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Oracle Solaris Administration: Network Services     Oracle Solaris 11 Information Library
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Part I Network Services Topics

1.  Network Service (Overview)

2.  Managing Web Cache Servers

3.  Time-Related Services

Part II Accessing Network File Systems Topics

4.  Managing Network File Systems (Overview)

5.  Network File System Administration (Tasks)

6.  Accessing Network File Systems (Reference)

NFS Files

/etc/default/nfslogd File

/etc/nfs/nfslog.conf File

NFS Daemons

automountd Daemon

lockd Daemon

mountd Daemon

nfs4cbd Daemon

nfsd Daemon

nfslogd Daemon

nfsmapid Daemon

Configuration Files and nfsmapid

Precedence Rules

nfsmapid and DNS TXT Records

Checking for the NFS Version 4 Domain

Configuring the NFS Version 4 Default Domain

Additional Information About nfsmapid

reparsed Daemon

statd Daemon

NFS Commands

automount Command

clear_locks Command

fsstat Command

mount Command

mount Options for NFS File Systems

Using the mount Command

umount Command

mountall Command

umountall Command

sharectl Command

set Subcommand

get Subcommand

status Subcommand

share Command

Non-File-System-Specific share Options

NFS-Specific share Options

Setting Access Lists With the share Command

unshare Command

shareall Command

unshareall Command

showmount Command

setmnt Command

nfsref Command

Commands for Troubleshooting NFS Problems

nfsstat Command

pstack Command

rpcinfo Command

snoop Command

truss Command


How the NFS Service Works

Version Negotiation in NFS

Features in NFS Version 4

Unsharing and Resharing a File System in NFS Version 4

File-System Namespace in NFS Version 4

Volatile File Handles in NFS Version 4

Client Recovery in NFS Version 4

OPEN Share Support in NFS Version 4

Delegation in NFS Version 4

ACLs and nfsmapid in NFS Version 4

UDP and TCP Negotiation

File Transfer Size Negotiation

How File Systems Are Mounted

Effects of the -public Option and NFS URLs When Mounting

Client-Side Failover

Failover Terminology

What Is a Replicated File System?

Failover and NFS Locking

Client-Side Failover in NFS Version 4

Large Files

How NFS Server Logging Works

How the WebNFS Service Works

How WebNFS Security Negotiation Works

WebNFS Limitations With Web Browser Use

Secure NFS System

Secure RPC

DH Authentication

KERB Authentication

Using Secure RPC With NFS

How Mirror Mounts Work

When to Use Mirror Mounts

Mounting a File System Using Mirror Mounts

Unmounting a File System Using Mirror Mounts

How NFS Referrals Work

When to Use NFS Referrals?

Creating an NFS Referral

Removing an NFS Referral

Autofs Maps

Master Autofs Map

Mount Point /home

Mount Point /net

Mount Point /nfs4

Direct Autofs Maps

Mount Point /-

Indirect Autofs Maps

How Autofs Works

How Autofs Navigates Through the Network (Maps)

How Autofs Starts the Navigation Process (Master Map)

Autofs Mount Process

Simple Autofs Mount

Hierarchical Mounting

Autofs Unmounting

How Autofs Selects the Nearest Read-Only Files for Clients (Multiple Locations)

Autofs and Weighting

Variables in a Autofs Map Entry

Maps That Refer to Other Maps

Executable Autofs Maps

Modifying How Autofs Navigates the Network (Modifying Maps)

Default Autofs Behavior With Name Services

Autofs Reference

Autofs and Metacharacters

Ampersand (&)

Asterisk (*)

Autofs and Special Characters

Part III SLP Topics

7.  SLP (Overview)

8.  Planning and Enabling SLP (Tasks)

9.  Administering SLP (Tasks)

10.  Incorporating Legacy Services

11.  SLP (Reference)

Part IV Mail Services Topics

12.  Mail Services (Overview)

13.  Mail Services (Tasks)

14.  Mail Services (Reference)

Part V Serial Networking Topics

15.  Solaris PPP 4.0 (Overview)

16.  Planning for the PPP Link (Tasks)

17.  Setting Up a Dial-up PPP Link (Tasks)

18.  Setting Up a Leased-Line PPP Link (Tasks)

19.  Setting Up PPP Authentication (Tasks)

20.  Setting Up a PPPoE Tunnel (Tasks)

21.  Fixing Common PPP Problems (Tasks)

22.  Solaris PPP 4.0 (Reference)

23.  Migrating From Asynchronous Solaris PPP to Solaris PPP 4.0 (Tasks)

24.  UUCP (Overview)

25.  Administering UUCP (Tasks)

26.  UUCP (Reference)

Part VI Working With Remote Systems Topics

27.  Working With Remote Systems (Overview)

28.  Administering the FTP Server (Tasks)

29.  Accessing Remote Systems (Tasks)

Part VII Monitoring Network Services Topics

30.  Monitoring Network Performance (Tasks)



Commands for Troubleshooting NFS Problems

These commands can be useful when troubleshooting NFS problems.

nfsstat Command

You can use this command to gather statistical information about NFS and RPC connections. The syntax of the command is as follows:

nfsstat [ -cmnrsz ]


Displays client-side information


Displays statistics for each NFS-mounted file system


Specifies that NFS information is to be displayed on both the client side and the server side


Displays RPC statistics


Displays the server-side information


Specifies that the statistics should be set to zero

If no options are supplied on the command line, the -cnrs options are used.

Gathering server-side statistics can be important for debugging problems when new software or new hardware is added to the computing environment. Running this command a minimum of once a week, and storing the numbers, provides a good history of previous performance.

Refer to the following example:

# nfsstat -s

Server rpc:
Connection oriented:
calls      badcalls   nullrecv   badlen     xdrcall    dupchecks  dupreqs    
719949194  0          0          0          0          58478624   33         
calls      badcalls   nullrecv   badlen     xdrcall    dupchecks  dupreqs    
73753609   0          0          0          0          987278     7254       

Server NFSv2:
calls      badcalls   referrals  referlinks
25733      0          0          0

Server NFSv3:
calls      badcalls   referrals  referlinks
132880073  0          0          0

Server NFSv4:
calls      badcalls   referrals  referlinks
488884996  4          0          0
Version 2: (746607 calls)
null       getattr    setattr    root       lookup     readlink   read       
883 0%     60 0%      45 0%      0 0%       177446 23% 1489 0%    537366 71% 
wrcache    write      create     remove     rename     link       symlink    
0 0%       1105 0%    47 0%      59 0%      28 0%      10 0%      9 0%       
mkdir      rmdir      readdir    statfs     
26 0%      0 0%       27926 3%   108 0%     
Version 3: (728863853 calls)
null          getattr       setattr       lookup        access        
1365467 0%    496667075 68% 8864191 1%    66510206 9%   19131659 2%   
readlink      read          write         create        mkdir         
414705 0%     80123469 10%  18740690 2%   4135195 0%    327059 0%     
symlink       mknod         remove        rmdir         rename        
101415 0%     9605 0%       6533288 0%    111810 0%     366267 0%     
link          readdir       readdirplus   fsstat        fsinfo        
2572965 0%    519346 0%     2726631 0%    13320640 1%   60161 0%      
pathconf      commit        
13181 0%      6248828 0%    
Version 4: (54871870 calls)
null                compound            
266963 0%           54604907 99%        
Version 4: (167573814 operations)
reserved            access              close               commit              
0 0%                2663957 1%          2692328 1%          1166001 0%          
create              delegpurge          delegreturn         getattr             
167423 0%           0 0%                1802019 1%          26405254 15%        
getfh               link                lock                lockt               
11534581 6%         113212 0%           207723 0%           265 0%              
locku               lookup              lookupp             nverify             
230430 0%           11059722 6%         423514 0%           21386866 12%        
open                openattr            open_confirm        open_downgrade      
2835459 1%          4138 0%             18959 0%            3106 0%             
putfh               putpubfh            putrootfh           read                
52606920 31%        0 0%                35776 0%            4325432 2%          
readdir             readlink            remove              rename              
606651 0%           38043 0%            560797 0%           248990 0%           
renew               restorefh           savefh              secinfo             
2330092 1%          8711358 5%          11639329 6%         19384 0%            
setattr             setclientid         setclientid_confirm verify              
453126 0%           16349 0%            16356 0%            2484 0%             
write               release_lockowner   illegal             
3247770 1%          0 0%                0 0%                

Server nfs_acl:
Version 2: (694979 calls)
null        getacl      setacl      getattr     access      getxattrdir 
0 0%        42358 6%    0 0%        584553 84%  68068 9%    0 0%        
Version 3: (2465011 calls)
null        getacl      setacl      getxattrdir 
0 0%        1293312 52% 1131 0%     1170568 47% 

The previous listing is an example of NFS server statistics. The first five lines relate to RPC and the remaining lines report NFS activities. In both sets of statistics, knowing the average number of badcalls or calls and the number of calls per week can help identify a problem. The badcalls value reports the number of bad messages from a client. This value can indicate network hardware problems.

Some of the connections generate write activity on the disks. A sudden increase in these statistics could indicate trouble and should be investigated. For NFS version 2 statistics, the connections to note are setattr, write, create, remove, rename, link, symlink, mkdir, and rmdir. For NFS version 3 and version 4 statistics, the value to watch is commit. If the commit level is high in one NFS server, compared to another almost identical server, check that the NFS clients have enough memory. The number of commit operations on the server grows when clients do not have available resources.

pstack Command

This command displays a stack trace for each process. The pstack command must be run by the owner of the process or by root. You can use pstack to determine where a process is hung. The only option that is allowed with this command is the PID of the process that you want to check. See the proc(1) man page.

The following example is checking the nfsd process that is running.

# /usr/bin/pgrep nfsd
# /usr/bin/pstack 243
243:    /usr/lib/nfs/nfsd -a 16
 ef675c04 poll     (24d50, 2, ffffffff)
 000115dc ???????? (24000, 132c4, 276d8, 1329c, 276d8, 0)
 00011390 main     (3, efffff14, 0, 0, ffffffff, 400) + 3c8
 00010fb0 _start   (0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0) + 5c

The example shows that the process is waiting for a new connection request, which is a normal response. If the stack shows that the process is still in poll after a request is made, the process might be hung. Follow the instructions in How to Restart NFS Services to fix this problem. Review the instructions in NFS Troubleshooting Procedures to fully verify that your problem is a hung program.

rpcinfo Command

This command generates information about the RPC service that is running on a system. You can also use this command to change the RPC service. Many options are available with this command. See the rpcinfo(1M) man page. The following is a shortened synopsis for some of the options that you can use with the command.

rpcinfo [ -m | -s ] [ hostname ]

rpcinfo -T transport hostname [ progname ]

rpcinfo [ -t | -u ] [ hostname ] [ progname ]


Displays a table of statistics of the rpcbind operations


Displays a concise list of all registered RPC programs


Displays information about services that use specific transports or protocols


Probes the RPC programs that use TCP


Probes the RPC programs that use UDP


Selects the transport or protocol for the services


Selects the host name of the server that you need information from


Selects the RPC program to gather information about

If no value is given for hostname, the local host name is used. You can substitute the RPC program number for progname, but many users can remember the name and not the number. You can use the -p option in place of the -s option on those systems that do not run the NFS version 3 software.

The data that is generated by this command can include the following:

The following example gathers information about the RPC services that are running on a server. The text that is generated by the command is filtered by the sort command to make the output more readable. Several lines that list RPC services have been deleted from the example.

% rpcinfo -s bee |sort -n
   program version(s) netid(s)                         service     owner
    100000  2,3,4     udp6,tcp6,udp,tcp,ticlts,ticotsord,ticots portmapper  superuser
    100001  4,3,2     udp6,udp,ticlts                  rstatd      superuser
    100003  4,3,2     tcp,udp,tcp6,udp6                nfs         1
    100005  3,2,1     ticots,ticotsord,tcp,tcp6,ticlts,udp,udp6 mountd      superuser
    100007  1,2,3     ticots,ticotsord,ticlts,tcp,udp,tcp6,udp6 ypbind      1
    100011  1         udp6,udp,ticlts                  rquotad     superuser
    100021  4,3,2,1   tcp,udp,tcp6,udp6                nlockmgr    1
    100024  1         ticots,ticotsord,ticlts,tcp,udp,tcp6,udp6 status      superuser
    100068  5,4,3,2   ticlts                           -           superuser
    100083  1         ticotsord                        -           superuser
    100133  1         ticots,ticotsord,ticlts,tcp,udp,tcp6,udp6 -           superuser
    100134  1         ticotsord                        -           superuser
    100155  1         ticotsord                        smserverd   superuser
    100169  1         ticots,ticotsord,ticlts          -           superuser
    100227  3,2       tcp,udp,tcp6,udp6                nfs_acl     1
    100234  1         ticotsord                        -           superuser
    390113  1         tcp                              -           superuser
    390435  1         tcp                              -           superuser
    390436  1         tcp                              -           superuser
1073741824  1         tcp,tcp6                         -           1

The following two examples show how to gather information about a particular RPC service by selecting a particular transport on a server. The first example checks the mountd service that is running over TCP. The second example checks the NFS service that is running over UDP.

% rpcinfo -t bee mountd
program 100005 version 1 ready and waiting
program 100005 version 2 ready and waiting
program 100005 version 3 ready and waiting
% rpcinfo -u bee nfs
program 100003 version 2 ready and waiting
program 100003 version 3 ready and waiting

snoop Command

This command is often used to watch for packets on the network. The snoop command must be run as root. The use of this command is a good way to ensure that the network hardware is functioning on both the client and the server. Many options are available. See the snoop(1M) man page. A shortened synopsis of the command follows:

snoop [ -d device ] [ -o filename ] [ host hostname ]

-d device

Specifies the local network interface

-o filename

Stores all the captured packets into the named file


Displays packets going to and from a specific host only

The -d device option is useful on those servers that have multiple network interfaces. You can use many expressions other than setting the host. A combination of command expressions with grep can often generate data that is specific enough to be useful.

When troubleshooting, make sure that packets are going to and from the proper host. Also, look for error messages. Saving the packets to a file can simplify the review of the data.

truss Command

You can use this command to check if a process is hung. The truss command must be run by the owner of the process or by root. You can use many options with this command. See the truss(1) man page. A shortened syntax of the command follows.

truss [ -t syscall ] -p pid

-t syscall

Selects system calls to trace

-p pid

Indicates the PID of the process to be traced

The syscall can be a comma-separated list of system calls to be traced. Also, starting syscall with an ! selects to exclude the listed system calls from the trace.

This example shows that the process is waiting for another connection request from a new client.

# /usr/bin/truss -p 243
poll(0x00024D50, 2, -1)         (sleeping...)

The previous example shows a normal response. If the response does not change after a new connection request has been made, the process could be hung. Follow the instructions in How to Restart NFS Services to fix the hung program. Review the instructions in NFS Troubleshooting Procedures to fully verify that your problem is a hung program.