Managing Kerberos and Other Authentication Services in Oracle® Solaris 11.2

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Updated: August 2014

How the Kerberos Service Works

This section provides an overview of the Kerberos authentication system. For a more detailed description, see How Kerberos Credentials Provide Access to Services.

From the user's standpoint, the Kerberos service is mostly invisible after the Kerberos session has been started. Commands such as ssh or ftp work about the same. Initializing a Kerberos session often involves no more than logging in and providing a Kerberos password.

The Kerberos system revolves around the concept of a ticket. A ticket is a set of electronic information that identifies a user or a service such as the NFS service. Just as your driver's license identifies you and indicates what driving privileges you have, so a ticket identifies you and your network access privileges. When you perform a Kerberos-based transaction (for example, if you request an NFS-mounted file), you transparently send a request for a ticket to a Key Distribution Center, or KDC. The KDC accesses a database to authenticate your identity and returns a ticket that grants you permission to access the NFS server. “Transparently” means that you do not need to explicitly request a ticket. The request happens when you attempt to access the server. Because only authenticated clients can get a ticket for a specific service, another client cannot access the NFS server under an assumed identity.

Tickets have certain attributes associated with them. For example, a ticket can be forwardable, which means that it can be used on another machine without a new authentication process. A ticket can also be postdated, which means that it is not valid until a specified time. How tickets can be used is set by policies, for example, to specify which users are allowed to obtain which types of ticket. Policies are determined when the Kerberos service is installed or administered.

Note -  You will frequently see the terms credential and ticket. In the greater Kerberos world, they are often used interchangeably. Technically, however, a credential is a ticket plus the session key for that session. This difference is explained in more detail in How Kerberos Credentials Provide Access to Services.

The following sections further explain the Kerberos authentication process.