25 Administering the Audit Trail

Users who have been granted the AUDIT_ADMIN role can manage the audit trail, archive the audit trail, and purge audit trail records.

Managing the Unified Audit Trail

Auditing is enabled by default, but you can control when audit records are written to disk.

When and Where Are Audit Records Created?

Auditing is always enabled. Oracle Database generates audit records during or after the execution phase of the audited SQL statements.

Oracle Database individually audits SQL statements inside PL/SQL program units, as necessary, when the program unit is run.

To improve read performance of the unified audit trail, the unified audit records are written immediately to disk to an internal relational table in the AUDSYS schema. In the previous release, the unified audit records were written to SecureFile LOBs. If you had migrated to unified auditing in Oracle Database 12c release 1 (12.1), then you can manually transfer the unified audit records from the SecureFile LOBS to this internal table. If the version of the database that you are using supports partitioned tables, then this internal table is a partitioned table. In this case, you can modify the partition interval of the table by using the DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.ALTER_PARTITION_INTERVAL procedure. The partitioned version of this table is based on the EVENT_TIMESTAMP timestamp as a partition key with a default partition interval of one month. If the database version does not support partitioning, then the internal table is a regular, non-partitioned table.

The generation and insertion of an audit trail record is independent of the user transaction being committed. That is, even if a user transaction is rolled back, the audit trail record remains committed.

Statement and privilege audit options from unified audit policies that are in effect at the time a database user connects to the database remain in effect for the duration of the session. When the session is already active, setting or changing statement or privilege unified audit options does not take effect in that session. The modified statement or privilege audit options take effect only when the current session ends and a new session is created.

In contrast, changes to schema object audit options become immediately effective for current sessions.

By default, audit trail records are written to the AUDSYS schema in the SYSAUX tablespace. You can designate a different tablespace, including one that is encrypted, by using the DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.SET_AUDIT_TRAIL_LOCATION procedure.

See Also:

Activities That Are Mandatorily Audited

Certain security sensitive database activities are always audited and such audit configuration cannot be disabled.

The UNIFIED_AUDIT_TRAIL data dictionary view captures activities from administrative users such as SYSDBA, SYSBACKUP, and SYSKM. You do not need to audit the unified audit trail. The unified audit trail resides in a read-only table in the AUDSYS schema. Hence, DMLs are not permitted on the unified audit trail views. Even DML and DDL operations on the underlying dictionary tables from AUDSYS schema are not permitted.

The SYSTEM_PRIVILEGE_USED column shows the type of administrative privilege that was used for the activity.

The following audit-related activities, such as modifications to audit policies, are mandatorily audited:

  • CREATE AUDIT POLICY

  • ALTER AUDIT POLICY

  • DROP AUDIT POLICY

  • AUDIT

  • NOAUDIT

  • EXECUTE of the DBMS_FGA PL/SQL package

  • EXECUTE of the DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT PL/SQL package

  • ALTER TABLE attempts on the AUDSYS audit trail table (remember that this table cannot be altered)

  • Top level statements by the administrative users SYS, SYSDBA, SYSOPER, SYSASM, SYSBACKUP, SYSDG, and SYSKM, until the database opens. When the database opens, Oracle Database audits these users using the audit configurations in the system—not just the ones that were applied using the BY clause in the AUDIT statement, for example, but those that were applied for all users when AUDIT statement does not have a BY clause or when the EXCEPT clause was used and these users were not excluded.

  • All user-issued DML statements on the SYS.AUD$ and SYS.FGA_LOG$ dictionary tables

  • Any attempts to modify the data or metadata of the unified audit internal table. SELECT statements on this table are not audited by default or mandatorily.

  • All configuration changes that are made to Oracle Database Vault

How Do Cursors Affect Auditing?

For each execution of an auditable operation within a cursor, Oracle Database inserts one audit record into the audit trail.

Events that cause cursors to be reused include the following:

  • An application, such as Oracle Forms, holding a cursor open for reuse

  • Subsequent execution of a cursor using new bind variables

  • Statements executed within PL/SQL loops where the PL/SQL engine optimizes the statements to reuse a single cursor

Auditing is not affected by whether or not a cursor is shared. Each user creates her or his own audit trail records on first execution of the cursor.

Writing the Unified Audit Trail Records to the AUDSYS Schema

Oracle Database automatically writes audit records to an internal relational table in the AUDSYS schema.

In Oracle Database 12c release 1 (12.1), you had the option of queuing the audit records in memory (queued-write mode) and be written periodically to the AUDSYS schema audit table. However, starting with Oracle Database 12c release 2 (12.2), immediate-write mode and queued-write mode are deprecated. The parameters that controlled them (UNIFIED_AUDIT_SGA_QUEUE_SIZE, DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.AUDIT_TRAIL_IMMEDIATE_WRITE, and DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.AUDIT_TRAIL_QUEUED_WRITE), while still viewable, no longer have any functionality.

The new functionality of having audit records always written to a relational table in the AUDSYS schema prevents the risk of audit records being lost in the event of an instance crash or during a SHUTDOWN ABORT operation. The new functionality also improves the performance of the audit trail and the database as a whole.

If you have upgraded from Oracle Database 12c release 1 (12.1) and migrated to unified auditing in that release, then Oracle recommends that you use the DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.TRANSFER_UNIFIED_AUDIT_RECORDS procedure to transfer the audit records as generated in the previous release to the AUDSYS audit internal table. Oracle Database Upgrade Guide provides information about transferring unified audit records after an upgrade.

Writing the Unified Audit Trail Records to SYSLOG or the Windows Event Viewer

You can write the unified audit trail records to SYSLOG or the Windows Event Viewer by setting an initialization parameter.

About Writing the Unified Audit Trail Records to SYSLOG or the Windows Event Viewer

With this feature, you can write some of the key Unified Audit fields to SYSLOG or the Windows Event Viewer.

You can configure this feature on both UNIX and Microsoft Windows systems. On Windows systems, you either enable it or disable it. If enabled, it writes the records to the Windows Event Viewer.

On UNIX systems, you can fine-tune the capture of unified audit trail records for SYSLOG to specify the facility where the SYSLOG records are sent and the severity level of the records (for example, DEBUG if it is capturing debugging-related messages).

Table 25-1 maps the names given to the unified audit records fields that are written to SYSLOG and the Windows Event Viewer to the corresponding column names in the UNIFIED_AUDIT_TRAIL view.

Table 25-1 Audit Record Field Names for SYSLOG and the Windows Event Viewer

Field Name Column Name in UNIFIED_AUDIT_TRAIL Column Type Column Description

TYPE

AUDIT_TYPE

NUMBER

Type of the audit record

DBID

DBID

NUMBER

Database identifier

SESID

SESSION_ID

NUMBER

Session identifier

CLIENTID

CLIENT_IDENTIFIER

VARCHAR2

Client identifier in the session

ENTRYID

ENTRY_ID

NUMBER

Identifier for each audit record in the system

STMTID

STATEMENT_ID

NUMBER

Identifier for each statement run in the system

DBUSER

DB_USERNAME

VARCHAR2

Session user

CURUSER

CURRENT_USER

VARCHAR2

Effective user for the audited event

ACTION

ACTION

NUMBER

Action code of the audited event

RETCODE

RETURN_CODE

NUMBER

Return code for the audited event

SCHEMA

OBJECT_SCHEMA

VARCHAR2

Schema name of the object

OBJNAME

OBJECT_NAME

VARCHAR2

Name of the object

Enabling syslog and Windows Event Viewer Captures for the Unified Audit Trail

To write a subset of unified audit trail records to the UNIX syslog or to the Windows Event Viewer, you must set the UNIFIED_AUDIT_SYSTEMLOG initialization parameter.

The default for UNIFIED_AUDIT_SYSTEMLOG is FALSE on Microsoft Windows systems. On UNIX systems, there is no default. In an Oracle Database Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) environment, set this parameter to the same value on each Oracle RAC instance.
  1. Locate the init.ora initialzation file, which by default is in the the $ORACLE_HOME/dbs directory.
  2. Edit the init.ora file to include the UNIFIED_AUDIT_SYSTEMLOG parameter.
    • On Windows, set UNIFIED_AUDIT_SYSTEMLOG to either TRUE or FALSE. TRUE writes the syslog values to the Windows Event Viewer; FALSE disables the parameter. For example:
      UNIFIED_AUDIT_SYSTEMLOG = TRUE
    • On UNIX systems, use the following syntax:
      UNIFIED_AUDIT_SYSTEMLOG = 'facility_clause.priority_clause'

      In this specification:

      • facility_clause refers to the facility to which you will write the audit trail records. Valid choices are USER and LOCAL. If you enter LOCAL, then optionally append 07 to designate a local custom facility for the syslog records.

      • priority_clause refers to the type of warning in which to categorize the record. Valid choices are NOTICE, INFO, DEBUG, WARNING, ERR, CRIT, ALERT, and EMERG.

    For example:
    UNIFIED_AUDIT_SYSTEMLOG = 'LOCAL7.EMERG'
  3. Exit SQL*Plus.
  4. Add the audit file destination to the syslog configuration file /etc/syslog.conf.
    For example, assuming you had set the UNIFIED_AUDIT_SYSTEMLOG to LOCAL7.EMERG, enter the following:
    local7.emerg /var/log/audit.log

    This setting logs all emergency messages to the /var/log/audit.log file.

  5. Restart the syslog logger.
    $/etc/rc.d/init.d/syslog restart

    Now, all audit records will be captured in the file /var/log/audit.log through the syslog daemon.

  6. Log back in to the database instance.
  7. Restart the database.
    For example:
    SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE
    STARTUP

When Audit Records Are Written to the Operating System

In situations where the database table is unable to accept unified audit records, these records will be written to operating system spillover audit files (.bin format).

The ability to write to the database table can fail in situations such as the following: the audit tablespace is offline, the tablespace is read-only, the tablespace is full, the database is read-only, and so on. The unified audit records will continue to be written to OS spillover files until the OS disk space becomes full. At this point, when there is no room in the OS for the audit records, user auditable transactions will fail with ORA-02002  error while writing to audit trail errors. To prevent this problem, Oracle recommends that you purge the audit trail on a regular basis.

Moving Operating System Audit Records into the Unified Audit Trail

Audit records that have been written to the spillover audit files can be moved to the unified audit trail database table.

When the database is not writable (such as during database mounts), if the database is closed, or if it is read-only, then Oracle Database writes the audit records to these external files. The default location for these external files is the $ORACLE_BASE/audit/$ORACLE_SID directory.

You can load the files into the database by running the DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.LOAD_UNIFIED_AUDIT_FILES procedure. Be aware that if you are moving a large number of operating system audit records in the external files, performance may be affected.

To move the audit records in these files to the AUDSYS schema audit table when the database is writable:

  1. Log into the database instance as a user who has been granted the AUDIT_ADMIN role.

    For example:

    CONNECT aud_admin
    Enter password: password
    Connected.
    

    In a multitenant environment, log into the PDB in which you want to move the audit trail records to the unified audit trail.

    For example:

    CONNECT aud_admin@hrpdb
    Enter password: password
    Connected.
    

    To find the available PDBs, run the show pdbs command. To check the current PDB, run the show con_name command.

  2. Ensure that the database is open and writable.

    For a non-CDB architecture, to find if the database is open and writable, query the V$DATABASE view.

    For example, in a CDB environment:

    SELECT NAME, OPEN_MODE FROM V$DATABASE;
    
    NAME            OPEN_MODE  
    --------------- ---------- 
    HRPDB           READ WRITE 
    

    In a multitenant environment, you can run the show pdbs command to find information about PDBs associated with the current instance.

  3. Run the DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.LOAD_UNIFIED_AUDIT_FILES procedure.
    EXEC DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.LOAD_UNIFIED_AUDIT_FILES;
    

The audit records are loaded into the AUDSYS schema audit table immediately, and then deleted from the $ORACLE_BASE/audit/$ORACLE_SID directory.

Disabling Unified Auditing

You can disable unified auditing.

  1. Disable any unified audit policies that are currently enabled.

    This step prevents the database from going into mixed mode auditing after you complete this procedure.

    1. Log into the database instance as a user who has been granted the AUDIT_ADMIN role.

    2. Query the POLICY_NAME and ENABLED_OPT columns of the AUDIT_UNIFIED_ENABLED_POLICIES data dictionary view to find unified audit policies that are enabled.

    3. Run the NOAUDIT POLICY statement to disable each enabled policy.

      For example, to disable a policy that had been applied to user psmith:

      NOAUDIT POLICY audit_pol BY psmith;
  2. Connect as user SYS with the SYSOPER privilege.

    CONNECT sys as sysoper
    Enter password: password
    

    In a multitenant environment, this command connects you to the root.

  3. Shut down the database.

    For example:

    SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE
    

    In a multitenant environment, this command shuts down all PDBs in the CDB.

  4. Depending on your platform, do the following:

    • UNIX systems: Run the following commands:

      cd $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/lib
      make -f ins_rdbms.mk uniaud_off ioracle
      
    • Windows systems: Rename the %ORACLE_HOME%/bin/orauniaud12.dll file to %ORACLE_HOME%/bin/orauniaud12.dll.dbl.

    In a multitenant environment, these actions disable unified auditing in all PDBs in the CDB.

  5. In SQL*Plus, restart the database.

    STARTUP
    

    In a multitenant environment, this command restarts all PDBs in the CDB.

Exporting and Importing the Unified Audit Trail Using Oracle Data Pump

You can include the unified audit trail in Oracle Database Pump export and import dump files.

The unified audit trail is automatically included in either full database or partial database export and import operations using Oracle Data Pump. For example, for a partial database export operation, if you wanted to export only the unified audit trail tables, then you could enter the following expdp command:

expdp system 
full=y 
directory=aud_dp_dir 
logfile=audexp_log.log 
dumpfile=audexp_dump.dmp 
version=12.02.00.02.00 
INCLUDE=AUDIT_TRAILS

Password: password

Next, you can import all the exported content by reading the export dump file. This operation imports only the unified audit trial tables.

impdp system 
full=y 
directory=aud_dp_dir 
dumpfile=audexp_dump.dmp 
logfile=audimp_log.log

Password: password
You do not need to perform any special configuration to achieve this operation. However, you must have the EXP_FULL_DATABASE role if you are performing the export operation and the IMP_FULL_DATABASE role if you are performing the import operation.

Archiving the Audit Trail

You can archive the traditional operating system, unified database, and traditional database audit trails.

Archiving the Traditional Operating System Audit Trail

You can create an archive of the traditional operating system audit files after you have upgraded Oracle Database.

To archive the traditional operating system audit trail from an upgraded database, use your platform-specific operating system tools to create an archive of the traditional operating system audit files.

  • Use the following methods to archive the traditional operating system audit files:

    • Use Oracle Audit Vault and Database Firewall. You install Oracle Audit Vault and Database Firewall separately from Oracle Database.

    • Create tape or disk backups. You can create a compressed file of the audit files, and then store it on tapes or disks. Consult your operating system documentation for more information.

Afterwards, you should purge (delete) the traditional operating system audit records both to free audit trail space and to facilitate audit trail management.

Archiving the Unified and Traditional Database Audit Trails

You should periodically archive and then purge the audit trail to prevent it from growing too large.

Archiving and purging both frees audit trail space and facilitates the purging of the database audit trail.

You can create an archive of the unified and traditional database audit trail by using Oracle Audit Vault and Database Firewall. You install Oracle Audit Vault and Database Firewall separately from Oracle Database.

After you complete the archive, you can purge the database audit trail contents.

  • To archive the unified, traditional standard, and traditional fine-grained audit records, copy the relevant records to a normal database table.

    For example:

    INSERT INTO table SELECT ... FROM UNIFIED_AUDIT_TRAIL ...;
    INSERT INTO table SELECT ... FROM SYS.AUD$ ...;
    INSERT INTO table SELECT ... FROM SYS.FGA_LOG$ ...; 

See Also:

Purging Audit Trail Records

The DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT PL/SQL package can schedule automatic purge jobs, manually purge audit records, and perform other audit trail operations.

About Purging Audit Trail Records

You can use a variety of ways to purge audit trail records.

You should periodically archive and then delete (purge) audit trail records. You can purge a subset of audit trail records or create a purge job that performs at a specified time interval. Oracle Database either purges the audit trail records that were created before the archive timestamp, or it purges all audit trail records. You can purge audit trail records in both read-write and read-only databases.

The purge process takes into account not just the unified audit trail, but audit trails from earlier releases of Oracle Database. For example, if you have migrated an upgraded database that still has operating system or XML audit records, then you can use the procedures in this section to archive and purge them.

To perform the audit trail purge tasks, you use the DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT PL/SQL package. You must have the AUDIT_ADMIN role before you can use the DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT package. Oracle Database mandatorily audits all executions of the DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT PL/SQL package procedures.

If you have Oracle Audit Vault and Database Firewall installed, the audit trail purge process differs from the procedures described in this manual. For example, Oracle Audit Vault archives the audit trail for you.

Note:

Oracle Database audits all deletions from the audit trail, without exception.

See Also:

Selecting an Audit Trail Purge Method

You can perform the purge on a regularly scheduled basis or at a specified times.

Purging the Audit Trail on a Regularly Scheduled Basis

You can purge all audit records, or audit records that were created before a specified timestamp, on a regularly scheduled basis.

For example, you can schedule the purge for every Saturday at 2 a.m.
  1. If necessary, tune online and archive redo log sizes to accommodate the additional records generated during the audit table purge process.
  2. Plan a timestamp and archive strategy.
  3. Optionally, set an archive timestamp for the audit records.
  4. Create and schedule the purge job.
Manually Purging the Audit Trail at a Specific Time

You can manually purge the audit records right away in a one-time operation, rather than creating a purge schedule.

  1. If necessary, tune online and archive redo log sizes to accommodate the additional records generated during the audit table purge process.
  2. Plan a timestamp and archive strategy.
  3. Optionally, set an archive timestamp for the audit records.
  4. Run the purge operation.

Scheduling an Automatic Purge Job for the Audit Trail

Scheduling an automatic purge job requires planning beforehand, such as tuning the online and archive redo log sizes.

About Scheduling an Automatic Purge Job

You can purge the entire audit trail, or only a portion of the audit trail that was created before a timestamp.

The individual audit records created before the timestamp can be purged.

Be aware that purging the audit trail, particularly a large one, can take a while to complete. Consider scheduling the purge job so that it runs during a time when the database is not busy.

You can create multiple purge jobs for different audit trail types, so long as they do not conflict. For example, you can create a purge job for the standard audit trail table and then the fine-grained audit trail table. However, you cannot then create a purge job for both or all types, that is, by using the DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.AUDIT_TRAIL_DB_STD or DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.AUDIT_TRAIL_ALL property. In addition, be aware that the jobs created by the DBMS_SCHEDULER PL/SQL package do not execute on a read-only database. An automatic purge job created with DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT uses the DBMS_SCHEDULER package to schedule the tasks. Therefore, these jobs cannot run on a database or PDB that is open in read-only mode.

Step 1: If Necessary, Tune Online and Archive Redo Log Sizes

The purge process may generate additional redo logs.

  • If necessary, tune online and archive redo log sizes to accommodate the additional records generated during the audit table purge process.

In a unified auditing environment, the purge process does not generate as many redo logs as in a mixed mode auditing environment, so if you have migrated to unified auditing, then you may want to bypass this step.

See Also:

Oracle Database Administrator’s Guide for more information about tuning log files

Step 2: Plan a Timestamp and Archive Strategy

You must record the timestamp of the audit records before you can archive them.

  • To find the timestamp date, query the DBA_AUDIT_MGMT_LAST_ARCH_TS data dictionary view.

Later on, when the purge takes place, Oracle Database purges only the audit trail records that were created before the date of this archive timestamp.

After you have timestamped the records, you are ready to archive them.

Step 3: Optionally, Set an Archive Timestamp for Audit Records

If you want to delete all of the audit trail, then you can bypass this step.

You can set a timestamp for when the last audit record was archived. Setting an archive timestamp provides the point of cleanup to the purge infrastructure. If you are setting a timestamp for a read-only database, then you can use the DBMS_AUDIT.MGMT.GET_LAST_ARCHIVE_TIMESTAMP function to find the last archive timestamp that was configured for the instance on which it was run. For a read-write database, you can query the DBA_AUDIT_MGMT_LAST_ARCH_TS data dictionary view.

To find the last archive timestamps for the unified audit trail, you can query the DBA_AUDIT_MGMT_LAST_ARCH_TS data dictionary view. After you set the timestamp, all audit records in the audit trail that indicate a time earlier than that timestamp are purged when you run the DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.CLEAN_AUDIT_TRAIL PL/SQL procedure. If you want to clear the archive timestamp setting, see Clearing the Archive Timestamp Setting.

If you are using Oracle Database Real Application Clusters, then use Network Time Protocol (NTP) to synchronize the time on each computer where you have installed an Oracle Database instance. For example, suppose you set the time for one Oracle RAC instance node at 11:00:00 a.m. and then set the next Oracle RAC instance node at 11:00:05. As a result, the two nodes have inconsistent times. You can use Network Time Protocol (NTP) to synchronize the times for these Oracle RAC instance nodes.

To set the timestamp for the purge job:

  1. Log into the database instance as a user who has been granted the AUDIT_ADMIN role.

    In a multitenant environment, log into either the root or the PDB in which you want to schedule the purge job. In most cases, you may want to schedule the purge job on individual PDBs.

    For example, to log into a PDB called hrpdb:

    CONNECT aud_admin@hrpdb
    Enter password: password
    Connected.
    
  2. Run the DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.SET_LAST_ARCHIVE_TIMESTAMP PL/SQL procedure to set the timestamp.

    For example:

    BEGIN
      DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.SET_LAST_ARCHIVE_TIMESTAMP(
       AUDIT_TRAIL_TYPE     =>  DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.AUDIT_TRAIL_UNIFIED,
       LAST_ARCHIVE_TIME    =>  '12-OCT-2013 06:30:00.00',
       RAC_INSTANCE_NUMBER  =>  1,
       CONTAINER            => DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.CONTAINER_CURRENT);
    END;
    /
    

    In this example:

    • AUDIT_TRAIL_TYPE specifies the audit trail type. DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.AUDIT_TRAIL_UNIFIED sets it for the unified audit trail.

      For upgraded databases that still have traditional audit data from previous releases:

      • DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.AUDIT_TRAIL_AUD_STD is used for the traditional standard audit trail table, AUD$. (This setting does not apply to read-only databases.)

      • DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.AUDIT_TRAIL_FGA_STD is used for the traditional fine-grained audit trail table, FGA_LOG$. (This setting does not apply to read-only databases.)

      • DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.AUDIT_TRAIL_OS is used for the traditional operating system audit trail files with the .aud extension. (This setting does not apply to Windows Event Log entries.)

      • DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.AUDIT_TRAIL_XML is used for the XML traditional operating system audit trail files.

    • LAST_ARCHIVE_TIME specifies the timestamp in YYYY-MM-DD HH:MI:SS.FF UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) format for AUDIT_TRAIL_UNIFIED, AUDIT_TRAIL_AUD_STD, and AUDIT_TRAIL_FGA_STD, and in the Local Time Zone for AUDIT_TRAIL_OS and AUDIT_TRAIL_XML.

    • RAC_INSTANCE_NUMBER specifies the instance number for an Oracle RAC installation. This setting is not relevant for single instance databases. If you specified the DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.AUDIT_TRAIL_AUD_STD or DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.AUDIT_TRAIL_FGA_STD audit trail types, then you can omit the RAC_INSTANCE_NUMBER argument. This is because there is only one AUD$ or FGA_LOG$ table, even for an Oracle RAC installation. The default is NULL. You can find the instance number for the current instance by issuing the SHOW PARAMETER INSTANCE_NUMBER command in SQL*Plus.

    • CONTAINER applies the timestamp to a multitenant environment. DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.CONTAINER_CURRENT specifies the current PDB; DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.CONTAINER_ALL applies to all PDBs in the multitenant environment.

      Note that you can set CONTAINER to DBMS_MGMT.CONTAINER_ALL only from the root, and DBMS_MGMT.CONTAINER_CURRENT only from a PDB.

    Typically, after you set the timestamp, you can use the DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.CLEAN_AUDIT_TRAIL PL/SQL procedure to remove the audit records that were created before the timestamp date.

Step 4: Create and Schedule the Purge Job

You can use the DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT PL/SQL package to create and schedule the purge job.

  • Create and schedule the purge job by running the DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.CREATE_PURGE_JOB PL/SQL procedure.

    For example:

    CONNECT aud_admin@hrpdb
    Enter password: password
    Connected.
    
    BEGIN
      DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.CREATE_PURGE_JOB (
       AUDIT_TRAIL_TYPE            => DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.AUDIT_TRAIL_UNIFIED, 
       AUDIT_TRAIL_PURGE_INTERVAL  => 12,
       AUDIT_TRAIL_PURGE_NAME      => 'Audit_Trail_PJ',
       USE_LAST_ARCH_TIMESTAMP     => TRUE,
       CONTAINER                   => DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.CONTAINER_CURRENT);
    END;
    /
    

In this example:

  • AUDIT_TRAIL_TYPE: Specifies the audit trail type. DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.AUDIT_TRAIL_UNIFIED sets it for the unified audit trail.

    For upgraded databases that still have audit data from previous releases:

    • DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.AUDIT_TRAIL_AUD_STD is used for the standard audit trail table, AUD$. (This setting does not apply to read-only databases.)

    • DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.AUDIT_TRAIL_FGA_STD is used for the fine-grained audit trail table, FGA_LOG$. (This setting does not apply to read-only databases.)

    • DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.AUDIT_TRAIL_DB_STD is used for both standard and fine-grained audit trail tables. (This setting does not apply to read-only databases.)

    • DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.AUDIT_TRAIL_OS is used for the operating system audit trail files with the .aud extension. (This setting does not apply to Windows Event Log entries.)

    • DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.AUDIT_TRAIL_XML is used for the XML operating system audit trail files.

    • DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.AUDIT_TRAIL_FILES is used for both operating system and XML audit trail files.

    • DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.AUDIT_TRAIL_ALL is used for all audit trail records, that is, both database audit trail and operating system audit trail types. (This setting does not apply to read-only databases.)

  • AUDIT_TRAIL_PURGE_INTERVAL specifies the hourly interval for this purge job to run. The timing begins when you run the DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.CREATE_PURGE_JOB procedure, in this case, 12 hours after you run this procedure. Later on, if you want to update this value, run the DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.SET_PURGE_JOB_INTERVAL procedure.

  • USE_LAST_ARCH_TIMESTAMP accepts either of the following settings:

    • TRUE deletes audit records created before the last archive timestamp. To check the last recorded timestamp, query the LAST_ARCHIVE_TS column of the DBA_AUDIT_MGMT_LAST_ARCH_TS data dictionary view for read-write databases and the DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.GET_LAST_ARCHIVE_TIMESTAMP function for read-only databases. The default value is TRUE. Oracle recommends that you set USE_LAST_ARCH_TIMESTAMP to TRUE.

    • FALSE deletes all audit records without considering last archive timestamp. Be careful about using this setting, in case you inadvertently delete audit records that should not have been deleted.

  • CONTAINER is used for a multitenant environment to define where to create the purge job. If you set CONTAINER to DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.CONTAINER_CURRENT, then it is available, visible, and managed only from the current PDB. The DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.CONTAINER_ALL setting creates the job in the root. This defines the job as a global job, which runs according to the defined job schedule. When the job is invoked, it cleans up audit trails in all the PDBs in the multitenant environment. If you create the job in the root, then it is visible only in the root. Hence, you can enable, disable, and drop it from the root only.

Manually Purging the Audit Trail

You can use the DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.CLEAN_AUDIT_TRAIL procedure to manually purge the audit trail.

About Manually Purging the Audit Trail

You can manually purge the audit trail right away, without scheduling a purge job.

Similar to a purge job, you can purge audit trail records that were created before an archive timestamp date or all the records in the audit trail. Only the current audit directory is cleaned up when you run this procedure.

For upgraded databases that may still have audit trails from earlier releases, note the following about the DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.CLEAN_AUDIT_TRAIL PL/SQL procedure:

  • On Microsoft Windows, because the DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT package does not support cleanup of Windows Event Viewer, setting the AUDIT_TRAIL_TYPE property to DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.AUDIT_TRAIL_OS has no effect. This is because operating system audit records on Windows are written to Windows Event Viewer. The DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT package does not support this type of cleanup operation.

  • On UNIX platforms, if you had set the AUDIT_SYSLOG_LEVEL initialization parameter, then Oracle Database writes the operating system log files to syslog files. (Be aware that when you configure the use of syslog files, the messages are sent to the syslog daemon process. The syslog daemon process does not return an acknowledgement to Oracle Database indicating a committed write to the syslog files.) If you set the AUDIT_TRAIL_TYPE property to DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.AUDIT_TRAIL_OS, then the procedure only removes .aud files under audit directory (This directory is specified by the AUDIT_FILE_DEST initialization parameter).

Using DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.CLEAN_AUDIT_TRAIL to Manually Purge the Audit Trail

After you complete preparatory steps, you can use the DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.CLEAN_AUDIT_TRAIL procedure to manually purge the audit trail.

  1. Follow these steps under Scheduling an Automatic Purge Job for the Audit Trail:
  2. If you are using a multitenant environment, then connect to the database in which you created the purge job.

    If you created the purge job in the root, then you must log into the root. If you created the purge job in a specific PDB, then log into that PDB.

    For example:

    CONNECT aud_admin@hrpdb
    Enter password: password
    Connected.
    
  3. Purge the audit trail records by running the DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.CLEAN_AUDIT_TRAIL PL/SQL procedure.

    For example:

    BEGIN
      DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.CLEAN_AUDIT_TRAIL(
       AUDIT_TRAIL_TYPE           =>  DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.AUDIT_TRAIL_UNIFIED,
       USE_LAST_ARCH_TIMESTAMP    =>  TRUE,
       CONTAINER                  =>  DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.CONTAINER_CURRENT );
    END;
    /
    

    In this example:

    • AUDIT_TRAIL_TYPE: Specifies the audit trail type. DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.AUDIT_TRAIL_UNIFIED sets it for the unified audit trail.

      For upgraded databases that still have audit data from previous releases:

      • DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.AUDIT_TRAIL_AUD_STD: Standard audit trail table, AUD$. (This setting does not apply to read-only databases.)

      • DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.AUDIT_TRAIL_FGA_STD: Fine-grained audit trail table, FGA_LOG$. (This setting does not apply to read-only databases.)

      • DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.AUDIT_TRAIL_DB_STD: Both standard and fine-grained audit trail tables. (This setting does not apply to read-only databases)

      • DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.AUDIT_TRAIL_OS: Operating system audit trail files with the .aud extension. (This setting does not apply to Windows Event Log entries.)

      • DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.AUDIT_TRAIL_XML: XML Operating system audit trail files.

      • DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.AUDIT_TRAIL_FILES: Both operating system and XML audit trail files.

      • DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.AUDIT_TRAIL_ALL: All audit trail records, that is, both database audit trail and operating system audit trail types. (This setting does not apply to read-only databases.)

    • USE_LAST_ARCH_TIMESTAMP: Enter either of the following settings:

      • TRUE: Deletes audit records created before the last archive timestamp. To set the archive timestamp, see Step 3: Optionally, Set an Archive Timestamp for Audit Records. The default (and recommended) value is TRUE. Oracle recommends that you set USE_LAST_ARCH_TIMESTAMP to TRUE.

      • FALSE: Deletes all audit records without considering last archive timestamp. Be careful about using this setting, in case you inadvertently delete audit records that should have been deleted.

    • CONTAINER: Applies the cleansing to a multitenant environment. DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.CONTAINER_CURRENT specifies the local PDB; DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.CONTAINER_ALL applies to all databases.

Other Audit Trail Purge Operations

Other kinds of audit trail purge include enabling or disabling the audit trail purge job or setting the default audit trail purge job interval.

Enabling or Disabling an Audit Trail Purge Job

The DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.SET_PURGE_JOB_STATUS procedure enables or disables an audit trail purge job.

In a multitenant environment, where you run the DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.SET_PURGE_JOB_STATUS procedure depends on the location of the purge job, which is determined by the CONTAINER parameter of the DBMS_MGMT.CREATE_PURGE_JOB procedure. If you had set CONTAINER to CONTAINER_ALL (to create the purge job in the root), then you must run the DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.SET_PURGE_JOB_STATUS procedure from the root. If you had set CONTAINER to CONTAINER_CURRENT, then you must run the DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.SET_PURGE_JOB_STATUS procedure from the PDB in which it was created.

  • To enable or disable an audit trail purge job, use the DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.SET_PURGE_JOB_STATUS PL/SQL procedure.

    For example, assuming that you had created the purge job in a the hrpdb PDB:

    CONNECT aud_admin@hrpdb
    Enter password: password
    Connected.
    
    BEGIN
     DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.SET_PURGE_JOB_STATUS(
      AUDIT_TRAIL_PURGE_NAME      => 'Audit_Trail_PJ',
      AUDIT_TRAIL_STATUS_VALUE    => DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.PURGE_JOB_ENABLE);
    END;
    /
    

In this example:

  • AUDIT_TRAIL_PURGE_NAME specifies a purge job called Audit_Trail_PJ. To find existing purge jobs, query the JOB_NAME and JOB_STATUS columns of the DBA_AUDIT_MGMT_CLEANUP_JOBS data dictionary view.

  • AUDIT_TRAIL_STATUS_VALUE accepts either of the following properties:

    • DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.PURGE_JOB_ENABLE enables the specified purge job.

    • DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.PURGE_JOB_DISABLE disables the specified purge job.

Setting the Default Audit Trail Purge Job Interval for a Specified Purge Job

You can set a default purge operation interval, in hours, that must pass before the next purge job operation takes place.

The interval setting that is used in the DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.CREATE_PURGE_JOB procedure takes precedence over this setting.
  • To set the default audit trail purge job interval for a specific purge job, run the DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.SET_PURGE_JOB_INTERVAL procedure.

    For example, assuming that you had created the purge job in the hrpdb PDB:

    CONNECT aud_admin@hrpdb
    Enter password: password
    Connected.
    
    BEGIN
     DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.SET_PURGE_JOB_INTERVAL(
      AUDIT_TRAIL_PURGE_NAME       => 'Audit_Trail_PJ',
      AUDIT_TRAIL_INTERVAL_VALUE   => 24);
    END;
    /
    

In this example:

  • AUDIT_TRAIL_PURGE_NAME specifies the name of the audit trail purge job. To find a list of existing purge jobs, query the JOB_NAME and JOB_STATUS columns of the DBA_AUDIT_MGMT_CLEANUP_JOBS data dictionary view.

  • AUDIT_TRAIL_INTERVAL_VALUE updates the default hourly interval set by the DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.CREATE_PURGE_JOB procedure. Enter a value between 1 and 999. The timing begins when you run the purge job.

In a multitenant environment, where you run the DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.SET_PURGE_JOB_INTERVAL procedure depends on the location of the purge job, which is determined by the CONTAINER parameter of the DBMS_MGMT.CREATE_PURGE_JOB procedure. If you had set CONTAINER to CONTAINER_ALL, then the purge job exists in the root, so you must run the DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.SET_PURGE_JOB_STATUS procedure from the root. If you had set CONTAINER to CONTAINER_CURRENT, then you must run the DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.SET_PURGE_JOB_INTERVAL procedure from the PDB in which it was created.

Deleting an Audit Trail Purge Job

You can delete existing audit trail purge jobs.

To find existing purge jobs, query the JOB_NAME and JOB_STATUS columns of the DBA_AUDIT_MGMT_CLEANUP_JOBS data dictionary view.

  • To delete an audit trail purge job, use the DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.DROP_PURGE_JOB PL/SQL procedure.

For example, assuming that you had created the purge job in the hrpdb PDB:

CONNECT aud_admin@hrpdb
Enter password: password
Connected.

BEGIN
 DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.DROP_PURGE_JOB(
  AUDIT_TRAIL_PURGE_NAME  => 'Audit_Trail_PJ');
END;
/

In a multitenant environment, where you run the DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.DROP_PURGE_JOB procedure depends on the location of the purge job, which is determined by the CONTAINER parameter of the DBMS_MGMT.CREATE_PURGE_JOB procedure. If you had set CONTAINER to CONTAINER_ALL, then the purge job exists in the root, so you must run the DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.SET_PURGE_JOB_STATUS procedure from the root. If you had set CONTAINER to CONTAINER_CURRENT, then you must run the DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.DROP_PURGE_JOB_INTERVAL procedure from the PDB in which it was created.

Clearing the Archive Timestamp Setting

The DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.CLEAR_LAST_ARCHIVE_TIMESTAMP procedure can clear the archive timestamp setting.

To find a history of audit trail log cleanup, you can query the UNIFIED_AUDIT_TRAIL data dictionary view, using the following criteria: OBJECT_NAME is DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT, OBJECT_SCHEMA is SYS, and SQL_TEXT is set to LIKE %DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.CLEAN_AUDIT_TRAIL%.

  • To clear the archive timestamp setting, use the DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.CLEAR_LAST_ARCHIVE_TIMESTAMP PL/SQL procedure to specify the audit trail type and for a multitenant environment, the container type.

    For example, assuming that you had created the purge job in the hrpdb PDB:

    CONNECT aud_admin@hrpdb
    Enter password: password
    Connected.
    
    BEGIN
      DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.CLEAR_LAST_ARCHIVE_TIMESTAMP(
       AUDIT_TRAIL_TYPE     =>  DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.AUDIT_TRAIL_UNIFIED,
       CONTAINER            =>  DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.CONTAINER_CURRENT);
    END;
    /
    

In this example:

  • AUDIT_TRAIL_TYPE is set for the unified audit trail. If the AUDIT_TRAIL_TYPE property is set to DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.AUDIT_TRAIL_OS or DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.AUDIT_TRAIL_XML, then you cannot set RAC_INSTANCE_NUMBER to 0. You can omit the RAC_INSTANCE_NUMBER setting if you set AUDIT_TRAIL_TYPE to DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.AUDIT_TRAIL_UNIFIED.

  • CONTAINER applies the timestamp to a multitenant environment. DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.CONTAINER_CURRENT specifies the local PDB; DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.CONTAINER_ALL applies to all databases.

Example: Directly Calling a Unified Audit Trail Purge Operation

You can create a customized archive procedure to directly call a unified audit trail purge operation.

The pseudo code in Example 25-1 creates a database audit trail purge operation that the user calls by invoking the DBMS_ADUIT.CLEAN_AUDIT_TRAIL procedure for the unified audit trail.

The purge operation deletes records that were created before the last archived timestamp by using a loop. The loop archives the audit records, calculates which audit records were archived and uses the SetCleanUpAuditTrail call to set the last archive timestamp, and then calls the CLEAN_AUDIT_TRAIL procedure. In this example, major steps are in bold typeface.

Example 25-1 Directly Calling a Database Audit Trail Purge Operation

-- 1. Set the last archive timestamp:
PROCEDURE SetCleanUpAuditTrail()
 BEGIN
  CALL FindLastArchivedTimestamp(AUD$);
  DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.SET_LAST_ARCHIVE_TIMESTAMP(
   AUDIT_TRAIL_TYPE          => DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.AUDIT_TRAIL_UNIFIED,
   LAST_ARCHIVE_TIME         => '23-AUG-2013 12:00:00',
   CONTAINER                 => DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.CONTAINER_CURRENT);
 END;
/
-- 2. Run a customized archive procedure to purge the audit trail records:
BEGIN
  CALL MakeAuditSettings();
  LOOP (/* How long to loop*/)
    -- Invoke function for audit record archival
    CALL DoUnifiedAuditRecordArchival();
 
    CALL SetCleanUpAuditTrail(); 
    IF(/* Clean up is needed immediately */)
      DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.CLEAN_AUDIT_TRAIL(
       AUDIT_TRAIL_TYPE        => DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.AUDIT_TRAIL_UNIFIED,
       USE_LAST_ARCH_TIMESTAMP => TRUE,
       CONTAINER               => DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.CONTAINER_CURRENT );
    END IF
  END LOOP /*LOOP*/
END; /* PROCEDURE */ 
/

If you want to modify this example for other audit trail types, be aware that additional steps may be required. For more information, see the Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) version of Oracle Database Security Guide, which is available from the following documentation library:

http://www.oracle.com/pls/db112/homepage

Audit Trail Management Data Dictionary Views

Oracle Database provides data dictionary views that list information about audit trail management settings.

Table 25-2 lists these views.

Table 25-2 Views That Display Information about Audit Trail Management Settings

View Description

DBA_AUDIT_MGMT_CLEAN_EVENTS

Displays the history of purge events of the traditional (that is, non-unified) audit trails. Periodically, as a user who has been granted the AUDIT_ADMIN role, you should delete the contents of this view so that it does not grow too large. For example:

DELETE FROM DBA_AUDIT_MGMT_CLEAN_EVENTS;

This view applies to read-write databases only. For read-only databases, a history of purge events is in the alert log.

For unified auditing, you can find a history of purged events by querying the UNIFIED_AUDIT_TRAIL data dictionary view, using the following criteria: OBJECT_NAME is DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT, OBJECT_SCHEMA is SYS, and SQL_TEXT is set to LIKE %DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.CLEAN_AUDIT_TRAIL%.

DBA_AUDIT_MGMT_CLEANUP_JOBS

Displays the currently configured audit trail purge jobs

DBA_AUDIT_MGMT_CONFIG_PARAMS

Displays the currently configured audit trail properties that are used by the DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT PL/SQL package

DBA_AUDIT_MGMT_LAST_ARCH_TS

Displays the last archive timestamps that have set for audit trail purges

See Also:

Oracle Database Reference for detailed information about these views