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Writing Device Drivers
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Part I Designing Device Drivers for the Solaris Platform

1.  Overview of Solaris Device Drivers

2.  Solaris Kernel and Device Tree

3.  Multithreading

4.  Properties

5.  Managing Events and Queueing Tasks

6.  Driver Autoconfiguration

7.  Device Access: Programmed I/O

8.  Interrupt Handlers

9.  Direct Memory Access (DMA)

DMA Model

Types of Device DMA

Bus-Master DMA

Third-Party DMA

First-Party DMA

Types of Host Platform DMA

DMA Software Components: Handles, Windows, and Cookies

DMA Operations

Performing Bus-Master DMA Transfers

Performing First-Party DMA Transfers

Performing Third-Party DMA Transfers

DMA Attributes

ddi_dma_attr Structure

SBus Example

ISA Bus Example

Managing DMA Resources

Object Locking

Allocating a DMA Handle

Allocating DMA Resources

Device Register Structure

DMA Callback Example

Determining Maximum Burst Sizes

Allocating Private DMA Buffers

Handling Resource Allocation Failures

Programming the DMA Engine

Freeing the DMA Resources

Freeing the DMA Handle

Canceling DMA Callbacks

Synchronizing Memory Objects


ddi_dma_sync() Function

DMA Windows

10.  Mapping Device and Kernel Memory

11.  Device Context Management

12.  Power Management

13.  Hardening Solaris Drivers

14.  Layered Driver Interface (LDI)

Part II Designing Specific Kinds of Device Drivers

15.  Drivers for Character Devices

16.  Drivers for Block Devices

17.  SCSI Target Drivers

18.  SCSI Host Bus Adapter Drivers

19.  Drivers for Network Devices

20.  USB Drivers

Part III Building a Device Driver

21.  Compiling, Loading, Packaging, and Testing Drivers

22.  Debugging, Testing, and Tuning Device Drivers

23.  Recommended Coding Practices

Part IV Appendixes

A.  Hardware Overview

B.  Summary of Solaris DDI/DKI Services

C.  Making a Device Driver 64-Bit Ready

D.  Console Frame Buffer Drivers


DMA Software Components: Handles, Windows, and Cookies

A DMA handle is an opaque pointer that represents an object, usually a memory buffer or address. A DMA handle enables a device to perform DMA transfers. Several different calls to DMA routines use the handle to identify the DMA resources that are allocated for the object.

An object represented by a DMA handle is completely covered by one or more DMA cookies. A DMA cookie represents a contiguous piece of memory that is used in data transfers by the DMA engine. The system divides objects into multiple cookies based on the following information:

If an object does not fit within the limitations of the DMA engine, that object must be broken into multiple DMA windows. You can only activate and allocate resources for one window at a time. Use the ddi_dma_getwin(9F) function to position between windows within an object. Each DMA window consists of one or more DMA cookies. For more information, see DMA Windows.

Some DMA engines can accept more than one cookie. Such engines perform scatter-gather I/O without the help of the system. If multiple cookies are returned from a bind, the driver should call ddi_dma_nextcookie(9F) repeatedly to retrieve each cookie. These cookies must then be programmed into the engine. The device can then be programmed to transfer the total number of bytes covered by the aggregate of these DMA cookies.