2 Overview of Oracle WebCenter Content

Oracle WebCenter Content provides a unified application for several different kinds of content management. It provides organizations with a unified repository to house unstructured content and deliver it to business users in the proper format, and within context of familiar applications to fit the way they work.

This chapter discusses the following topics:

Oracle WebCenter Content is documented in the following manuals:

2.1 Managing Content

Oracle WebCenter Content manages content that can include documents, email, electronic discussions, images, videos, and other types of digital information. This section describes those features that can be used to manage content items. It includes the following sections:

2.1.1 The Content Server

Oracle WebCenter Content Server is the foundation for a variety of Oracle content management features. It provides a flexible, secure, centralized, web-based repository that manages all phases of the content life cycle from creation and approval to publishing, searching, expiration, and archiving or disposition.

Every contributor throughout the organization can easily contribute content from native desktop applications, efficiently manage business content via rich library services, and securely access that content anywhere using a web browser or mobile app.

Oracle WebCenter Content Server offers a number of components that provide advanced functionality. Some of these components are installed with the core system and are available out-of-the-box, while other components can be enabled after installation.

All content, regardless of content type, is stored in the web repository or database for management, reuse and access. While stored in the repository, all types of content ranging from email, discussions, documents, reports, spreadsheets and records to images, multimedia or other digital formats receive the same set of fundamental core services.

The following sections describe some of the most commonly used Content Server features: Organizing Content Items in Folders

FrameworkFolders is an optional component that is automatically installed with Content Server. When enabled, Folders provides a hierarchical folder interface similar to a conventional file system, for organizing and locating some or all of the content in the repository. It provides a scalable, enterprise solution and is intended to replace the earlier Contribution Folders (Folders_g component) interface. You should not enable both FrameworkFolders and Folders_g at the same time.

Query folders or saved searches can be used to return content based on a query associated with the folder. These types of folders can also have retention dispositions associated with the folder.

In addition, a migration utility is available to move folders and folder content from the earlier Folders_g based structure to the FrameworkFolders based structure.

For more information, see Organizing Content in Managing Oracle WebCenter Content. Organizing Groups of Content Items in Folios

Content Folios is an optional component that is automatically installed with Content Server. It provides a quick and effective way to assemble, track, and access logical groupings of multiple content items from within the secure environment of Content Server. For example, all items relevant to an upcoming brochure, such as images, logos, legal disclosures, and ad copy, can be assembled and sent through a workflow process. After they are approved, associated content can be downloaded and sent for print.

Or perhaps a new project requires a virtual place to assemble all relevant content items in a particular hierarchy, whenever they are checked in, with restricted access to particular areas of the hierarchy. Or a video may need to be associated and tracked with release waivers and narration text. All this can be done with Content Folios.

Technically, a content folio is an XML file checked into the repository that uses elements to define the hierarchy of nodes, slots, and specified content items in Content Server. In practice, a content folio is a logical grouping, or a framework in which content stored in the repository can be structured. A simple folio is a flat container, while advanced folios can nest content in a hierarchy within folders. In an advanced folio, the hierarchy may be established prior to assembling content items, or it may be created during or subsequent to assembling the items.

You can add content to existing folios or you can lock them to prevent further changes. You can add content items to a simple folio by searching Content Server, and to an advanced folio by checking new items into the repository or by searching for content that is checked in — all through the folio interface. An advanced folio can also contain hyperlinks to external resources such as web sites and shared network drives.

For more information, see Managing Content Folios in Managing Oracle WebCenter Content. Managing Content Using Your Desktop

Oracle WebCenter Content: Desktop provides a set of embedded applications that enable you to seamlessly integrate your desktop experience with WebCenter Content Server. Specifically, it provides a convenient access to the repository from Microsoft Windows Explorer, desktop applications like Microsoft Office applications (Word, Excel, and PowerPoint), and email clients like Microsoft Outlook and Lotus Notes.

As a result, you can easily manage files in the repository and share files directly from your desktop rather than logging into Content Server and using a web browser.

For more information, see Using Oracle WebCenter Content: Desktop. Converting Documents into Web Pages

Dynamic Converter is a transformation technology and on-demand publishing solution for critical business documents. With Dynamic Converter, you can easily convert any business document into a web page for a specified audience without use of the native application used to create that document. The benefits are immediate. Information can be exchanged freely without the bottleneck of proprietary applications.

When a web browser first requests a document, a set of rules are applied to determine how that document should appear as a web page. These rules can be defined in a template, a core component of Dynamic Converter.

Dynamic Converter offers a number of benefits to the user:

  • Business documents can be easily viewed in a web browser.

  • Native applications (such as Adobe Acrobat, Microsoft Word, and so forth) are not required.

  • Multiple renditions of a document are available for different devices (web browsers, wireless devices, and so forth)

  • Numerous business document types, including legacy formats, are supported.

For more information, see Dynamic Converter Online Help and Introduction to Dynamic Converter in Managing Oracle WebCenter Content. Categorizing Content Checked In to the Repository

Content Categorizer provides organizations with the capability to use one or more taxonomies within WebCenter Content Server. In addition to its out-of-the-box categorization tools and functionality, Content Categorizer provides an open API for third-party categorization engines. With this open architecture, users can take advantage of the rule sets and taxonomies provided by third-party categorization tools. As a result, organizations can choose the categorization engine that best fits their business needs. For example, organizations can use their existing vertical industry taxonomy to organize their managed content into specific categories and subcategories.

Content Categorizer enables administrators and content contributors to automatically, uniformly and intelligently categorize content as it is checked into the repository. Perfect for loading large amounts of existing content into Content Server, Content Categorizer can be used in batch mode, freeing administrators of the responsibility of assigning metadata to each individual content item. End users, on the other hand, will appreciate Content Categorizer for its ability to suggest appropriate metadata as they check in new pieces of content.

To suggest a category or specific value for each of the metadata fields, Content Categorizer uses a set of rules to analyze content items. Some automatic categorization rules include: direct correlation using file properties or text references; score computations based on word matching; sentence or paragraph summaries automatically pulled from files; or certain language pattern recognition. Rule sets can also be used from other third party categorization engines.

For more information, see Categorizing Content in Managing Oracle WebCenter Content. Tracking Content Access

Content Tracker monitors activity on a Content Server instance and records selected details of those activities. This enables detailed content analysis, providing web teams with crucial information to strategically manage and enable efficient delivery of relevant information.

Content Tracker uses data gathered in the web server log files, web filter log files, and Content Server's database tables to collect information regarding the content items accessed. This information could include metadata, user profile data as well as information from the users themselves. Content Tracker then populates this information into database tables in any RDBMS database such as Oracle or Microsoft SQL Server.

For more information, see Tracking Content Access in Managing Oracle WebCenter Content. Using Watermarks in PDF Files

PDF Watermark is an optional component that is automatically installed with WebCenter Content Server. If enabled, it allows watermarks to be applied to PDF files generated by PDF Converter (static watermarking) and checked back in to the repository.

Existing PDF files already residing on the repository can also be watermarked (dynamic watermarking). Dynamic watermarks are generated as needed and can contain variable information (for example, user name, date and time of download, or file name). System administrators can define variables and set up specific conditions for generating dynamic watermarks.

PDF Watermark can also add security features to PDF files as they are downloaded for viewing. Access settings can be enabled or disabled, such as printing or modifying the file.

Static watermarking is conducted in cooperation with Inbound Refinery and PDF Converter. Only content that is converted to PDF by the PDF Converter can be watermarked. You can request a static watermark for content that you expect to be converted to PDF by entering a valid PDF Watermark Template ID (dDocName) in the xPdfwTemplateID metadata field during checkin.

Content checked in by an automated process, for example WebDAV or BatchLoader, can also be given a static watermark, subject to the IBR/PDFC restriction described above and provided the xPdfwTemplateID field contains a valid template ID.

Dynamic watermarking of PDF content is rules-based.The PDF Watermark Administration screen is provided to define rulesets via the Rules tab. If a given request for a PDF document satisfies one of the pre-defined rules, the template associated with that rule is used to watermark a copy of the content before the copy is returned to the requesting user. Only the weblayout form will be watermarked, the original PDF file is unchanged in its vault location.

For more information, see PDF Watermark in Managing Oracle WebCenter Content and About PDF Watermark in Using Oracle WebCenter Content. Organizing Content Items in Content Basket

Content Basket enables you to quickly find, group, and download multiple content items. For example, you may need to send an organization's logo along with several articles for your newsletter to a printing agency, or email a group of documents to a vendor. With Content Basket, you can select items to add to your content basket from any content information or search results page.

After an item is added to your content basket, you can access the content basket from the My Content Server tray and download a single compressed file of the content items you need.

For more information, see Folios and Content Basket in Using Oracle WebCenter Content.

2.1.2 Business and Oracle WebCenter Content Application Integration

The following adapters can be used to integrate business applications with Oracle WebCenter Content:

2.2 Managing Digital Assets

Several solutions are available for managing digital assets such as graphics and videos, and converting those assets for use in a Content Server repository.

This section discusses the following topics:

2.2.1 Managing Images and Videos

The Digital Asset Manager (DAM) feature enables you to define and provide images and videos in specified formats and sizes for download by the people in your organization who need them. This helps your organization maintain consistent standards for branding and digital content use.

DAM creates multiple formats of digital assets automatically when an image or video is checked into Content Server and lists the formats under one content ID. This ensures that the asset, such as a corporate logo or promotional video, maintains a standard size and quality in the multiple formats required by your organization, while providing the content management and workflow features of Content Server. For example, one person can download images of the logo for use on a web-site, and another can download and bundle images of the same logo for use in office presentations or print collateral, all from a single digital asset checked into the repository.

Digital assets are valuable electronic images and videos to be made available within your organization in multiple output formats, called a rendition. The quantity and type of renditions are defined by the system administrator in rendition sets. A user selects a rendition set used to create renditions of a digital asset at the time the asset is checked into the repository.

For DAM to work, Inbound Refinery must be installed and properly configured to work with the content server on which DAM is installed.

For more information, see Digital Asset Manager in Managing Oracle WebCenter Content. Managing Images

The Image Manager feature enables users to quickly find, group, and download images of various sizes and resolutions. For example, an organization's logo may need to be available in a variety of sizes for advertisements, web pages, and presentation. At check-in, the image is automatically converted into the defined formats and sizes. Users can then search for the image using standard metadata, group renditions into a content basket, and download a single compressed file of the image renditions they need.

Image Manager installs the following pre-defined rendition sets:

  • ThumbnailOnly

  • BasicRenditions

  • MultipleFormats Managing Videos

The Video Manager feature enables users to quickly find, group, and download videos of various sizes and resolutions. For example, a company training video may need to be available in a variety of sizes for streaming on an intranet, presenting to an audience, or copying to tape. At check-in, the video is automatically converted into the defined formats and sizes. Users can then search for the video using standard metadata, group renditions into a content basket, and download a single compressed file of the video renditions they need. Third-party applications such as FlipFactory and Vantage, can be used to convert video files to multiple formats. Command Line Tools can also be used to create video renditions. For more information, see Working with Images and Videos in Using Oracle WebCenter Content.

2.2.2 Converting Native Content to Different Formats

Several different conversion features are available to publish native content items in different formats as needed at your site. The following conversion features are discussed in this section:

For more information, see Managing Native Content Conversion in Managing Oracle WebCenter Content. Creating Thumbnail Files

WebCenter Content Server now optionally provides basic thumbnail creation for supported file types or you can use Inbound Refinery, an add-on module to Content Server that manages all file conversions at the input side of Content Server (hence Inbound). It also provides the ability to generate thumbnails. Files are converted upon check-in of the content into Content Server.

Inbound Refinery includes Outside/In Image Export, which can be used for the following:

  • To create thumbnails of files checked into the repository. Thumbnails are small preview images of content. Outside In Image Export can also be used to create thumbnails of PDF files generated by PDF Converter.

  • To convert files checked into the repository to multi-page TIFF files as the primary web-viewable rendition.

In addition to the conversions that Inbound Refinery can perform using Outside In Image Export, several conversion components are available for purchase and use with Inbound Refinery. The additional types of files that Inbound Refinery can convert, and the result of each conversion, depend on the conversion components that are installed on the Inbound Refinery computer.

The Refinery Process

When a file is checked into the repository, a copy of the native file is stored in the native file repository (the vault directory). The native file is the format in which the file was originally created (for example, Microsoft Word).

If the file format is configured to be converted, it is placed in a queue for further processing. At set intervals, Inbound Refinery checks the queue. If a file is present, Inbound Refinery calls the appropriate conversion add-on to perform the actual conversion. The exact conversion process depends on how Inbound Refinery is set up. In some situations, conversion may be done entirely in the background, with no noticeable interaction. In others, a file may be opened in its native application and printed to a PostScript file, which is subsequently translated into a different format (for example, a PDF file). In that case, windows are automatically opened and closed on the Inbound Refinery machine. The converted file (for example, a web-viewable PDF file) is then copied to the web-viewable file repository (the weblayout directory). Users can then view the file through their web browser.

If the file format is not set up to be converted (or if the conversion fails), no web-viewable file is created and a copy of the native file is placed in the weblayout directory. This means that the file is passed through to the library in its native format. Users must then have the native application installed on their computer to view the file. Converting Content to PDF

The PDF Converter feature enables the automatic publishing of native content items to web-viewable PDF (Portable Document Format) files. A PDF rendition of the native format is immediately generated upon check-in of new content into the repository. This PDF rendition allows web viewing of that content item without requiring users to install native applications. PDF Converter converts a large number of file formats to PDF, such as Adobe Framemaker, Illustrator, InDesign, PageMaker, and Photoshop as well as Hangul, Just System Ichitaro, Microsoft Office, Microsoft Visio, and Oracle OpenOffice.

PDF Converter optimizes non-optimized PDF files and also processes links such as Microsoft Word hyperlinks, "mailto" links, and table-of-content links. Converting Content to XML

The XML Converter feature gives XML-based access to information in unstructured business content. With XML Converter, content contributed to Content Server is converted to XML at the time of check-in. XML Converter converts many document types and supports the leading word processing formats, such as Microsoft Word, Lotus WordPro, and Corel WordPerfect. It also includes support for popular spreadsheet, presentation, and graphic formats.

When a new content item is checked into the repository, XML Converter converts the content to either a SearchML or FlexionDoc format. FlexionDoc is very verbose and captures all information, including attributes such as styles in a Microsoft Word document. From there, administrators have the ability to check in different XSL files that would then convert the SearchML or FlexionDoc document to any XML format.

Administrators also have the option to use a DTD (Document Type Definition) to validate the XML generated from the XSL transformation. If there is an error in conversion, all the relevant documents (for example, the original SearchML or FlexionDoc file, the XML file generated after XSL transformation, and the error report) are all checked in and can be sent through a workflow for the developer/administrator to debug.

Because the XML file is stored and managed within the web-based repository, it can be accessed from any location using a web browser, making it available for other enterprise applications, data exchange, re-use and further conversion into additional formats. XML Converter provides an out-of-the box XML solution with enterprise level performance, while ensuring compatibility with the W3C standards specifications. Converting Tiff Files to PDF

The Tiff Converter feature enables organizations to check TIFF (Tagged Image File Format) image files into Content Server and then publish these as multiple-page PDF files.

Tiff Converter uses either CVISION CVista PdfCompressor or Adobe Acrobat Capture to convert single-page TIFF files, multiple-page TIFF files, or zip files containing multiple TIFF files (TIFZ, TIZ or ZIP file extensions) to a single PDF file. Additionally, during the TIFF to PDF conversion, you can choose to perform Optical Character Recognition (OCR), thus enabling users to perform full-text searches of managed TIFF files in Content Server. You can also use Oracle WebCenter Enterprise Capture to convert TIFF files to searchable PDF documents.


CVISION CVista PdfCompressor and Adobe Acrobat Capture are third-party products.

Tiff Converter is very useful in scanning applications. It automatically converts TIFF images to PDF format upon check-in to the repository for easy viewing of legacy content. The conversion of the released TIFF image can occur on the client side or server side and uses the Adobe Acrobat Capture technology. With TIFF Converter, users can easily view and access managed legacy content (scanned documents) via a browser with the Adobe Reader.

2.3 Managing Web Content

Oracle WebCenter Content provides several tools that can be used to manage content on web sites, including how that content is deployed and stored.

This section discusses the following topic:

2.3.1 About Site Studio

Site Studio is a web development application suite that offers a comprehensive approach to designing, building, and maintaining enterprise-scale web sites. Everything associated with the web site, including site assets (such as templates, graphics, CSS files, and so on) and all site content, is stored and managed in the content server. Site Studio enables organizations to maintain accurate, timely, and current web content with consistent branding and presentation across all corporate sites.

Some of the website creation and contribution features include:

  • In-context contribution and updates directly from the website

  • Hierarchical website structure and navigation

  • Template-based pages comprised of multiple regions

  • Separation of content and presentation

  • Separation of navigational structure and its presentation

  • Secure, regional-level content authoring and editing

  • WYSIWYG XML-based contribution forms

  • Reusable content and XML-based fragments

  • Single-source content management

  • Multi-site management

Organizations may also prefer to build websites using Site Studio if they would like to distribute website development to multiple site designers, yet have a centralized team of developers maintain control over the brand and look-and-feel. Site Studio gives developers the ability to create customizable libraries to provide site designers with reusable drag-and-drop layouts, fragments, navigation, and code that integrates with back-end applications for developing their own unique websites.

With Site Studio's customizable library as well as its built-in framework for designing websites, these site designers can create robust and well-architected sites with little or no knowledge of HTML or other programming languages.

Oracle Site Studio is documented in the following manuals:

2.4 Managing Records Retention

Oracle WebCenter Content: Records offers records management features that allow organizations to track and preserve content according to a retention schedule. When the content has fulfilled its purpose in the organization, it can be disposed of or archived. For the records management features to work, you must enable the optional Records component on WebCenter Content Server.

The focus of records management tends to be the preservation of content for historical, legal, or archival purposes while also performing retention management functions. The focus of retention management tends to be the scheduled elimination of content in which the costs of retaining content outweighs the value of keeping it.

Oracle WebCenter Content combines both record and retention management in one system. You can use it to track and preserve content as needed, or dispose of content when it is no longer required.

This section covers the following topics:

For information about using an adapter to integrate with Content Server, see Managing Records Retention with Adapters.

For more information about Records management, see:

2.4.1 Configuring and Managing Records

You can choose which records management options are installed at your site. By choosing specific options, you determine which components will be enabled and are ready for use. The following configurations can be used:

  • Minimal: enables the minimal amount of functionality and excludes some disposition actions and most of the features.

  • Typical: enables all disposition actions and all features except for DoD Configuration, Classified Topics, and Email. This option does enable Physical Content Manager (PCM).

  • DoD Baseline: enables the features from a Typical installation with the addition of DoD Configuration and Email.

  • DoD Classified: enables all features.

  • Custom: enables the ability to choose a variety of features. Note that some disposition actions are dependent on other actions. If you select an action, dependent actions are also automatically selected.

Different reasons may exist for why organizations need to retain content. Many organizations are subject to regulations that require the retention of information for a specified period such as compliance with Sarbanes-Oxley or government regulations such as DoD 5015.2. An organization may have a litigation-related need for effective and efficient retention management. Or an organization may wish to provide a uniform infrastructure for retrieving and sharing content across an organization. Records management options can be configured and customized to fit any of these business needs.

In addition to internal content (electronic items stored within WebCenter Content Server), Oracle WebCenter Content can also manage external content. An external retained content item can be in a variety of formats, both physical or electronic. If the source file is not specifically stored in Content Server, then it is considered external. The software can manage the disposition schedule, search metadata associated with the external file, and manage an electronic rendition of an external file. An electronic rendition can either be checked in as a primary file of an external item, or be filed as a separate file, and then linked to the external file metadata.

Oracle WebCenter Content can be used to manage classified content which requires protection against unauthorized disclosure (for example, because it contains information sensitive to the national security or because it is essential for a corporation's operation). Options can be chosen during configuration to insure that the system complies with the DoD 5015.2 standard (including Chapter 4). The software has been certified by the Joint Interoperability Test Command (JITC) to comply with that standard.

2.4.2 The Retention Process

The following steps outline the basic workflow of retained content:

  1. The retention schedule and any required components are created, such as triggers, periods, classifications, and custom security or metadata fields.

  2. Items are filed into the retention schedule by users. The filed items assume the disposition schedules of their assigned category.

  3. Disposition rules are processed in accordance with the defined disposition schedules, which usually have a retention period. The processing is activated by either a system-derived trigger or custom trigger. The trigger could affect one or more items simultaneously.

  4. Whenever a disposition event is due for action (as activated by a trigger), an email notification is sent to the person responsible for processing the events. The same is true for review. The pending events and reviews are displayed in the user interface pages accessed from the emailed Retention Assignments links.

  5. The records administrator or privileged user performs the review process. This is a manual process.

  6. The records administrator processes the disposition actions in the pending events pages. This is a manual process.

Many disposition schedules are time-based according to a predictable schedule. For example, content is often filed and then destroyed after a certain number of years. The system tracks when the affected content is due for action. Notification email is sent, and the content is routed to the Retention Assignments area.

The person responsible for the pending events reviews then processes the content accordingly. Available menu actions are context-sensitive according to the state of the item. For example, a retention folder due for its final disposition step of destruction would have the Destroy actions available, but not the Archive actions.

In contrast, time-event and event-based dispositions must be triggered with a non-system‐derived trigger (a trigger that was defined for a particular scenario). For example, when a pending legal case starts litigation, the records administrator must enable the custom trigger and set its activation date because the start date information is external. Custom triggers enable you to define event and time-event based disposition actions based on the occurrence of a particular event.

The following illustration shows a typical life cycle of a record that is retained and then processed (disposed).

Graphic shows typical life cycle of a record

2.5 Managing Records Retention with Adapters

An adapter provides a bridge between Oracle WebCenter Content with its records management features enabled, which contains the content management policies, and an adapter server's content vault (which stores additional content).

Multiple records adapters can be used with Oracle WebCenter Content to manage an enterprise's content needs. For more information about records management, see Managing Records Retention.

2.5.1 Adapter Architecture

Following is the major component involved in a typical Content Server Adapter:

  • Content Server Adapter: Communicates between Oracle WebCenter Content with its records management features enabled and the Content Server Adapter's content vault. The Content Server Adapter provides common retention functionality as follows:

    • Identifying the content in the repository that is of interest to the Records system.

    • Performing searches and declaring the applicable content items to the Records system.

    • Performing disposition actions on the existing content items when their retention periods end.

    • Establishing and removing holds and freezes on the content items, as necessary.


Content Server Adapter can only communicate with an Oracle WebCenter Content Records system from 11g .