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Writing Device Drivers
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Part I Designing Device Drivers for the Solaris Platform

1.  Overview of Solaris Device Drivers

2.  Solaris Kernel and Device Tree

3.  Multithreading

4.  Properties

5.  Managing Events and Queueing Tasks

6.  Driver Autoconfiguration

7.  Device Access: Programmed I/O

8.  Interrupt Handlers

9.  Direct Memory Access (DMA)

DMA Model

Types of Device DMA

Bus-Master DMA

Third-Party DMA

First-Party DMA

Types of Host Platform DMA

DMA Software Components: Handles, Windows, and Cookies

DMA Operations

Performing Bus-Master DMA Transfers

Performing First-Party DMA Transfers

Performing Third-Party DMA Transfers

DMA Attributes

ddi_dma_attr Structure

SBus Example

ISA Bus Example

Managing DMA Resources

Object Locking

Allocating a DMA Handle

Allocating DMA Resources

Device Register Structure

DMA Callback Example

Determining Maximum Burst Sizes

Allocating Private DMA Buffers

Handling Resource Allocation Failures

Programming the DMA Engine

Freeing the DMA Resources

Freeing the DMA Handle

Canceling DMA Callbacks

Synchronizing Memory Objects


ddi_dma_sync() Function

DMA Windows

10.  Mapping Device and Kernel Memory

11.  Device Context Management

12.  Power Management

13.  Hardening Solaris Drivers

14.  Layered Driver Interface (LDI)

Part II Designing Specific Kinds of Device Drivers

15.  Drivers for Character Devices

16.  Drivers for Block Devices

17.  SCSI Target Drivers

18.  SCSI Host Bus Adapter Drivers

19.  Drivers for Network Devices

20.  USB Drivers

Part III Building a Device Driver

21.  Compiling, Loading, Packaging, and Testing Drivers

22.  Debugging, Testing, and Tuning Device Drivers

23.  Recommended Coding Practices

Part IV Appendixes

A.  Hardware Overview

B.  Summary of Solaris DDI/DKI Services

C.  Making a Device Driver 64-Bit Ready

D.  Console Frame Buffer Drivers


Types of Host Platform DMA

The platform on which the device operates provides either direct memory access (DMA) or direct virtual memory access (DVMA).

On platforms that support DMA, the system provides the device with a physical address in order to perform transfers. In this case, the transfer of a DMA object can actually consist of a number of physically discontiguous transfers. An example is when an application transfers a buffer that spans several contiguous virtual pages that map to physically discontiguous pages. To deal with the discontiguous memory, devices for these platforms usually have some kind of scatter-gather DMA capability. Typically, x86 systems provide physical addresses for direct memory transfers.

On platforms that support DVMA, the system provides the device with a virtual address to perform transfers. In this case, memory management units (MMU) provided by the underlying platform translate device accesses to these virtual addresses into the proper physical addresses. The device transfers to and from a contiguous virtual image that can be mapped to discontiguous physical pages. Devices that operate in these platforms do not need scatter-gather DMA capability. Typically, SPARC platforms provide virtual addresses for direct memory transfers.