16 Strong Authentication Administration Tools

You can use a set of strong authentication administration tools for native network encryption and public key infrastructure credentials.

16.1 About the Configuration and Administration Tools

The configuration and administration tools manage the encryption, integrity (checksumming), and strong authentication methods for Oracle Net Services.

Strong authentication method configuration can include third-party software, as is the case for Kerberos or RADIUS, or it may entail configuring and managing a public key infrastructure for using digital certificates with Secure Sockets Layer (SSL).

16.2 Native Network Encryption and Strong Authentication Configuration Tools

Oracle Net Services can encrypt data using standard encryption algorithms, and for strong authentication methods, such as Kerberos, RADIUS, and SSL.

16.2.1 About Oracle Net Manager

Oracle Net Manager configures Oracle Net Services for an Oracle home on a local client or server host.

Although you can use Oracle Net Manager, a graphical user interface tool, to configure Oracle Net Services, such as naming, listeners, and general network settings, it also enables you to configure the following features, which use the Oracle Net protocol:

  • Strong authentication (Kerberos, RADIUS, and Secure Sockets Layer)

  • Native network encryption (RC4, DES, 3DES, and AES)

  • Checksumming for data integrity (MD5, SHA-1, SHA-2)


The DES, 3DES112, 3DES168, MD5, and RC4 algorithms are deprecated in this release. To transition your Oracle Database environment to use stronger algorithms, download and install the patch described in My Oracle Support note 2118136.2.

16.2.2 Kerberos Adapter Command-Line Utilities

The Kerberos adapter provides command-line utilities that obtain, cache, display, and remove Kerberos credentials.

The following table briefly describes these utilities.

Table 16-1 Kerberos Adapter Command-Line Utilities

Utility Name Description


Obtains Kerberos tickets from the Key Distribution Center (KDC) and caches them in the user's credential cache


Displays a list of Kerberos tickets in the specified credential cache


Removes Kerberos credentials from the specified credential cache


Automates the creation of keytabs from either the KDC or a service endpoint


The Cybersafe adapter is not supported beginning with this release. You should use Oracle's Kerberos adapter in its place. Kerberos authentication with the Cybersafe KDC (Trust Broker) continues to be supported when using the Kerberos adapter.

16.3 Public Key Infrastructure Credentials Management Tools

The security provided by a public key infrastructure (PKI) depends on how effectively you store, manage, and validate your PKI credentials.

16.3.1 About Oracle Wallet Manager

Wallet owners and security administrators use Oracle Wallet Manager to manage and edit the security credentials in their Oracle wallets.

A wallet is a password-protected container that is used to store authentication and signing credentials, including private keys, certificates, and trusted certificates needed by SSL. You can use Oracle Wallet Manager to perform the following tasks:


In previous releases of Oracle Database, you could use Oracle Wallet Manager to configure wallets for Transparent Data Encryption. In this release, you can use the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SQL statement instead. For more information, see Oracle Database Advanced Security Guide.

16.3.2 About the orapki Utility

The orapki utility manages certificate revocation lists (CRLs), creates and manages Oracle wallets, and creates signed certificates.

The basic syntax for this command-line utility is as follows:

orapki module command -option_1 argument ... -option_n argument

For example, the following command lists all CRLs in the CRL subtree in an instance of Oracle Internet Directory that is installed on machine1.us.example.com and that uses port 389:

orapki crl list -ldap machine1.us.example.com:389


The use of orapki to configure Transparent Data Encryption has been deprecated. Instead, use the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SQL statement.

See Also:

16.4 Duties of Strong Authentication Administrators

Most of the tasks of a security administrator involve ensuring that the connections to and from Oracle databases are secure.

The following table describes the primary tasks of security administrators who are responsible for strong authentication, the tools used to perform the tasks, and links to where the tasks are documented.

Table 16-2 Common Security Administrator/DBA Configuration and Administrative Tasks

Task Tools Used See Also

Configure encrypted Oracle Net connections between database servers and clients

Oracle Net Manager

Configuring Encryption on the Client and the Server

Configure checksumming on Oracle Net connections between database servers and clients

Oracle Net Manager

Configuring Integrity on the Client and the Server

Configure database clients to accept RADIUS authentication

Oracle Net Manager

Step 1A: Configure RADIUS on the Oracle Client

Configure a database to accept RADIUS authentication

Oracle Net Manager

Step 1B: Configure RADIUS on the Oracle Database Server

Create a RADIUS user and grant them access to a database session


Step 2: Create a User and Grant Access

Configure Kerberos authentication on a database client and server

Oracle Net Manager

Step 6: Configure Kerberos Authentication

Create a Kerberos database user

  • kadmin.local

  • Oracle Net Manager

Manage Kerberos credentials in the credential cache

  • okinit

  • oklist

  • okdstry

  • okcreate

Create a wallet for a database client or server

Oracle Wallet Manager

Oracle Database Enterprise User Security Administrator's Guide

Request a user certificate from a certificate authority (CA) for SSL authentication

Oracle Wallet Manager

Import a user certificate and its associated trusted certificate (CA certificate) into a wallet

Oracle Wallet Manager

Configuring SSL connections for a database client

Oracle Net Manager

Step 2: Configure Secure Sockets Layer on the Client

Configuring SSL connections for a database server

Oracle Net Manager

Step 1: Configure Secure Sockets Layer on the Server

Enabling certificate validation with a certificate revocation list (CRL)

Oracle Net Manager

Configuring Certificate Validation with Certificate Revocation Lists