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System Administration Guide: IP Services     Oracle Solaris 11 Express 11/10
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Part I TCP/IP Administration

1.  Planning an IPv4 Addressing Scheme (Tasks)

2.  Planning an IPv6 Addressing Scheme (Overview)

3.  Planning an IPv6 Network (Tasks)

4.  Configuring TCP/IP Network Services and IPv4 Addressing (Tasks)

5.  Enabling IPv6 on a Network (Tasks)

6.  Administering a TCP/IP Network (Tasks)

7.  Configuring IP Tunnels

8.  Troubleshooting Network Problems (Tasks)

9.  TCP/IP and IPv4 in Depth (Reference)

10.  IPv6 in Depth (Reference)

IPv6 Addressing Formats Beyond the Basics

6to4-Derived Addresses

6to4-Derived Addressing on a Host

IPv6 Multicast Addresses in Depth

IPv6 Packet Header Format

IPv6 Extension Headers

Dual-Stack Protocols

Oracle Solaris IPv6 Implementation

IPv6 Configuration Files

ndpd.conf Configuration File

/etc/inet/ipaddrsel.conf Configuration File

IPv6-Related Commands

ipaddrsel Command

6to4relay Command

netstat Command Modifications for IPv6 Support

snoop Command Modifications for IPv6 Support

route Command Modifications for IPv6 Support

ping Command Modifications for IPv6 Support

traceroute Command Modifications for IPv6 Support

IPv6-Related Daemons

in.ndpd Daemon, for Neighbor Discovery

in.ripngd Daemon, for IPv6 Routing

inetd Daemon and IPv6 Services

IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Protocol

ICMP Messages From Neighbor Discovery

Autoconfiguration Process

Obtaining a Router Advertisement

Prefix Configuration Variables

Address Uniqueness

Neighbor Solicitation and Unreachability

Duplicate Address Detection Algorithm

Proxy Advertisements

Inbound Load Balancing

Link-Local Address Change

Comparison of Neighbor Discovery to ARP and Related IPv4 Protocols

IPv6 Routing

Router Advertisement

Router Advertisement Prefixes

Router Advertisement Messages

IPv6 Extensions to Oracle Solaris Name Services

DNS Extensions for IPv6

Changes to the nsswitch.conf File

Changes to Name Service Commands

NFS and RPC IPv6 Support

IPv6 Over ATM Support


11.  About DHCP (Overview)

12.  Planning for DHCP Service (Tasks)

13.  Configuring the DHCP Service (Tasks)

14.  Administering DHCP (Tasks)

15.  Configuring and Administering the DHCP Client

16.  Troubleshooting DHCP (Reference)

17.  DHCP Commands and Files (Reference)

Part III IP Security

18.  IP Security Architecture (Overview)

19.  Configuring IPsec (Tasks)

20.  IP Security Architecture (Reference)

21.  Internet Key Exchange (Overview)

22.  Configuring IKE (Tasks)

23.  Internet Key Exchange (Reference)

24.  IP Filter in Oracle Solaris (Overview)

25.   IP Filter (Tasks)

Part IV Networking Performance

26.  Integrated Load Balancer Overview

27.  Configuration of Integrated Load Balancer Tasks

28.  Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (Overview)

29.  VRRP Configuration (Tasks)

30.  Implementing Congestion Control

Part V IP Quality of Service (IPQoS)

31.  Introducing IPQoS (Overview)

32.  Planning for an IPQoS-Enabled Network (Tasks)

33.  Creating the IPQoS Configuration File (Tasks)

34.  Starting and Maintaining IPQoS (Tasks)

35.  Using Flow Accounting and Statistics Gathering (Tasks)

36.  IPQoS in Detail (Reference)



IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Protocol

IPv6 introduces the Neighbor Discovery protocol, as described in RFC 2461, Neighbor Discovery for IP Version 6 (IPv6). For an overview of major Neighbor Discovery features, refer to IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Protocol Overview.

This section discusses the following features of the Neighbor Discovery protocol:

ICMP Messages From Neighbor Discovery

Neighbor Discovery defines five new Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) messages. The messages serve the following purposes:

Autoconfiguration Process

This section provides an overview of the typical steps that are performed by an interface during autoconfiguration. Autoconfiguration is performed only on multicast-capable links.

  1. A multicast-capable interface is enabled, for example, during system startup of a node.

  2. The node begins the autoconfiguration process by generating a link-local address for the interface.

    The link-local address is formed from the Media Access Control (MAC) address of the interface.

  3. The node sends a neighbor solicitation message that contains the tentative link-local address as the target.

    The purpose of the message is to verify that the prospective address is not already in use by another node on the link. After verification, the link-local address can be assigned to an interface.

    1. If another node already uses the proposed address, that node returns a neighbor advertisement stating that the address is already in use.

    2. If another node is also attempting to use the same address, the node also sends a neighbor solicitation for the target.

      The number of neighbor solicitation transmissions or retransmissions, and the delay between consecutive solicitations, are link specific. You can set these parameters, if necessary.

  4. If a node determines that its prospective link-local address is not unique, autoconfiguration stops. At that point, you must manually configure the link-local address of the interface.

    To simplify recovery, you can supply an alternate interface ID that overrides the default identifier. Then, the autoconfiguration mechanism can resume by using the new, presumably unique, interface ID.

  5. When a node determines that its prospective link-local address is unique, the node assigns the address to the interface.

    At this point, the node has IP-level connectivity with neighboring nodes. The remaining autoconfiguration steps are performed only by hosts.

Obtaining a Router Advertisement

The next phase of autoconfiguration involves obtaining a router advertisement or determining that no routers are present. If routers are present, the routers send router advertisements that specify what type of autoconfiguration a host should perform.

Routers send router advertisements periodically. However, the delay between successive advertisements is generally longer than a host that performs autoconfiguration can wait. To quickly obtain an advertisement, a host sends one or more router solicitations to the all-routers multicast group.

Prefix Configuration Variables

Router advertisements also contain prefix variables with information that stateless address autoconfiguration uses to generate prefixes. The Stateless Address Autoconfiguration field in router advertisements are processed independently. One option field that contains prefix information, the Address Autoconfiguration flag, indicates whether the option even applies to stateless autoconfiguration. If the option field does apply, additional option fields contain a subnet prefix with lifetime values. These values indicate the length of time that addresses created from the prefix remain preferred and valid.

Because routers periodically generate router advertisements, hosts continually receive new advertisements. IPv6-enabled hosts process the information that is contained in each advertisement. Hosts add to the information. They also refresh the information that is received in previous advertisements.

Address Uniqueness

For security reasons, all addresses must be tested for uniqueness prior to their assignment to an interface. The situation is different for addresses that are created through stateless autoconfiguration. The uniqueness of an address is determined primarily by the portion of the address that is formed from an interface ID. Thus, if a node has already verified the uniqueness of a link-local address, additional addresses need not be tested individually. The addresses must be created from the same interface ID. In contrast, all addresses that are obtained manually should be tested individually for uniqueness. System administrators at some sites believe that the overhead of performing duplicate address detection outweighs its benefits. For these sites, the use of duplicate address detection can be disabled by setting a per-interface configuration flag.

To accelerate the autoconfiguration process, a host can generate its link-local address, and verify its uniqueness, while the host waits for a router advertisement. A router might delay a response to a router solicitation for a few seconds. Consequently, the total time necessary to complete autoconfiguration can be significantly longer if the two steps are done serially.

Neighbor Solicitation and Unreachability

Neighbor Discovery uses neighbor solicitation messages to determine if more than one node is assigned the same unicast address. Neighbor unreachability detection detects the failure of a neighbor or the failure of the forward path to the neighbor. This detection requires positive confirmation that packets that are sent to a neighbor are actually reaching that neighbor. Neighbor unreachability detection also determines that packets are being processed properly by the node's IP layer.

Neighbor unreachability detection uses confirmation from two sources: upper-layer protocols and neighbor solicitation messages. When possible, upper-layer protocols provide a positive confirmation that a connection is making forward progress. For example, when new TCP acknowledgments are received, it is confirmed that previously sent data has been delivered correctly.

When a node does not get positive confirmation from upper-layer protocols, the node sends unicast neighbor solicitation messages. These messages solicit neighbor advertisements as reachability confirmation from the next hop. To reduce unnecessary network traffic, probe messages are sent only to neighbors to which the node is actively sending packets.

Duplicate Address Detection Algorithm

To ensure that all configured addresses are likely to be unique on a particular link, nodes run a duplicate address detection algorithm on addresses. The nodes must run the algorithm before assigning the addresses to an interface. The duplicate address detection algorithm is performed on all addresses.

The autoconfiguration process that is described in this section applies only to hosts, and not routers. Because host autoconfiguration uses information that is advertised by routers, routers need to be configured by some other means. However, routers generate link-local addresses by using the mechanism that is described in this chapter. In addition, routers are expected to successfully pass the duplicate address detection algorithm on all addresses prior to assigning the address to an interface.

Proxy Advertisements

A router that accepts packets on behalf of a target address can issue non-override neighbor advertisements. The router can accept packets for a target address that is unable to respond to neighbor solicitations. Currently, the use of proxy is not specified. However, proxy advertising can potentially be used to handle cases such as mobile nodes that have moved off-link. Note that the use of proxy is not intended as a general mechanism to handle nodes that do not implement this protocol.

Inbound Load Balancing

Nodes with replicated interfaces might need to load balance the reception of incoming packets across multiple network interfaces on the same link. Such nodes have multiple link-local addresses assigned to the same interface. For example, a single network driver can represent multiple network interface cards as a single logical interface that has multiple link-local addresses.

Load balancing is handled by allowing routers to omit the source link-local address from router advertisement packets. Consequently, neighbors must use neighbor solicitation messages to learn link-local addresses of routers. Returned neighbor advertisement messages can then contain link-local addresses that differ, depending on which issued the solicitation.

Link-Local Address Change

A node that knows its link-local address has been changed can send out multicast unsolicited, neighbor advertisement packets. The node can send multicast packets to all nodes to update cached link-local addresses that have become invalid. The sending of unsolicited advertisements is a performance enhancement only. The detection algorithm for neighbor unreachability ensures that all nodes reliably discover the new address, though the delay might be somewhat longer.

Comparison of Neighbor Discovery to ARP and Related IPv4 Protocols

The functionality of the IPv6 Neighbor Discovery protocol corresponds to a combination of the IPv4 protocols: Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Router Discovery, and ICMP Redirect. IPv4 does not have a generally agreed on protocol or mechanism for neighbor unreachability detection. However, host requirements do specify some possible algorithms for dead gateway detection. Dead gateway detection is a subset of the problems that neighbor unreachability detection solves.

The following list compares the Neighbor Discovery protocol to the related set of IPv4 protocols.