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|man pages section 1: User Commands Oracle Solaris 10 1/13 Information Library|
- change login password and password attributes
passwd [-r files | -r ldap | -r nis | -r nisplus] [name]
passwd [-r files] [-egh] [name]
passwd [-r files] -s [-a]
passwd [-r files] -s [name]
passwd [-r files] [-d | -l | -u | -N] [-f] [-n min] [-w warn] [-x max] name
passwd -r ldap [-egh] [name]
passwd [-r ldap ] -s [-a]
passwd [-r ldap ] -s [name]
passwd -r ldap [-d | -l | -u | -N] [-f] [-n min] [-w warn] [-x max] name
passwd -r nis [-egh] [name]
passwd -r nisplus [-egh] [-D domainname] [name]
passwd -r nisplus -s [-a]
passwd -r nisplus [-D domainname] -s [name]
passwd -r nisplus [-l | -u | -N] [-f] [-n min] [-w warn] [-x max] [-D domainname] name
The passwd command changes the password or lists password attributes associated with the user's login name. Additionally, privileged users can use passwd to install or change passwords and attributes associated with any login name.
When used to change a password, passwd prompts everyone for their old password, if any. It then prompts for the new password twice. When the old password is entered, passwd checks to see if it has aged sufficiently. If aging is insufficient, passwd terminates; see pwconv(1M), nistbladm(1), and shadow(4) for additional information.
The pwconv command creates and updates /etc/shadow with information from /etc/passwd. pwconv relies on a special value of 'x' in the password field of /etc/passwd. This value of 'x' indicates that the password for the user is already in /etc/shadow and should not be modified.
If aging is sufficient, a check is made to ensure that the new password meets construction requirements. When the new password is entered a second time, the two copies of the new password are compared. If the two copies are not identical, the cycle of prompting for the new password is repeated for, at most, two more times.
Passwords must be constructed to meet the following requirements:
Each password must have PASSLENGTH characters, where PASSLENGTH is defined in /etc/default/passwd and is set to 6. Setting PASSLENGTH to more than eight characters requires configuring policy.conf(4) with an algorithm that supports greater than eight characters.
Each password must meet the configured complexity constraints specified in /etc/default/passwd.
Each password must not be a member of the configured dictionary as specified in /etc/default/passwd.
For accounts in name services which support password history checking, if prior password history is defined, new passwords must not be contained in the prior password history.
If all requirements are met, by default, the passwd command consults /etc/nsswitch.conf to determine in which repositories to perform password update. It searches the passwd and passwd_compat entries. The sources (repositories) associated with these entries are updated. However, the password update configurations supported are limited to the following cases. Failure to comply with the configurations prevents users from logging onto the system. The password update configurations are:
passwd: files ldap
passwd: files nis
passwd: files nisplus
passwd: compat (==> files nis)
passwd: compat (==> files ldap)
passwd: compat (==> files nisplus)
Network administrators, who own the NIS+ password table, can change any password attributes. The administrator configured for updating LDAP shadow information can also change any password attributes. See ldapclient(1M).
When a user has a password stored in one of the name services as well as a local files entry, the passwd command updates both. It is possible to have different passwords in the name service and local files entry. Use passwd -r to change a specific password repository.
The passwd command does not prompt authorized users for the old password.
If LDAP is in effect, an authorized user on any Native LDAP client system can change any password without being prompted for the old LDAP password.
By default, even users authorized to change the password of other users must comply with the configured password policy. See pam_authtok_check(5).
Normally, passwd entered with no arguments changes the password of the current user. When a user logs in and then invokes su(1M) to become role or another user, passwd changes the original user's password, not the password of the role or the new user.
Any user can use the -s option to show password attributes for his or her own login name, provided they are using the -r nisplus argument. See the -s option.
passwd uses pam(3PAM) for password change. It calls PAM with a service name passwd and uses service module type auth for authentication and password for password change.
Locking an account (-l option) does not allow its use for password based login or delayed execution (such as at(1), batch(1), or cron(1M)). The -N option can be used to disallow password based login, while continuing to allow delayed execution.
By default, locked accounts that have never had a password and no login accounts cannot have their status changed directly to an active password. See -d. Changing a password on a locked account that had a password prior to being locked, changes the password without unlocking the account. See -u to unlock the account. An authorized administrator can activate an account in the not yet activated state by giving it a password.
If RESTRICTIVE_LOCKING=NO in policy.conf, then no login accounts and accounts marked with UP can be directly locked using passwd -l.
The following options are supported:
Shows password attributes for all entries. Use only with the -s option. name must not be provided. For the nisplus repository, this shows only the entries in the NIS+ password table in the local domain that the invoker is authorized to read. For the files and ldap repository, this is restricted to the superuser.
Consults the passwd.org_dir table in domainname. If this option is not specified, the default domainname returned by nis_local_directory(3NSL) are used. This domain name is the same as that returned by domainname(1M).
Changes the login shell. For the files repository, this only works for the superuser. Normal users can change the ldap, nis, or nisplus repositories. The choice of shell is limited by the requirements of getusershell(3C). If the user currently has a shell that is not allowed by getusershell, only root can change it.
Changes the gecos (finger) information. For the files repository, this only works for the superuser. Normal users can change the ldap, nis, or nisplus repositories.
Changes the home directory.
Specifies the repository to which an operation is applied. The supported repositories are files, ldap, nis, or nisplus.
Shows password attributes for the login name.
The output of this option, and only this option, is Committed and parsable.
New codes might be added in the future so code that parses this must be flexible in the face of unknown codes. While all existing codes are two characters in length that might not always be the case.
For nisplus, any user can use the -s option to show password attributes for his or her own login name, provided they are using the -r nisplus argument.
This argument does not work at all with the nis repository. With files and ldap, the -s argument is restricted to the superuser.
The format of the display is:
name status mm/dd/yy min max warn
or, if password aging information is not present:
The following are the current status codes:
Account is locked for UNIX account checking, see pam_unix_account(5). passwd -l was run successfully or the authentication failed RETRIES times with LOCK_AFTER_RETRIES=YES in policy.conf(4) and there was not a lock_after_retries=no in the user's user_attr(4) entry.
The account is a no login account. passwd -N has been run.
Account has no password. passwd -d was run.
The account probably has a valid password.
The data in the password field is unknown. It is not a recognizable hashed password or any of the above entries. See crypt(3C) for valid password hashes.
If RESTRICTIVE_LOCKING is set to NO in policy.conf, an account with UP in the password field is reported as unknown.
This account has not yet been activated by the administrator and cannot be used. See Security.
If RESTRICTIVE_LOCKING is set to NO in policy.conf, UP accounts is not created by account creation tools, and if UP is found in the password field, the account is treated as a no login account.
Only a privileged user can use the following options:
Deletes password for name and unlocks the account. The login name is not prompted for password. It is only applicable to the files and ldap repositories.
If the login(1)option PASSREQ=YES is configured, the account is not able to login. PASSREQ=YES is the delivered default.
Forces the user to change password at the next login by expiring the password for name.
Locks account for name unless it is already locked or is a no login account. See the -d or -u option for unlocking the account.
If RESTRICTIVE_LOCKING=NO in policy.conf, then this also locks a no login account.
Makes the password entry for name a value that cannot be used for login, but does not lock the account. See the -d option for removing the value, or to set a password to allow logins.
Sets minimum field for name. The min field contains the minimum number of days between password changes for name. If min is greater than max, the user can not change the password. Always use this option with the -x option, unless max is set to -1 (aging turned off). In that case, min need not be set.
Unlocks a locked password for entry name. See the -d option for removing the locked password, or to set a password to allow logins.
Sets warn field for name. The warn field contains the number of days before the password expires and the user is warned. This option is not valid if password aging is disabled.
Sets maximum field for name. The max field contains the number of days that the password is valid for name. The aging for name is turned off immediately if max is set to -1.
The following operand is supported:
User login name.
If any of the LC_* variables, that is, LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, LC_TIME, LC_COLLATE, LC_NUMERIC, and LC_MONETARY (see environ(5)), are not set in the environment, the operational behavior of passwd for each corresponding locale category is determined by the value of the LANG environment variable. If LC_ALL is set, its contents are used to override both the LANG and the other LC_* variables. If none of the above variables is set in the environment, the C (U.S. style) locale determines how passwd behaves.
Determines how passwd handles characters. When LC_CTYPE is set to a valid value, passwd can display and handle text and filenames containing valid characters for that locale. passwd can display and handle Extended Unix Code (EUC) characters where any individual character can be 1, 2, or 3 bytes wide. passwd can also handle EUC characters of 1, 2, or more column widths. In the C locale, only characters from ISO 8859-1 are valid.
Determines how diagnostic and informative messages are presented. This includes the language and style of the messages, and the correct form of affirmative and negative responses. In the C locale, the messages are presented in the default form found in the program itself (in most cases, U.S. English).
The passwd command exits with one of the following values:
Invalid combination of options.
Unexpected failure. Password file unchanged.
Unexpected failure. Password file(s) missing.
Password file(s) busy. Try again later.
Invalid argument to option.
Aging option is disabled.
Password information unchanged.
Default values can be set for the following flags in /etc/default/passwd. For example: MAXWEEKS=26
The directory where the generated dictionary databases reside. Defaults to /var/passwd.
If neither DICTIONLIST nor DICTIONDBDIR is specified, the system does not perform a dictionary check.
DICTIONLIST can contain list of comma separated dictionary files such as DICTIONLIST=file1, file2, file3. Each dictionary file contains multiple lines and each line consists of a word and a NEWLINE character (similar to /usr/share/lib/dict/words.) You must specify full path names. The words from these files are merged into a database that is used to determine whether a password is based on a dictionary word.
If neither DICTIONLIST nor DICTIONDBDIR is specified, the system does not perform a dictionary check.
To pre-build the dictionary database, see mkpwdict(1M).
Maximum number of prior password history to keep for a user. Setting the HISTORY value to zero (0), or removing the flag, causes the prior password history of all users to be discarded at the next password change by any user. The default is not to define the HISTORY flag. The maximum value is 26. Currently, this functionality is enforced only for user accounts defined in the files name service (local passwd(4)/shadow(4)).
Maximum number of allowable consecutive repeating characters. If MAXREPEATS is not set or is zero (0), the default is no checks
Maximum time period that password is valid.
Minimum number of alpha character required. If MINALPHA is not set, the default is 2.
Minimum differences required between an old and a new password. If MINDIFF is not set, the default is 3.
Minimum number of digits required. If MINDIGIT is not set or is set to zero (0), the default is no checks. You cannot be specify MINDIGIT if MINNONALPHA is also specified.
Minimum number of lower case letters required. If not set or zero (0), the default is no checks.
Minimum number of non-alpha (including numeric and special) required. If MINNONALPHA is not set, the default is 1. You cannot specify MINNONALPHA if MINDIGIT or MINSPECIAL is also specified.
Minimum time period before the password can be changed.
Minimum number of special (non-alpha and non-digit) characters required. If MINSPECIAL is not set or is zero (0), the default is no checks. You cannot specify MINSPECIAL if you also specify MINNONALPHA.
Minimum number of upper case letters required. If MINUPPER is not set or is zero (0), the default is no checks.
Enable/disable checking or the login name. The default is to do login name checking. A case insensitive value of no disables this feature.
Minimum length of password, in characters.
Time period until warning of date of password's ensuing expiration.
Determine if white space characters are allowed in passwords. Valid values are YES and NO. If WHITESPACE is not set or is set to YES, white space characters are allowed.
Temporary file used by passwd, passmgmt and pwconv to update the real shadow file.
Configuration file for security policy.
Shadow password file.
Extended user attributes database.
See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:
The human readable output is Unstable. The options are Evolving. The RESTRICTIVE_LOCKING option is Obsolete.
at(1), batch(1), finger(1), login(1), nistbladm(1), cron(1M), domainname(1M), eeprom(1M), id(1M), mkpwdict(1M), passmgmt(1M), pwconv(1M), su(1M), useradd(1M), userdel(1M), usermod(1M), crypt(3C), getpwnam(3C), getspnam(3C), getusershell(3C), nis_local_directory(3NSL), pam(3PAM), loginlog(4), nsswitch.conf(4), pam.conf(4), passwd(4), policy.conf(4), shadow(4), shells(4), user_attr(4), attributes(5), environ(5), pam_authtok_check(5), pam_authtok_get(5), pam_authtok_store(5), pam_dhkeys(5), pam_ldap(5), pam_unix_account(5), pam_unix_auth(5), pam_unix_session(5)
The pam_unix(5) module is no longer supported. Similar functionality is provided by pam_unix_account(5), pam_unix_auth(5), pam_unix_session(5), pam_authtok_check(5), pam_authtok_get(5), pam_authtok_store(5), pam_dhkeys(5), and pam_passwd_auth(5).
The RESTRICTIVE_LOCKING option is Obsolete and has been removed from a newer release. See attributes(5).
The nispasswd and yppasswd commands are wrappers around passwd. Use of nispasswd and yppasswd is discouraged. Use passwd -r repository_name instead.
NIS+ might not be supported in future releases of the Oracle Solaris operating system. Tools to aid the migration from NIS+ to LDAP are available in the current Oracle Solaris release.
Changing a password in the files and ldap repositories clear the failed login count.
Changing a password reactivates an account deactivated for inactivity for the length of the inactivity period.
Input terminal processing might interpret some key sequences and not pass them to the passwd command.
An account with no password, status code NP, might not be able to login. See the login(1) PASSREQ option.