Local Resource Coordination

Overview of Resource Coordination
Resource Coordination Components
Local Concurrency Controls
Local Enqueues
Row Locks

5 Cache Fusion and the Global
Cache Service

Overview of Cache Fusion
Global Cache Service Operations
Cache Coherency
GCS Resource Modes and Roles
Resource Modes
Resource Roles
Write Protocol and Past Image Tracking
Real Application Clusters Resource Control Mechanisms
Eliminating the Need for Configuring Resources
Resource Control, Cache-to-Cache Transfer, and Cache Coherency
Cache Fusion Resource Assignment and Block Coverage
Block Access Modes and Buffer States
How Buffer States and Block Access Modes Change
Block Access Modes Can Be Compatible or Incompatible
Cache Fusion Scenarios
Requesting a Block for a Read from Another Instance: Scenario
Requesting a Changed Block for Modification: Scenario
Writing Blocks to Disk: Scenario
How the GCS Grants and Coordinates Resource Requests
Interrupt and Completion Processing
Block Access Requests are Queued
Acquisition Interrupts Communicate Block Access Request Status
Block Access Requests are Granted and Converted
Recovery in Real Applications Clusters

6 Coordination by the Global Enqueue Service

Cache Synchronization
Global Enqueue Service Concurrency Control
Concurrency for Database Global Enqueues
Global Enqueue Service Processing
Transaction Locks
Table Locks
Library Cache Locks
Dictionary Cache Locks
Database Mount Lock
Deadlock Detection in the Global Enqueue Service

Part III Implementing Real Application Clusters

7 Real Application Clusters Components

Instance and Database Components for Real Application Clusters
Real Application Clusters Processes
Cache Fusion Processing
Overview of Real Application Clusters Processes
System Change Number Processing
Lamport SCN Generation

8 Real Application Clusters Storage Considerations

Storage Issues
Datafile Storage in Real Application Clusters
Parameter File Storage in Real Application Clusters
Redo Log File Storage in Real Application Clusters
Rollback Segments in Real Application Clusters
Space Management and Free List Groups
How Oracle Handles Free Space
Free Lists and Free List Groups
Free List Group Examples
Basic Free List Group Example
Complex Free List Group Example
Controlling Extent Allocation
Automatic Allocation of New Extents

9 Scalability in Real Application Clusters

Scalability Features of Real Application Clusters
Enhanced Throughput: Scale Up
Speed-Up and Scale Up: The Goals of Cluster Database Processing
Where are Cluster Databases Advantageous?
Transaction Systems
Decision Support Systems
Oracle Parallel Execution on Real Application Clusters
Levels of Scalability
Network Scalability
Operating System Scalability
Database Management System Scalability

Part IV High Availability

10 High Availability Concepts and Best Practices

Understanding High Availability
Measuring Availability
High Availability Measurements
Causes of Downtime
Planning for High Availability
System Level Planning
Configuring Real Application Clusters for High Availability
Cluster Components and High Availability
Disaster Planning
Failure Protection Validation
Failover and Real Application Clusters
Failover Basics
Client Failover
Uses of Transparent Application Failover
Server Failover
How Failover Works
Detecting Failure
Reorganizing Cluster Membership
Performing Database Recovery
High Availability Configurations
Default n-node Configuration
Basic High Availability Configurations
Shared High Availability Node Configuration
Toward Deploying High Availability

11 Oracle Real Application Clusters Guard Architecture

Overview of Oracle Real Application Clusters Guard Components
PFSCTL Control Utility
Oracle Real Application Clusters Guard Monitors
Oracle Real Application Clusters Guard Configuration Templates
PFS Setup Utility
Concepts of Oracle Real Application Clusters Guard
Instance Roles
Preferred Primary and Secondary Nodes
Home and Foreign Nodes
Architecture of Oracle Real Application Clusters Guard
Additional Configurations of Oracle Real Application Clusters Guard
Hub Configuration
Ring Configuration

12 Oracle Real Application Clusters Guard Operation

Overview of Oracle Real Application Clusters Guard Operation
Failure of the Primary Instance
Restoring the Nodes to their Original Roles
Failure of the Secondary Instance
Failure of Both Instances

Part V Reference

A Restrictions

Compatibility Between Shared and Exclusive Mode
Export and Import Utilities
Mode Compatibility
Maximum Number of Blocks Allocated at a Time
Restrictions in Cluster Database Mode

B Using Multi-Block Lock Assignments (Optional)

When to Use Locks
How to Use Locks
Lock Granularity
1:1 Locks
1:n Locks
Understanding Lock Management
Example of Locks Covering Multiple Blocks
Periodicity of Locks
Forced Writing: Signaling the Need to Update



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