13 Oracle Database Vault Schemas, Roles, and Accounts

Oracle Database Vault provides schemas that contain Database Vault objects, roles that provide separation of duty for specific tasks, and default user accounts.

Oracle Database Vault Schemas

The Oracle Database Vault schemas, DVSYS and DVF, support the administration and run-time processing of Oracle Database Vault.

DVSYS Schema

The DVSYS schema contains Oracle Database Vault database objects.

These objects store Oracle Database Vault configuration information and support the administration and run-time processing of Oracle Database Vault.

In a default installation, the DVSYS schema is locked. The DVSYS schema also owns the AUDIT_TRAIL$ table.

In a multitenant environment, the DVSYS schema is considered a common schema, which means that the objects within DVSYS (tables, views, PL/SQL packages, and so on) are automatically available to any child pluggable databases (PDBs). In addition, the DVSYS schema account cannot switch to other containers using the ALTER SESSION statement.

Oracle Database Vault secures the DVSYS schema by using a protected schema design. A protected schema design guards the schema against improper use of system privileges (for example, SELECT ANY TABLE, CREATE ANY VIEW, or DROP ANY).

Oracle Database Vault protects and secures the DVSYS schema in the following ways:

  • The DVSYS protected schema and its administrative roles cannot be dropped. By default, the DVSYS account is locked.

  • By default, users cannot directly log into the DVSYS account. To control the ability of users to directly log into this account, you can run the DBMS_MACADM.DISABLE_DV_DICTIONARY_ACCTS procedure to prevent users from logging in and the DBMS_MACADM.ENABLE_DV_DICTIONARY_ACCTS procedure to allow users to log in.

  • Statements such as CREATE USER, ALTER USER, DROP USER, CREATE PROFILE, ALTER PROFILE, and DROP PROFILE can only be issued by a user with the DV_ACCTMGR role. A user logged in with the SYSDBA administrative privilege can issue these statements only if it is allowed to do so by modifying the Can Maintain Accounts/Profiles rule set.

  • The powerful ANY system privileges for database definition language (DDL) and data manipulation language (DML) commands are blocked in the protected schema. This means that the objects in the DVSYS schema must be created by the schema account itself. Also, access to the schema objects must be authorized through object privilege grants.

  • Object privileges in the DVSYS schema can only be granted to Database Vault administrative roles in the schema. This means that users can access the protected schema only through predefined administrative roles.

  • Only the protected schema account DVSYS can issue ALTER ROLE statements on Database Vault predefined administrative roles of the schema. Oracle Database Vault Roles describes Oracle Database Vault predefined administrative roles in detail.

  • The SYS.DBMS_SYS_SQL.PARSE_AS_USER procedure cannot be used to run SQL statements on behalf of the protected schema DVSYS.

Note:

Database users can grant additional object privileges and roles to the Oracle Database Vault administrative roles (DV_ADMIN and DV_OWNER, for example) provided they have sufficient privileges to do so.

DVF Schema

The DVF schema is the owner of the Oracle Database Vault DBMS_MACSEC_FUNCTION PL/SQL package.

This package contains the functions that retrieve factor identities. After you install Oracle Database Vault, the installation process locks the DVF account to better secure it. When you create a new factor, Oracle Database Vault creates a new retrieval function for the factor and saves it in this schema.

In a multitenant environment, the DVF user cannot switch to other containers using the ALTER SESSION statement.

By default, users cannot directly log into the DVF account. To control the ability of users to directly log into this account, you can run the DBMS_MACADM.DISABLE_DV_DICTIONARY_ACCTS procedure to prevent users from logging in and the DBMS_MACADM.ENABLE_DV_DICTIONARY_ACCTS procedure to allow users to log in.

Oracle Database Vault Roles

Oracle Database Vault provides default roles that are based on specific user tasks and adhere to separation of duty concepts.

About Oracle Database Vault Roles

Oracle Database Vault provides a set of roles that are required for managing Oracle Database Vault.

illustrates how these roles are designed to implement the first level of separation of duties within the database. How you use these roles depends on the requirements that your company has in place.

Figure 13-1 How Oracle Database Vault Roles Are Categorized

Description of Figure 13-1 follows
Description of "Figure 13-1 How Oracle Database Vault Roles Are Categorized"

Note:

You can grant additional object privileges and roles to the Oracle Database Vault roles to extend their scope of privileges. For example, a user logged in with the SYSDBA administrative privilege can grant object privileges to an Oracle Database Vault role as long as the object is not in the DVSYS schema or realm.

Privileges of Oracle Database Vault Roles

The Oracle Database Vault roles are designed to provide the maximum benefits of separation of duty.

The DV_PATCH_ADMIN, DV_XSTREAM, DV_GOLDENGATE_ADMIN, and DV_GOLDENGATE_REDO_ACCESS roles are not included in the following sections because they have no system privileges.

DVSYS Schema, EXECUTE Privilege

Roles that can use this privilege:

  • DV_ADMIN (includes the EXECUTE privilege on all Oracle Database Vault PL/SQL packages)
  • DV_OWNER (includes the EXECUTE privilege on all Oracle Database Vault PL/SQL packages)
  • DV_POLICY_OWNER (on some DBMS_MACADM procedures)

Roles that are denied this privilege:

  • DV_ACCTMGR
  • DV_AUDIT_CLEANUP
  • DV_MONITOR
  • DV_PUBLIC
  • DV_REALM_OWNER
  • DV_REALM_RESOURCE
  • DV_SECANALYST

DVSYS Schema, SELECT Privilege

Roles that can use this privilege:

  • DV_ADMIN
  • DV_AUDIT_CLEANUP (on some Database Vault tables and views; can perform SELECT statements on the AUDIT_TRAIL$ table, and the DV$ENFORCEMENT_AUDIT and DV$CONFIGURATION_AUDIT views)
  • DV_MONITOR
  • DV_OWNER
  • DV_POLICY_OWNER (on some DBMS_MACADM procedures and on POLICY_OWNER* views only)
  • DV_SECANALYST (on some Database Vault views: DV_SECANALYST can query DVSYS schema objects through Oracle Database Vault-supplied views)

Roles that are denied this privilege:

  • DV_ACCTMGR
  • DV_PUBLIC
  • DV_REALM_OWNER
  • DV_REALM_RESOURCE

DVSYS Schema, DELETE Privilege

Roles that can use this privilege:

  • DV_AUDIT_CLEANUP (can perform DELETE on some Database Vault tables and views, on the AUDIT_TRAIL$ table, and the DV$ENFORCEMENT_AUDIT and DV$CONFIGURATION_AUDIT views)
  • DV_OWNER (can perform DELETE on some Database Vault tables and views, on the AUDIT_TRAIL$ table, and the DV$ENFORCEMENT_AUDIT and DV$CONFIGURATION_AUDIT views)

Roles that are denied this privilege:

  • DV_ACCTMGR
  • DV_ADMIN
  • DV_MONITOR
  • DV_POLICY_OWNER
  • DV_PUBLIC
  • DV_REALM_OWNER
  • DV_REALM_RESOURCE
  • DV_SECANALYST

DVSYS Schema, Grant Privileges on Objects

Roles that can use this privilege: None

Roles that are denied this privilege:

  • DV_ACCTMGR
  • DV_ADMIN
  • DV_AUDIT_CLEANUP
  • DV_MONITOR
  • DV_OWNER
  • DV_POLICY_OWNER
  • DV_PUBLIC
  • DV_SECANALYST
  • DV_REALM_OWNER
  • DV_REALM_RESOURCE

DVF Schema, EXECUTE Privilege

Roles that can use this privilege:

  • DV_OWNER

Roles that are denied this privilege:

  • DV_ACCTMGR
  • DV_ADMIN
  • DV_AUDIT_CLEANUP
  • DV_MONITOR
  • DV_OWNER
  • DV_POLICY_OWNER
  • DV_PUBLIC
  • DV_REALM_OWNER
  • DV_REALM_RESOURCE
  • DV_SECANALYST

DVF Schema, SELECT Privilege

Roles that can use this privilege:

  • DV_OWNER
  • DV_SECANALYST

Roles that are denied this privilege:

  • DV_ACCTMGR
  • DV_ADMIN
  • DV_AUDIT_CLEANUP
  • DV_MONITOR
  • DV_POLICY_OWNER
  • DV_PUBLIC
  • DV_REALM_OWNER
  • DV_REALM_RESOURCE

Monitor Database Vault Privilege

Roles that can use this privilege:

  • DV_ADMIN
  • DV_OWNER
  • DV_MONITOR
  • DV_SECANALYST

Roles that are denied this privilege:

  • DV_ACCTMGR
  • DV_AUDIT_CLEANUP
  • DV_POLICY_OWNER
  • DV_PUBLIC
  • DV_REALM_OWNER
  • DV_REALM_RESOURCE

Run Database Vault Reports Privilege

Roles that can use this privilege:

  • DV_ADMIN
  • DV_OWNER
  • DV_SECANALYST

Roles that are denied this privilege:

  • DV_ACCTMGR
  • DV_AUDIT_CLEANUP
  • DV_MONITOR
  • DV_POLICY_OWNER
  • DV_PUBLIC
  • DV_REALM_OWNER
  • DV_REALM_RESOURCE

SYS Schema, SELECT Privilege

Roles that can use this privilege:

  • DV_MONITOR
  • DV_OWNER
  • DV_SECANALYST (on the same system views as DV_OWNER and DV_ADMIN)

Roles that are denied this privilege:

  • DV_ACCTMGR
  • DV_ADMIN
  • DV_AUDIT_CLEANUP
  • DV_POLICY_OWNER
  • DV_PUBLIC
  • DV_REALM_OWNER
  • DV_REALM_RESOURCE

SYSMAN Schema, SELECT Privilege

Roles that can use this privilege:

  • DV_OWNER (portions of SYSMAN)
  • DV_SECANALYST (portions of SYSMAN)

Roles that are denied this privilege:

  • DV_ACCTMGR
  • DV_ADMIN
  • DV_AUDIT_CLEANUP
  • DV_MONITOR
  • DV_POLICY_OWNER
  • DV_PUBLIC
  • DV_REALM_OWNER
  • DV_REALM_RESOURCE

CREATE , ALTER , DROP User Accounts and Profiles Privilege

This privilege does not include the ability to drop or alter the DVSYS account, nor change the DVSYS password.

Role that can use this privilege:

  • DV_ACCTMGR

Roles that are denied this privilege:

  • DV_ADMIN
  • DV_AUDIT_CLEANUP
  • DV_MONITOR
  • DV_OWNER
  • DV_POLICY_OWNER
  • DV_PUBLIC
  • DV_REALM_OWNER
  • DV_REALM_RESOURCE
  • DV_SECANALYST

Manage Objects in Schemas that Define a Realm

This privilege includes ANY privileges, such as CREATE ANY , ALTER ANY , and DROP ANY.

Role that can use this privilege:

  • DV_REALM_OWNER (The user with this role also must be the realm participant or owner to exercise his or her system privileges.)

Roles that are denied this privilege:

  • DV_ACCTMGR
  • DV_AUDIT_CLEANUP
  • DV_ADMIN
  • DV_MONITOR
  • DV_OWNER (portions of SYSMAN)
  • DV_POLICY_OWNER
  • DV_PUBLIC
  • DV_REALM_RESOURCE
  • DV_SECANALYST (portions of SYSMAN)

RESOURCE Role Rrivileges

The RESOURCE role provides the following system privileges: CREATE CLUSTER , CREATE INDEXTYPE , CREATE OPERATOR , CREATE PROCEDURE , CREATE SEQUENCE , CREATE TABLE , CREATE TRIGGER, CREATE TYPE.

Role that can use this privilege:

  • DV_REALM_RESOURCE

Roles that are denied this privilege:

  • DV_ACCTMGR
  • DV_ADMIN
  • DV_AUDIT_CLEANUP
  • DV_MONITOR
  • DV_OWNER (portions of SYSMAN)
  • DV_POLICY_OWNER
  • DV_PUBLIC
  • DV_REALM_OWNER
  • DV_SECANALYST (portions of SYSMAN)

Granting Oracle Database Vault Roles to Users

You can use Enterprise Manager Cloud Control to grant Oracle Database Vault roles to users.

  1. From Cloud Control, log into Oracle Database Vault Administrator as a user who has been granted the DV_OWNER role and the SELECT ANY DICTIONARY privilege..

    Logging in to Oracle Database Vault from Oracle Enterprise Cloud Control explains how to log in.

    Refer to the role descriptions to find the requirements for who can grant roles to other users.

  2. In the Administration page, under Database Vault Components, click Database Vault Role Management.
    The Database Vault Role Management page appears.
    Description of em_role_grant2.png follows
    Description of the illustration em_role_grant2.png
  3. Do one of the following:
    • To add a new user or role for a grant, click the Add button to display the Add Authorization dialog box. Enter the grantee in the Grantee field, and then select the roles for the grant. Then click OK.
      Description of em_role_grant1.png follows
      Description of the illustration em_role_grant1.png
    • To grant different roles or modify role grants for a user or role listed in the Database Vault Role Management page, select the user or role, click Edit, and then modify the role grants as necessary. Then click OK.

DV_OWNER Database Vault Owner Role

The DV_OWNER role enables you to manage the Oracle Database Vault roles and its configuration.

In Oracle Database Vault Administrator's Guide, the example account that uses this role is leo_dvowner.

Privileges Associated with the DV_OWNER Role

The DV_OWNER role has the administrative capabilities that the DV_ADMIN role provides, and the reporting capabilities the DV_SECANALYST role provides.

This role also provides privileges for monitoring Oracle Database Vault. It is created when you install Oracle Database Vault, and has the most privileges on the DVSYS schema. It also has the DV_ADMIN role.

To find the full list of system and object privileges associated with the DV_OWNER role, you can log into the database instance and enter the following queries:

SELECT TABLE_NAME, OWNER, PRIVILEGE FROM DBA_TAB_PRIVS WHERE GRANTEE = 'DV_OWNER';
SELECT PRIVILEGE FROM DBA_SYS_PRIVS WHERE GRANTEE = 'DV_OWNER';

When you install and register Oracle Database Vault, the DV_OWNER account is created. The user who is granted this role is also granted the ADMIN option and can grant any Oracle Database Vault roles (except DV_ACCTMGR) to any account. Users granted this role also can run Oracle Database Vault reports and monitor Oracle Database Vault.

Tip:

Oracle strongly recommends that you create separate, named account for the DV_OWNER user. This way, if the user is no longer available (for example, he or she left the company), then you can easily recreate this user account and then grant this user the DV_OWNER role.

How Are GRANT and REVOKE Operations Affected by DV_OWNER?

Anyone with the DV_OWNER role can grant the DV_OWNER and DV_ADMIN roles to another user.

The account granted this role can revoke any granted Database Vault role from another account. Accounts such as SYS or SYSTEM, with the GRANT ANY ROLE system privilege alone (directly granted or indirectly granted using a role) do not have the right to grant or revoke the DV_OWNER role to or from any other database account. Note also that a user with the DV_OWNER role cannot grant or revoke the DV_ACCTMGR role.

Managing Password Changes for Users Who Have the DV_OWNER Role

Before you can change the password for another user who has been granted the DV_OWNER role, you must revoke the DV_OWNER role from that user account.

However, be cautious about revoking the DV_OWNER role. At least one user on your site must have this role granted. If another DV_OWNER user has been granted this role and needs to have his or her password changed, then you can temporarily revoke DV_OWNER from that user. Note also that if you have been granted the DV_OWNER role, then you can change your own password without having to revoke the role from yourself.

To change the DV_OWNER user password:

  1. Log into the database instance using an account that has been granted the DV_OWNER role.

  2. Revoke the DV_OWNER role from the user account whose password needs to change.

  3. Connect as a user who has been granted the DV_ACCTMGR role and then change the password for this user.

  4. Connect as the DV_OWNER user and then grant the DV_OWNER role back to the user whose password you changed.

DV_OWNER Status When Oracle Database Vault Security Is Disabled

The protection of all Oracle Database Vault roles is enforced only if Oracle Database Vault is enabled.

If Oracle Database Vault is disabled, then any account with the GRANT ANY ROLE system privilege can perform GRANT and REVOKE operations on protected Database Vault roles.

DV_ADMIN Database Vault Configuration Administrator Role

The DV_ADMIN role controls the Oracle Database Vault PL/SQL packages.

These packages are the underlying interface for the Database Vault Administrator user interface in Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control.

Privileges Associated with the DV_ADMIN Role

The DV_ADMIN role has the EXECUTE privilege on the DVSYS packages (DBMS_MACADM, DBMS_MACSECROLES, and DBMS_MACUTL).

DV_ADMIN also has the capabilities provided by the DV_SECANALYST role, which allow the user to run Oracle Database Vault reports and monitor Oracle Database Vault. During installation, the DV_ADMIN role is granted to the DV_OWNER role with the ADMIN OPTION.

In addition, the DV_ADMIN role provides the SELECT privilege on the DBA_DV_POLICY, DBA_DV_POLICY_OWNER, and DBA_DV_POLICY_OBJECT data dictionary views. The DV_ADMIN role also has the REGISTER SESSION system privilege.

To find the full list of system and object privileges associated with the DV_ADMIN role, log into the database instance with sufficient privileges and then enter the following queries:

SELECT TABLE_NAME, OWNER, PRIVILEGE FROM DBA_TAB_PRIVS WHERE GRANTEE = 'DV_ADMIN';
SELECT PRIVILEGE FROM DBA_SYS_PRIVS WHERE GRANTEE = 'DV_ADMIN';

How Are GRANT and REVOKE Operations Affected by DV_ADMIN?

Accounts such as SYS or SYSTEM, with the GRANT ANY ROLE system privilege alone do not have the rights to grant or revoke DV_ADMIN from any other database account.

The user with the DV_OWNER role can grant or revoke this role to and from any database account.

Managing Password Changes for Users Who Have the DV_ADMIN Role

Before you can change the password for a user who has been granted the DV_ADMIN role, you must revoke the DV_ADMIN role from this account.

If you have been granted the DV_ADMIN role, then you can change your own password without having to revoke the role from yourself.

To change the DV_ADMIN user password:

  1. Log into the database instance using an account that has been granted the DV_OWNER role.

  2. Revoke the DV_ADMIN role from the user account whose password needs to change.

  3. Connect as a user who has been granted the DV_ACCTMGR role and then change the password for this user.

  4. Connect as the DV_OWNER user and then grant the DV_ADMIN role back to the user whose password you changed.

DV_ADMIN Status When Oracle Database Vault Security Is Disabled

The protection of all Oracle Database Vault roles is enforced only if Oracle Database Vault is enabled.

If Oracle Database Vault is disabled, then any account with the GRANT ANY ROLE system privilege can perform GRANT and REVOKE operations on protected Database Vault roles.

DV_MONITOR Database Vault Monitoring Role

The DV_MONITOR role is used for monitoring Oracle Database Vault.

The DV_MONITOR role enables the Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control agent to monitor Oracle Database Vault for attempted violations and configuration issues with realm or command rule definitions.

This role enables Cloud Control to read and propagate realm definitions and command rule definitions between databases.

Privileges Associated with the DV_MONITOR Role

There are no system privileges associated with the DV_MONITOR role, but it does have the SELECT privilege on SYS and DVSYS objects.

In addition, the DV_MONITOR role provides the SELECT privilege on the DBA_DV_POLICY, DBA_DV_POLICY_OWNER, and DBA_DV_POLICY_OBJECT data dictionary views.

To find the full list of DV_MONITOR object privileges, log into the database instance with sufficient (such as DV_OWNER) privileges and then enter the following query:

SELECT TABLE_NAME, OWNER, PRIVILEGE FROM DBA_TAB_PRIVS WHERE GRANTEE = 'DV_MONITOR';

How Are GRANT and REVOKE Operations Affected by DV_MONITOR?

By default, the DV_MONITOR role is granted to the DV_OWNER role and the DBSNMP user.

Only a user who has been granted the DV_OWNER role can grant or revoke the DV_MONITOR role to another user.

DV_MONITOR Status When Oracle Database Vault Security Is Disabled

The protection of all Oracle Database Vault roles is enforced only if Oracle Database Vault is enabled.

If Oracle Database Vault is disabled, then any account with the GRANT ANY ROLE system privilege can perform GRANT and REVOKE operations on protected Database Vault roles.

DV_SECANALYST Database Vault Security Analyst Role

The DV_SECANALYST role enables users to analyze activities.

Use the DV_SECANALYST role to run Oracle Database Vault reports and monitor Oracle Database Vault.

This role is also used for database-related reports. In addition, this role enables you to check the DVSYS configuration by querying the DVSYS views described in Oracle Database Vault Data Dictionary Views.

Privileges Associated with the DV_SECANALYST Role

There are no system privileges associated with the DV_SECANALYST role, but it does have the SELECT privilege for some DVSYS schema objects and portions of the SYS and SYSMAN schema objects for reporting on DVSYS- and DVF-related entities.

In addition, the DV_SECANALYST role provides the SELECT privilege on the DBA_DV_POLICY, DBA_DV_POLICY_OWNER, and DBA_DV_POLICY_OBJECT data dictionary views.

To find the full list of DV_SECANALYST object privileges, log into the database instance with sufficient privileges and then enter the following query:

SELECT TABLE_NAME, OWNER, PRIVILEGE FROM DBA_TAB_PRIVS WHERE GRANTEE = 'DV_SECANALYST';

How Are GRANT and REVOKE Operations Affected by DV_SECANALYST?

Any account, such as SYS or SYSTEM, with the GRANT ANY ROLE system privilege alone does not have the rights to grant this role to or revoke this role from any other database account.

Only the user with the DV_OWNER role can grant or revoke this role to and from another user.

DV_SECANALYST Status When Oracle Database Vault Security Is Disabled

The protection of all Oracle Database Vault roles is enforced only if Oracle Database Vault is enabled.

If Oracle Database Vault is disabled, then any account with the GRANT ANY ROLE system privilege can perform GRANT and REVOKE operations on protected Database Vault roles.

DV_AUDIT_CLEANUP Audit Trail Cleanup Role

The DV_AUDIT_CLEANUP role is used for purge operations.

Note:

This feature has been updated in Oracle Database 12c release 1 (12.1.0.2).

Grant the DV_AUDIT_CLEANUP role to any user who is responsible for purging the Database Vault audit trail in a non-unified auditing environment.

Archiving and Purging the Oracle Database Vault Audit Trail explains how to use this role to complete a purge operation.

Privileges Associated with the DV_AUDIT_CLEANUP Role

The DV_AUDIT_CLEANUP role has SELECT and DELETE privileges for three Database Vault-related auditing views.

  • SELECT and DELETE on the DVSYS.AUDIT_TRAIL$ table

  • SELECT and DELETE on the DVSYS.DV$ENFORCEMENT_AUDIT view

  • SELECT and DELETE on the DVSYS.DV$CONFIGURATION_AUDIT view

How Are GRANT and REVOKE Operations Affected by DV_AUDIT_CLEANUP?

By default, this role is granted to the DV_OWNER role with the ADMIN OPTION.

Only a user who has been granted the DV_OWNER role can grant or revoke the DV_AUDIT_CLEANUP role to another user.

DV_AUDIT_CLEANUP Status When Oracle Database Vault Security Is Disabled

The protection of all Oracle Database Vault roles is enforced only if Oracle Database Vault is enabled.

If Oracle Database Vault is disabled, then any account with the GRANT ANY ROLE system privilege can perform GRANT and REVOKE operations on protected Database Vault roles.

DV_DATAPUMP_NETWORK_LINK Data Pump Network Link Role

The DV_DATAPUMP_NETWORK_LINK role is used for Data Pump import operations.

Grant the DV_DATAPUMP_NETWORK_LINK role to any user who is responsible for conducting the NETWORK_LINK transportable Data Pump import operation in an Oracle Database Vault environment.

This role enables the management of the Oracle Data Pump NETWORK_LINK transportable import processes to be tightly controlled by Database Vault, but does not change or restrict the way you would normally conduct Oracle Data Pump operations.

Privileges Associated with the DV_DATAPUMP_NETWORK_LINK Role

There are no system privileges associated with the DV_DATAPUMP_NETWORK_LINK role, but it does have the EXECUTE privilege on DVSYS objects.

To find the full list of DV_DATAPUMP_NETWORK_LINK object privileges, log into the database instance with sufficient privileges and then enter the following query:

SELECT TABLE_NAME, OWNER, PRIVILEGE FROM DBA_TAB_PRIVS WHERE GRANTEE = 'DV_DATAPUMP_NETWORK_LINK';

Be aware that the DV_DATAPUMP_NETWORK_LINK role does not provide a sufficient set of database privileges to conduct NETWORK_LINK transportable Data Pump import operation. Rather, the DV_DATAPUMP_NETWORK_LINK role is an additional requirement (that is, in addition to the privileges that Oracle Data Pump currently requires) for database administrators to conduct NETWORK_LINK transportable Data Pump import operations in an Oracle Database Vault environment.

How Are GRANT and REVOKE Operations Affected by DV_DATAPUMP_NETWORK_LINK?

Only users who have been granted the DV_OWNER role can grant or revoke the DV_DATAPUMP_NETWORK_LINK role to or from other users.

DV_DATAPUMP_NETWORK_LINK Status When Oracle Database Vault Security Is Disabled

The protection of all Oracle Database roles is enforced only if Oracle Database Vault is enabled.

If Oracle Database Vault is disabled, then any account with the GRANT ANY ROLE system privilege can perform GRANT and REVOKE operations on protected Database Vault roles.

DV_XSTREAM_ADMIN XStream Administrative Role

The DV_XSTREAM_ADMIN role is used for Oracle XStream.

Grant the DV_XSTREAM_ADMIN role to any user who is responsible for configuring Oracle XStream in an Oracle Database Vault environment.

This enables the management of XStream processes to be tightly controlled by Database Vault, but does not change or restrict the way an administrator would normally configure XStream.

Privileges Associated with the DV_XSTREAM_ADMIN Role

There are no privileges associated with the DV_XSTREAM_ADMIN role.

Be aware that the DV_XSTREAM_ADMIN role does not provide a sufficient set of database privileges for configuring XStream. Rather, the DV_XSTREAM_ADMIN role is an additional requirement (that is, in addition to the privileges that XStream currently requires) for database administrators to configure XStream in an Oracle Database Vault environment.

How Are GRANT and REVOKE Operations Affected by DV_XSTREAM_ADMIN?

Only users who have been granted the DV_OWNER role can grant or revoke the DV_XSTREAM_ADMIN role to or from other users.

DV_XSTREAM_ADMIN Status When Oracle Database Vault Security Is Disabled

The protection of all Oracle Database roles is enforced only if Oracle Database Vault is enabled.

If Oracle Database Vault is disabled, then any account with the GRANT ANY ROLE system privilege can perform GRANT and REVOKE operations on protected Database Vault roles.

DV_GOLDENGATE_ADMIN GoldenGate Administrative Role

The DV_GOLDENGATE_ADMIN role is used with Oracle GoldenGate.

Grant theto any user who is responsible for configuring Oracle GoldenGate in an Oracle Database Vault environment.

This enables the management of Oracle GoldenGate processes to be tightly controlled by Database Vault, but does not change or restrict the way an administrator would normally configure Oracle GoldenGate.

Privileges Associated with the DV_GOLDENGATE_ADMIN Role

There are no privileges associated with the DV_GOLDENGATE_ADMIN role.

Be aware that the DV_GOLDENGATE_ADMIN role does not provide a sufficient set of database privileges for configuring Oracle GoldenGate. Rather, the DV_GOLDENGATE_ADMIN role is an additional requirement (that is, in addition to the privileges that Oracle GoldenGate currently requires) for database administrators to configure Oracle GoldenGate in an Oracle Database Vault environment.

How Are GRANT and REVOKE Operations Affected by DV_GOLDENGATE_ADMIN?

Only users who have been granted the DV_OWNER role can grant or revoke the DV_GOLDENGATE_ADMIN role to or from other users.

DV_GOLDENGATE_ADMIN Status When Oracle Database Vault Security Is Disabled

The protection of all Oracle Database roles is enforced only if Oracle Database Vault is enabled.

If Oracle Database Vault is disabled, then any account with the GRANT ANY ROLE system privilege can perform GRANT and REVOKE operations on protected Database Vault roles.

DV_GOLDENGATE_REDO_ACCESS GoldenGate Redo Log Role

The DV_GOLDENGATE_REDO_ACCESS role is used with Oracle GoldenGate.

Grant the DV_GOLDENGATE_REDO_ACCESS role to any user who is responsible for using the Oracle GoldenGate TRANLOGOPTIONS DBLOGREADER method to access redo logs in an Oracle Database Vault environment.

This enables the management of Oracle GoldenGate processes to be tightly controlled by Database Vault, but does not change or restrict the way an administrator would normally configure Oracle GoldenGate.

Privileges Associated with the DV_GOLDENGATE_REDO_ACCESS Role

There are no privileges associated with the DV_GOLDENGATE_REDO_ACCESS role.

Be aware that the DV_GOLDENGATE_REDO_ACCESS role does not provide a sufficient set of database privileges for configuring Oracle GoldenGate. Rather, the DV_GOLDENGATE_REDO_ACCESS role is an additional requirement (that is, in addition to the privileges that Oracle GoldenGate currently requires) for database administrators.

How Are GRANT and REVOKE Operations Affected by DV_GOLDENGATE_REDO_ACCESS?

You cannot grant the DV_GOLDENGATE_REDO_ACCESS role with ADMIN OPTION.

Only users who have been granted the DV_OWNER role can grant or revoke the DV_GOLDENGATE_REDO_ACCESS role to or from other users.

DV_GOLDENGATE_REDO_ACCESS Status When Oracle Database Vault Security Is Disabled

The protection of all Oracle Database roles is enforced only if Oracle Database Vault is enabled.

If Oracle Database Vault is disabled, then any account with the GRANT ANY ROLE system privilege can perform GRANT and REVOKE operations on protected Database Vault roles.

DV_PATCH_ADMIN Database Vault Database Patch Role

The DV_PATCH_ADMIN role is used for patching operations.

In order to generate all Database Vault-related audit records in accordance with the audit policies specified in the Database Vault metadata as well as Database Vault unified audit policies, execute the DBMS_MACADM.ENABLE_DV_PATCH_ADMIN_AUDIT procedure as a user who has been granted the DV_ADMIN role before using the DV_PATCH_ADMIN role.

Temporarily grant the DV_PATCH_ADMIN role to any database administrator who is responsible for performing database patching. Before this administrator performs the patch operation, run the DBMS_MACADM.ENABLE_DV_PATCH_ADMIN_AUDIT procedure. This procedure enables realm, command rule, and rule set auditing of the actions by users who have been granted the DV_PATCH_ADMIN role, in accordance with the existing audit configuration. If you have mixed-mode auditing, then this user's actions are written to the AUDIT_TRAIL$ table. If you have pure unified auditing enabled, then you should create a unified audit policy to capture this user's actions.

After the patch operation is complete, do not immediately disable the auditing of users who are responsible for performing database patch operations. This way, you can track the actions of the DV_PATCH_ADMIN role users. For backwards compatibility, this type of auditing is disabled by default.

Privileges Associated with the DV_PATCH_ADMIN Role

The DV_PATCH_ADMIN role does not provide access to any secured data.

The DV_PATCH_ADMIN role a special Database Vault role that does not have any object or system privilege. It is designed to allow the database administrator or the user SYS to patch Database Vault enabled databases (for example, applying a database patch without disabling Database Vault). It also enables the database administrator to create users, because some patches may require the need to create new schemas.

How Are GRANT and REVOKE Operations Affected by DV_PATCH_ADMIN?

Only a user who has the DV_OWNER role can grant or revoke the DV_PATCH_ADMIN role to and from another user.

DV_PATCH_ADMIN Status When Oracle Database Vault Security Is Disabled

The protection of all Oracle Database roles is enforced only if Oracle Database Vault is enabled.

If Oracle Database Vault is disabled, then any account with the GRANT ANY ROLE system privilege can perform GRANT and REVOKE operations on protected Database Vault roles.

Guidance for Registering Database Vault When Patching in Multitenant Environments

In some multitenant environments, the DV_OWNER user is configured locally, not in the CDB root. If the database must be patched, then the DV_OWNER role must grant the DV_PATCH_ADMIN role commonly to SYS before SYS can perform the patch. However, a locally-granted DV_OWNER role cannot grant the DV_PATCH_ADMIN role commonly. To remedy this problem, you can use one of the following approaches:

  • Before you enable Oracle Database Vault, grant the DV_PATCH_ADMIN role commonly to the SYS user, and then enable Database Vault is the CDB root. In this case, the DV_OWNER user will not be able to commonly revoke or grant the DV_PATCH_ADMIN role.
  • When the database patching must occur, disable Database Vault entirely and have the SYS user grant itself the DV_PATCH_ADMIN role commonly. Then enable Database Vault and allow SYS to perform the patch operation. After patching, disable Database Vault, revoke the DV_PATCH_ADMIN role from the SYS user, and then re-enable Database Vault.
  • Before patching, have the CDB root DV_OWNER grant the DV_PATCH_ADMIN role locally to SYS. All PDBs that are Database Vault enabled will also have their PDB local DV_OWNER user grant DV_PATCH_ADMIN locally to SYS. SYS then performs the database patch operation, and then all DV_OWNER users can revoke the DV_PATCH_ADMIN role from their own container SYS user.
  • Grant the DV_OWNER role commonly to the CDB root DV_OWNER user when you run the DV_CONFIGURE procedure.

DV_ACCTMGR Database Vault Account Manager Role

The DV_ACCTMGR role is a powerful role, used for accounts management.

Use the DV_ACCTMGR role to create and maintain database accounts and database profiles. In this manual, the example DV_ACCTMGR role is assigned to a user named bea_dvacctmgr.

Privileges Associated with the DV_ACCTMGR Role

A user who has been granted this role can use the CREATE, ALTER, and DROP statements for user accounts or profiles, including users who have been granted the DV_SECANALYST, DV_AUDIT_CLEANUP, and DV_MONITOR roles.

This user also can grant the CREATE SESSION privilege to other users. However, a person who has been granted the DV_ACCTMGR role cannot perform the following operations:

  • ALTER or DROP statements on the DVSYS account

  • ALTER or DROP statements on users who have been granted the DV_ADMIN or DV_OWNER role

  • Change passwords for users who have been granted the DV_ADMIN or DV_OWNER role

A common user who has been granted the DV_ACCTMGR role in the CDB root can alter a common user or a common profile in the CDB root even if the common DV_ACCTMGR user does not have the SET CONTAINER privilege or the DV_ACCTMGR role in any PDB.

To find the full list of system and object privileges associated with the DV_ACCTMGR role, log into the database instance with sufficient privileges and then enter the following queries:

SELECT TABLE_NAME, OWNER, PRIVILEGE FROM DBA_TAB_PRIVS WHERE GRANTEE = 'DV_ACCTMGR';
SELECT PRIVILEGE FROM DBA_SYS_PRIVS WHERE GRANTEE = 'DV_ACCTMGR';

Tips:

  • If you want the DV_ACCTMGR user to be able to grant or revoke the ANY privileges for other users, then log in as user SYS with the SYSDBA privilege and grant this user the GRANT ANY PRIVILEGE and REVOKE ANY PRIVILEGE privileges. Then add this user to the Oracle System Privilege and Role Management Realm as an owner.

  • Oracle strongly recommends that you create a separate, named account for the DV_ACCTMGR user. This way, if this user forgets his or her password, you can log in as the original DV_ACCTMGR account and reset the user's password. Otherwise, you must disable Oracle Database Vault, log in as SYS or SYSTEM to recreate the password, and then re-enable Database Vault.

How Are GRANT and REVOKE Operations Affected by DV_ACCTMGR?

Any account, such as SYS or SYSTEM, with the GRANT ANY ROLE system privilege alone does not have the rights to grant this role to or revoke this role from any other database account.

The account with the DV_ACCTMGR role and the ADMIN OPTION can grant this role to any given database account and revoke this role from another account.

DV_ACCTMGR Status When Oracle Database Vault Security Is Disabled

The protection of all Oracle Database roles is enforced only if Oracle Database Vault is enabled.

If Oracle Database Vault is disabled, then any account with the GRANT ANY ROLE system privilege can perform GRANT and REVOKE operations on protected Database Vault roles.

DV_REALM_OWNER Database Vault Realm DBA Role

The DV_REALM_OWNER role is used for realm management.

Use the DV_REALM_OWNER role to manage database objects in multiple schemas that define a realm.

Grant this role to the database account who is responsible for managing one or more schema database accounts within a realm and the roles associated with the realm.

Privileges Associated with the DV_REALM_OWNER Role

A user who has been granted this role can use powerful system privileges like CREATE ANY, ALTER ANY, and DROP ANY within the realm.

However, before this user can exercise these privileges, you must make this user either a participant or an owner for the realm. See About Realm Authorization for instructions.

There are no object privileges granted to the DV_REALM_OWNER role, but it does have some system privileges. To find the full list of DV_REALM_OWNER system privileges, log into the database instance with sufficient privileges and enter the following query:

SELECT PRIVILEGE FROM DBA_SYS_PRIVS WHERE GRANTEE = 'DV_REALM_OWNER';

How Are GRANT and REVOKE Operations Affected by DV_REALM_OWNER?

The realm owner of the Oracle System Privilege and Role Management realm, such as SYS, can grant this role to any given database account or role.

Note that though this role has powerful system privileges, it does not have any Oracle Database Vault roles such as the DV_OWNER or DV_ADMIN roles.

If you want to attach this role to a specific realm, then you must assign it to an account or business-related role, then authorize that account or role in the realm.

DV_REALM_OWNER Status When Oracle Database Vault Security Is Disabled

The protection of all Oracle Database roles is enforced only if Oracle Database Vault is enabled.

If Oracle Database Vault is disabled, then any account with the GRANT ANY ROLE system privilege can perform GRANT and REVOKE operations on protected Database Vault roles.

DV_REALM_RESOURCE Database Vault Application Resource Owner Role

The DV_REALM_RESOURCE role is use for the management of realm resources.

Use the DV_REALM_RESOURCE role for operations such as creating tables, views, triggers, synonyms, and other objects that a realm would typically use.

Privileges Associated with the DV_REALM_RESOURCE Role

The DV_REALM_RESOURCE role provides the same system privileges as the Oracle RESOURCE role. In addition, both CREATE SYNONYM and CREATE VIEW are granted to this role.

There are no object privileges granted to the DV_REALM_RESOURCE role, but it does have some system privileges. To find the full list of DV_REALM_RESOURCE system privileges, log into the database instance with sufficient privileges and enter the following query:

SELECT PRIVILEGE FROM DBA_SYS_PRIVS WHERE GRANTEE = 'DV_REALM_RESOURCE';

Though this role has powerful system privileges, it does not have any Oracle Database Vault roles such as the DV_OWNER or DV_ADMIN roles.

How Are GRANT and REVOKE Operations Affected by DV_REALM_RESOURCE?

You can grant the DV_REALM_RESOURCE role to a database account that owns database tables, objects, triggers, views, procedures, and so on that are used to support any database application.

This is a role designed for a schema type database account. The realm owner of the Oracle System Privilege and Role Management realm, such as SYS, can grant this role to any database account or role.

DV_REALM_RESOURCE Status When Oracle Database Vault Security Is Disabled

The protection of all Oracle Database roles is enforced only if Oracle Database Vault is enabled.

If Oracle Database Vault is disabled, then any account with the GRANT ANY ROLE system privilege can perform GRANT and REVOKE operations on protected Database Vault roles.

DV_POLICY_OWNER Database Vault Owner Role

The DV_POLICY_OWNER role enables database users to manage to a limited degree Oracle Database Vault policies.

Privileges Associated with the DV_POLICY_OWNER Role

The DV_POLICY_OWNER role provides non-Database Vault administrative users the sufficient privileges to enable or disable a Database Vault policy, add or remove authorization to or from a realm, and use the SELECT privilege for the following database views:

  • DVSYS.POLICY_OWNER_COMMAND_RULE

  • DVSYS.POLICY_OWNER_POLICY

  • DVSYS.POLICY_OWNER_REALM

  • DVSYS.POLICY_OWNER_REALM_AUTH

  • DVSYS.POLICY_OWNER_REALM_OBJECT

  • DVSYS.POLICY_OWNER_RULE_SET

  • DVSYS.POLICY_OWNER_RULE

  • DVSYS.POLICY_OWNER_RULE_SET_RULE

Only the DV_POLICY_OWNER can query these views. Even users who have the DV_OWNER and DV_ADMIN roles cannot query these views.

The DV_POLICY_OWNER role does not have any system privileges. To find the full list of object privileges that are associated with the DV_POLICY_OWNER role, you can log into the database instance enter the following query:

SELECT TABLE_NAME, OWNER, PRIVILEGE FROM DBA_TAB_PRIVS WHERE GRANTEE = 'DV_POLICY_OWNER';

How Are GRANT and REVOKE Operations Affected by DV_POLICY_OWNER?

Users who have been granted DV_POLICY_OWNER role cannot grant or revoke this role to or from other users.

DV_POLICY_OWNER Status When Oracle Database Vault Security Is Disabled

The protection of all Oracle Database Vault roles is enforced only if Oracle Database Vault is enabled.

If Oracle Database Vault is disabled, then any account with the GRANT ANY ROLE system privilege can perform GRANT and REVOKE operations on protected Database Vault roles.

DV_PUBLIC Database Vault PUBLIC Role

The DV_PUBLIC role is no longer used.

The DV_PUBLIC role is still created during installation, but it is not granted any roles or privileges. All privileges that were granted to DV_PUBLIC in previous releases are now granted directly to the PUBLIC role.

Oracle Database Vault Accounts Created During Registration

You must create accounts for the Oracle Database Vault Owner and Oracle Database Vault Account Manager during the registration process.

You must supply an account name and password for the Oracle Database Vault Owner accounts during installation. Creating an Oracle Database Vault Account Manager is optional but strongly recommended for better separation of duty.

The Oracle Database Vault Owner account is granted the DV_OWNER role. This account can manage Oracle Database Vault roles and configuration.

The Oracle Database Vault Account Manager account is granted the DV_ACCTMGR role. This account is used to manage database user accounts to facilitate separation of duties.

If you choose not to create the Oracle Database Vault Account Manager account during installation, then both the DV_OWNER and DV_ACCTMGR roles are granted to the Oracle Database Vault Owner user account.

Table 13-1 lists the Oracle Database Vault database accounts that are needed in addition to the accounts that you create during installation.

Table 13-1 Database Accounts Used by Oracle Database Vault

Database Account Roles and Privileges Description

DVSYS

Several system and object privileges are provided to support Oracle Database Vault. The ability to create a session with this account is revoked at the end of the installation, and the account is locked.

Owner of Oracle Database Vault schema and related objects

DVF

A limited set of system privileges are provided to support Oracle Database Vault. The ability to create a session with this account is revoked at the end of the installation, and the account is locked.

Owner of the Oracle Database Vault functions that are created to retrieve factor identities

LBACSYS

This account is created when you install Oracle Label Security by using the Oracle Universal Installer custom installation option. (It is not created when you install Oracle Database Vault.) Do not drop or re-create this account.

If you plan to integrate a factor with an Oracle Label Security policy, you must assign this user as the owner of the realm that uses this factor. See Using Oracle Database Vault Factors with Oracle Label Security Policies for more information.

Owner of the Oracle Label Security schema

You can create different database accounts to implement the separation of duties requirements for Oracle Database Vault. Table 13-2 lists some model database accounts that can act as a guide. (The accounts listed in Table 13-2 serve as a guide to implementing Oracle Database Vault roles. These are not actual accounts that are created during installation.)

Table 13-2 Model Oracle Database Vault Database Accounts

Database Account Roles and Privileges Description

EBROWN

DV_OWNER (with DV_ADMIN and DV_SECANALYST)

Account that is the realm owner for the Oracle Database Vault realm. This account can:

  • Execute DVSYS packages

  • Grant privileges on the DVSYS schema objects

  • Select objects in the DVSYS schema

  • Monitor Oracle Database Vault activity

  • Run reports on the Oracle Database Vault configuration

JGODFREY

DV_ACCTMGR

Account for administration of database accounts and profiles. This account can:

  • Create, alter, and drop users

  • Create, alter, and drop profiles

  • Grant and revoke the CREATE SESSION privilege

  • Grant and revoke the DV_ACCTMGR role, but only if this account was created during the Database Vault installation (this account is created with the ADMIN option)

  • Grant and revoke the CONNECT role

Note: This account cannot create roles, or grant the RESOURCE or DBA roles.

RLAYTON

DV_ADMIN (with DV_SECANALYST)

Account to serve as the access control administrator. This account can:

  • Execute DVSYS packages

  • Monitor Oracle Database Vault activity

  • Run reports on the Oracle Database Vault configuration

Note: This account cannot directly update the DVSYS tables.

PSMYTHE

DV_SECANALYST

Account for running Oracle Database Vault reports

Backup Oracle Database Vault Accounts

As a best practice, you should maintain backup accounts for the DV_OWNER and DV_ACCTMGR roles.

The Oracle Database Vault registration process entails creating both day-to-day and backup accounts for the DV_OWNER and DV_ACCTMGR roles. You should keep and maintain these accounts as a safety measure in case a user who has been granted one of these roles forgets his or her password or leaves the organization. Then you can log in to the backup account to recover the password or grant the role to a new account. These should be only used as a backup account kept safe in a privileged account management system or an organization break-glass (or emergency password recovery) system. When you grant a user one of these roles, include the WITH ADMIN OPTION clause in the GRANT statement.

Because of the strong separation of duty that Oracle Database Vault implements, loss of access to the DV_OWNER account will force you to rebuild the database. The SYS account cannot override the DV_OWNER account