Go to main content

Configuring an Oracle® Solaris 11.4 System as a Router or a Load Balancer

Exit Print View

Updated: August 2020
 
 

Creating Persistent (Static) Routes

In this Oracle Solaris release, the route command is the only way that you can manually configure routes, persistent or otherwise. For details, see the route(8) man page.

When adding routes persistently make sure that the routes do not already exist in the persistent configuration. If these routes already exist in the persistent configuration, the network routing tables could change without actually updating the persistent route. For example, typically in an Oracle Solaris setup, the system's default route is mapped to the system's primary interface. If you subsequently change the system's primary interface to another interface, then the system's default route should also be updated persistently. In this case, delete the current persistent route configuration prior to adding the new route. For more information, see Troubleshooting Issues When Adding a Persistent Route in Troubleshooting Network Administration Issues in Oracle Solaris 11.4.

    The following list shows how you use the route command to manage routes:

  • Use the –p option to add a persistent route:

    $ route -p add default ip-address
  • Use the –name option to add a persistent route by specifying a name rather than destination and gateway:

    $ route -p add destination-address gateway-address -name name
  • Use the route –p show command to display all of the persistent routes:

    $ route -p show
  • To display the currently active routes on a system, use the netstat command as follows:

    $ netstat -rn

    See the netstat(8) and route(8) man pages.

How to Add a Persistent Route by Specifying Destination and Gateway

Before You Begin

Ensure that your role has the appropriate rights profile to perform this procedure. See Using Rights Profiles to Perform Network Configuration.

  1. View the current state of the routing table by using your regular user account.
    $ netstat -rn
  2. (Optional) Flush the existing entries in the routing table.
    $ route flush
  3. Add a persistent route.
    $ route -p add -net network-address -gateway gateway-address
    –p

    Creates a static route that persists across system reboots. If you want the route to persist only for the current session, do not use the –p option.

    –net network-address

    Specifies that the route goes to the network with the address that is specified in network-address.

    –gateway gateway-address

    Indicates that the gateway system for the specified route has the IP address that is specified in gateway-address.

Example 2  Adding a Persistent Route by Specifying a Destination

The following example shows how to add a persistent (static) route to a router (Router 2). The static route is needed for the AS's border router, 203.0.113.150. See the illustration used in Example 1, Configuring a System as a Router of this particular setup.

You can view the routing table on Router 2 as follows:

$ netstat -rn
Routing Table: IPv4
Destination           Gateway         Flags   Ref     Use     Interface 
-------------------- --------------- -------- ------ -------- -----------
default              198.51.100.10       UG     1     249         ce0
224.0.0.0            198.51.100.10        U     1       0         ce0
203.0.113.0          203.0.113.20         U     1      78        bge0
127.0.0.1            127.0.0.1           UH     1      57         lo0

Routing Table: IPv6
  Destination/Mask         Gateway         Flags Ref   Use    If
------------------------ ---------------- ------ ---- ------ -----
::1                            ::1            UH   2     0   lo0

The routing table indicates that there are two routes that Router 2 knows about. The default route uses Router 2's 198.51.100.10 interface as its gateway. The second route, 203.0.113.0, was discovered by the in.routed daemon that is running on Router 2. The gateway for this route is Router 1 and it has the IP address 203.0.113.20.

You can add a second route to network 203.0.113.0, which has its gateway as the border router, as follows:

$ route -p add -net 203.0.113.0/24 -gateway 203.0.113.150
add net 203.0.113.0: gateway 203.0.113.150

The routing table now has a route for the border router, which has the IP address 203.0.113.150.

$ netstat -rn
Routing Table: IPv4
Destination           Gateway         Flags   Ref     Use     Interface 
-------------------- --------------- -------- ------ -------- -----------
default              198.51.100.10       UG     1     249         ce0
224.0.0.0            198.51.100.10        U     1       0         ce0
203.0.113.0          203.0.113.20         U     1      78        bge0
203.0.113.0          203.0.113.150        U     1     375        bge0
127.0.0.1            127.0.0.1           UH     1      57         lo0

Routing Table: IPv6
  Destination/Mask         Gateway         Flags Ref   Use    If
------------------------ ---------------- ------ ---- ------ -----
::1                            ::1            UH   2     0   lo0

How to Specify a Name for a Persistent Route

When you add a persistent route, you can provide a name for it by using the –name option. You can specify any name other than default, which has a special meaning within the context of routing configuration. See the route(8) man page.

If you use the –name option, then you can refer to the route's name whenever you issue commands related to that route.

You cannot use the –name option to name an existing route or to change the name of a route. Instead, you must first delete the route and then add it again while specifying the –name option.

Before You Begin

Ensure that your role has the appropriate rights profile to perform this procedure. See Using Rights Profiles to Perform Network Configuration.

  1. Add a persistent route by specifying a name.
    $ route -p add destination-address gateway-address -name name

    Note -  The –name option is ignored for non-persistent routes.
  2. Display information about the route.
    $ route get -name route-name

    You can also display information about the route as follows:

    $ route -p show
Example 3  Adding a Persistent Route by Specifying a Name

The following example shows how to add a persistent route, route1, by specifying a name.

$ route -p add 9.9.9.9 3.3.3.9 -name route1
persistent: route add 9.9.9.9 3.3.3.9 -name route1
$ route get -name route1
    route to : 9.9.9.9
        name : route1
 destination : 9.9.9.9
        mask : 255.255.255.25          
     gateway : 3.3.3.9
   interface : net0
       flags : <UP,GATEWAY,HOST,DONE,STATIC>
recvpipe sendpipe ssthresh rtt,ms rttvar,ms hopcount mtu expire
0 0 0 0 0 0 1500 0
Example 4  Changing Information for a Persistent Route by Specifying the Route's Name

The following example shows how to modify information for a persistent route by specifying its name. In this example, the gateway information is changed. Note that the persistent route must be added by specifying the –name option initially.

$ route -p show
persistent: route add 9.9.9.9 3.3.3.9 -name route1
$ route change -name route1 9.9.8.8
change host -name route1 9.9.9.9: gateway 9.9.8.8
Example 5  Deleting a Persistent Route by Specifying the Route's Name

The following example shows how to delete a persistent route by specifying its name. Note that the persistent route must be added by specifying the –name option initially.

$ route -p delete -name route1     
delete host -name route1 9.9.9.9: gateway 3.3.3.9: not in table
delete persistent host -name route1 9.9.9.9: gateway 3.3.3.9

If you do not specify the –p option with the –name option, the route is removed from the routing tables only, as shown in the following example:

$ route delete -name route1
delete host -name route1 9.9.9.9: gateway 3.3.3.9