A Keeping Your Oracle Database Secure

Oracle provides guidelines for keeping your database secure, such as advice on securing user accounts, privileges, roles, passwords, and data.

A.1 About the Oracle Database Security Guidelines

Information security, and privacy and protection of corporate assets and data are critical in any business.

Oracle Database comprehensively addresses the need for information security by providing cutting-edge security features such as deep data protection, auditing, scalable security, secure hosting, and data exchange.

Oracle Database leads the industry in security. To maximize the security features offered by Oracle Database in any business environment, it is imperative that the database itself be well protected.

Security guidelines provide advice about how to configure Oracle Database to be secure by adhering to and recommending industry-standard and advisable security practices for operational database deployments. Many of the guidelines described in this section address common regulatory requirements such as those described in the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. For more information about how Oracle Database addresses regulatory compliance, protection of personally identifiable information, and internal threats, visit:


A.2 Downloading Security Patches and Contacting Oracle Regarding Vulnerabilities

You should always apply security patches as soon as they are available. If problems arise, then you should contact Oracle regarding vulnerabilities.

A.2.1 Downloading Security Patches and Workaround Solutions

Security patches apply to the operating system on which Oracle Database resides, Oracle Database itself, and all installed Oracle Database options and components.

A.2.2 Contacting Oracle Security Regarding Vulnerabilities in Oracle Database

You can contact Oracle Security regarding vulnerabilities in Oracle Database.

  • Contact Oracle Security using either of the following methods:

    • If you are an Oracle customer or an Oracle partner, use My Oracle Support to submit a Service Request on any potential Oracle product security vulnerability.

    • Send an email to secalert_us@oracle.com with a complete description of the problem, including product version and platform, together with any scripts and examples. Oracle encourages those who want to contact Oracle Security to employ email encryption, using our encryption key.

A.3 Guidelines for Securing User Accounts and Privileges

Oracle provides guidelines to secure user accounts and privileges.

  1. Lock and expire default (predefined) user accounts.

    Oracle Database installs with several default database user accounts. Upon successful installation of the database, the Database Configuration Assistant automatically locks and expires most default database user accounts.

    If you perform a manual (without using Database Configuration Assistant) installation of Oracle Database, then no default database users are locked upon successful installation of the database server. Or, if you have upgraded from a previous release of Oracle Database, you may have default accounts from earlier releases. Left open in their default states, these user accounts can be exploited, to gain unauthorized access to data or disrupt database operations.

    You should lock and expire all default database user accounts. Oracle Database provides SQL statements to perform these operations. For example:


    See Oracle Database SQL Language Reference for more information about the ALTER USER statement.

    Installing additional products and components after the initial installation also results in creating more default database accounts. Database Configuration Assistant automatically locks and expires all additionally created database user accounts. Unlock only those accounts that need to be accessed on a regular basis and assign a strong, meaningful password to each of these unlocked accounts. Oracle provides SQL and password management to perform these operations.

    If any default database user account other than the ones left open is required for any reason, then a database administrator (DBA) must unlock and activate that account with a new, secure password.

    If a default database user account, other than the ones left open, is required for any reason, then a database administrator (DBA) can unlock and activate that account with a new, secure password.

    Securing Oracle Enterprise Manager Accounts

    If you install Oracle Enterprise Manager, the SYSMAN and DBSNMP accounts are open, unless you configure Oracle Enterprise Manager for central administration. In this case, the SYSMAN account (if present) will be locked.

    If you do not install Oracle Enterprise Manager, then only the SYS and SYSTEM accounts are open. Database Configuration Assistant locks and expires all other accounts (including SYSMAN and DBSNMP).

  2. Discourage users from using the NOLOGGING clause in SQL statements.

    In some SQL statements, the user has the option of specifying the NOLOGGING clause, which indicates that the database operation is not logged in the online redo log file. Even though the user specifies the clause, a redo record is still written to the online redo log file. However, there is no data associated with this record. Because of this, using NOLOGGING has the potential for malicious code to be entered can be accomplished without an audit trail.

  3. Practice the principle of least privilege.

    Oracle recommends the following guidelines:

    1. Grant necessary privileges only.

      Do not provide database users or roles more privileges than are necessary. (If possible, grant privileges to roles, not users.) In other words, the principle of least privilege is that users be given only those privileges that are actually required to efficiently perform their jobs.

      To implement this principle, restrict the following as much as possible:

      • The number of SYSTEM and OBJECT privileges granted to database users.

      • The number of people who are allowed to make SYS-privileged connections to the database.

      • The number of users who are granted the ANY privileges, such as the DROP ANY TABLE privilege. For example, there is generally no need to grant CREATE ANY TABLE privileges to a non-DBA-privileged user.

      • The number of users who are allowed to perform actions that create, modify, or drop database objects, such as the TRUNCATE TABLE, DELETE TABLE, DROP TABLE statements, and so on.

    2. Limit granting the CREATE ANY EDITION and DROP ANY EDITION privileges.

      To maintain additional versions of objects, editions can increase resource and disk space consumption in the database. Only grant the CREATE ANY EDITION and DROP ANY EDITION privileges to trusted users who are responsible for performing upgrades.

    3. Re-evaluate the SELECT object privilege and SELECT ANY TABLE system privileges that you have granted to users.

      If you want to restrict users to only being able to query tables, views, materialized views, and synonyms, then grant users the READ object privilege, or for trusted users only, the READ ANY TABLE system privilege. If in addition to performing query operations, you want users to be able to lock tables in exclusive mode or perform SELECT ... FOR UPDATE statements, then grant the user the SELECT object privilege or, for trusted users only, the SELECT ANY TABLE system privilege.

    4. Restrict the CREATE ANY JOB, BECOME USER, EXP_FULL_DATABASE, and IMP_FULL_DATABASE privileges. Also restrict grants of the CREATE DIRECTORY and CREATE ANY DIRECTORY privileges.

      These are powerful security-related privileges. Only grant these privileges to users who need them.

    5. Restrict the BECOME USER privilege to users of Oracle Data Pump, Oracle Streams, and the DBMS_WORKLOAD_CAPTURE and DBMS_WORKLOAD_REPLAY packages.

      The BECOME USER privilege is used only for the following subsystems:

      • Oracle Data Pump Import utilities impdp and imp, to assume the identity of another user to perform operations that cannot be directly performed by a third party (for example, loading objects such as object privilege grants). In an Oracle Database Vault environment, Database Vault provides several levels of required authorization that affect grants of BECOME USER. See Oracle Database Vault Administrator’s Guide.

      • Oracle Streams, to enable administrators to create or alter capture users and apply users in a Streams environment. By default, BECOME USER is part of the DBA role. However, if Database Vault is enabled, then the BECOME USER privilege is removed from the DBA role. Therefore, BECOME USER is needed by Streams only in an environment where Database Vault is enabled.

      • DBMS_WORKLOAD_CAPTURE and DBMS_WORKLOAD_REPLAY PL/SQL packages, as a required privilege to be granted to users who must use these packages.

      If you use the AUTHID CURRENT_USER clause when invoking one of these subsystems (for example, in static references in PL/SQL code), then ensure that the CURRENT_USER is granted the BECOME USER privilege, either by a direct grant or through a role.

    6. Restrict library-related privileges to trusted users only.

      The CREATE LIBRARY, CREATE ANY LIBRARY, ALTER ANY LIBRARY, and EXECUTE ANY LIBRARY privileges, and grants of EXECUTE ON library_name convey a great deal of power to users. If you plan to create PL/SQL interfaces to libraries, only grant the EXECUTE privilege to the PL/SQL interface. Do not grant EXECUTE on the underlying library. You must have the EXECUTE privilege on a library to create the PL/SQL interface to it. However, users have this privilege implicitly on libraries that they create in their own schemas. Explicit grants of EXECUTE ON library_name are rarely required. Only make an explicit grant of these privileges to trusted users, and never to the PUBLIC role.

    7. Restrict synonym-related privileges to trusted users only.

      The CREATE PUBLIC SYNONYM and DROP PUBLIC SYNONYM system privileges convey a great deal of power to these users. Do not grant these privileges to users, unless they are trusted.

    8. Do not allow non-administrative users access to objects owned by the SYS schema.

      Do not allow users to alter table rows or schema objects in the SYS schema, because doing so can compromise data integrity. Limit the use of statements such as DROP TABLE, TRUNCATE TABLE, DELETE, INSERT, or similar object-modification statements on SYS objects only to highly privileged administrative users.

      The SYS schema owns the data dictionary. You can protect the data dictionary by setting the O7_DICTIONARY_ACCESSIBILITY parameter to FALSE. See Guidelines for Securing Data for more information.

    9. Restrict permissions on run-time facilities.

      Many Oracle Database products use run-time facilities, such as Oracle Java Virtual Machine (OJVM). Do not assign all permissions to a database run-time facility. Instead, grant specific permissions to the explicit document the root file paths for facilities that might run files and packages outside the database.

      Here is an example of a vulnerable run-time call, which individual files are specified:

      call dbms_java.grant_permission('wsmith', 'SYS:java.io.FilePermission','<<ALL FILES>>','read');

      Here is an example of a better (more secure) run-time call, which specifies a directory path instead:

      call dbms_java.grant_permission('wsmith', 'SYS:java.io.FilePermission','<<actual directory path>>','read');
  4. Revoke access to the following:

    • The SYS.USER_HISTORY$ table from all users except SYS and DBA accounts

    • The RESOURCE role from typical application accounts

    • The CONNECT role from typical application accounts

    • The DBA role from users who do not need this role

  5. Grant privileges only to roles.

    Granting privileges to roles and not individual users makes the management and tracking of privileges much easier.

  6. Limit the proxy account (for proxy authorization) privileges to CREATE SESSION only.

  7. Use secure application roles to protect roles that are enabled by application code.

    Secure application roles allow you to define a set of conditions, within a PL/SQL package, that determine whether or not a user can log on to an application. Users do not need to use a password with secure application roles.

    Another approach to protecting roles from being enabled or disabled in an application is the use of role passwords. This approach prevents a user from directly accessing the database in SQL (rather than the application) to enable the privileges associated with the role. However, Oracle recommends that you use secure application roles instead, to avoid having to manage another set of passwords.

  8. Create privilege captures to find excessively granted privileges. See Oracle Database Vault Administrator’s Guide for more information.

  9. Monitor the granting of the following privileges only to users and roles who need these privileges.

    By default, Oracle Database audits the following privileges:




    Oracle recommends that you also audit the following privileges:

    • ALL PRIVILEGES (which includes privileges such as BECOME USER, CREATE LIBRARY, and CREATE PROCEDURE)







    • Privileges that have the WITH ADMIN clause

    • Privileges that have the WITH GRANT clause

    • Privileges that have the CREATE keyword

  10. Use the following data dictionary views to find information about user access to the database.

    • DBA_*





    • DBA_AUDIT_TRAIL (if standard auditing is enabled)

    • DBA_FGA_AUDIT_TRAIL (if fine-grained auditing is enabled)

A.4 Guidelines for Securing Roles

Oracle provides guidelines for role management.

  1. Grant a role to users only if they need all privileges of the role.

    Roles (groups of privileges) are useful for quickly and easily granting permissions to users. Although you can use Oracle-defined roles, you have more control and continuity if you create your own roles containing only the privileges pertaining to your requirements. Oracle may change or remove the privileges in an Oracle Database-defined role, as it has with the CONNECT role, which now has only the CREATE SESSION privilege. Formerly, this role had eight other privileges.

    Ensure that the roles you define contain only the privileges that reflect job responsibility. If your application users do not need all the privileges encompassed by an existing role, then apply a different set of roles that supply just the correct privileges. Alternatively, create and assign a more restricted role.

    For example, it is imperative to strictly limit the privileges of user SCOTT, because this is a well known account that may be vulnerable to intruders. Because the CREATE DBLINK privilege allows access from one database to another, drop its privilege for SCOTT. Then, drop the entire role for the user, because privileges acquired by means of a role cannot be dropped individually. Re-create your own role with only the privileges needed, and grant that new role to that user. Similarly, for better security, drop the CREATE DBLINK privilege from all users who do not require it.

  2. Do not grant user roles to application developers.

    Roles are not meant to be used by application developers, because the privileges to access schema objects within stored programmatic constructs need to be granted directly. Remember that roles are not enabled within stored procedures except for invoker's right procedures. See How Roles Work in PL/SQL Blocks for information about this topic.

  3. Create and assign roles specific to each Oracle Database installation.

    This principle enables the organization to retain detailed control of its roles and privileges. This also avoids the necessity to adjust if Oracle Database changes or removes Oracle Database-defined roles, as it has with CONNECT, which now has only the CREATE SESSION privilege. Formerly, it also had eight other privileges.

  4. For enterprise users, create global roles.

    Global roles are managed by an enterprise directory service, such as Oracle Internet Directory. See the following sections for more information about global roles:

A.5 Guidelines for Securing Passwords

Oracle provides guidelines for securing passwords in a variety of situations.

When you create a user account, Oracle Database assigns a default password policy for that user. The password policy defines rules for how the password should be created, such as a minimum number of characters, when it expires, and so on. You can strengthen passwords by using password policies. See also Configuring Password Protection for additional ways to protect passwords.

Follow these guidelines to further strengthen passwords:

  1. Choose passwords carefully.

    Minimum Requirements for Passwords describes the minimum requirements for passwords. Follow these additional guidelines when you create or change passwords:

    • Make the password have a length of between 12 and 30 bytes, and include both alphabetic characters and digits in the password.

    • Have the password contain at least one digit, one upper-case character, and one lower-case character.

    • Use mixed case characters and special characters in the password. (See Ensuring Against Password Security Threats by Using the 12C Password Version for more information.)

    • You can include multibyte characters in the password but not in the password of any common user or role.

    • Use the database character set for the password's characters, which can include the underscore (_), dollar ($), and number sign (#) characters.

    • You must enclose the following passwords in double-quotation marks:

      • Passwords containing multibyte characters

      • Passwords starting with numbers or special characters and containing alphabetic characters. For example:




      • Passwords containing any character other than alphabetic characters, numbers, and special characters. For example:



        " "

    • You do not need to specify the following passwords in double-quotation marks.

      • Passwords starting with an alphabetic character (a–z, A–Z) and containing numbers (0–9) or special characters ($, #, _). For example:




      • Passwords containing only numbers

      • Passwords containing only alphabetic characters (a–z, A–Z)

    • Do not include double-quotation marks within the password.

    • Do not use an actual word for the entire password.

  2. To create a longer, more complex password from a shorter, easier to remember password, create the password from the first letters of the words of an easy-to-remember sentence.

    For example, "I usually work until 6:00 almost every day of the week" can be Iuwu6aedotw.

  3. Ensure that the password is sufficiently complex.

    Oracle Database provides a password complexity verification routine, the PL/SQL script utlpwdmg.sql, that you can run to check whether or not passwords are sufficiently complex. Ideally, edit the utlpwdmg.sql script to provide stronger password protections. See also About Password Complexity Verification for a sample routine that you can use to check passwords.

  4. In a non-multitenant environment, or in a PDB, if you want to use multibyte characters in the password, then ensure that the database character set is configured as a multibye character set so that the authentication will work properly.

    Be aware that because multibyte characters consume more bytes that single-byte characters, they tend to provide less entropy per byte. Because the maximum length of the password is currently limited to 30 bytes, to help increase the amount of entropy in a password, Oracle recommends that you also include a number of single-byte characters in the password, even when multibyte characters are being used.

    The passwords of common users and common roles cannot contain multibyte passwords.

  5. Associate a password complexity function with the user profile or the default profile.

    The PASSWORD_VERIFY_FUNCTION clause of the CREATE PROFILE and ALTER PROFILE statements associates a password complexity function with a user profile or the default profile. Password complexity functions ensure that users create strong passwords using guidelines that are specific to your site. Having a password complexity function also requires a user changing his or her own password (without the ALTER USER system privilege) to provide both the old and new passwords. You can create your own password complexity functions or use the password complexity functions that Oracle Database provides.

    See Managing the Complexity of Passwords for more information.

  6. Change default user passwords.

    Oracle Database installs with a set of predefined, default user accounts. Security is most easily broken when a default database user account still has a default password even after installation. This is particularly true for the user account SCOTT, which is a well known account that may be vulnerable to intruders. In Oracle Database, default accounts are installed locked with the passwords expired, but if you have upgraded from a previous release, you may still have accounts that use default passwords.

    To find user accounts that have default passwords, query the DBA_USERS_WITH_DEFPWD data dictionary view. See Finding User Accounts That Have Default Passwords for more information.

  7. Change default passwords of administrative users.

    You can use the same or different passwords for the SYS, SYSTEM, SYSMAN, and DBSNMP administrative accounts. Oracle recommends that you use different passwords for each. In any Oracle environment (production or test), assign strong, secure, and distinct passwords to these administrative accounts. If you use Database Configuration Assistant to create a new database, then it requires you to enter passwords for the SYS and SYSTEM accounts, disallowing the default passwords CHANGE_ON_INSTALL and MANAGER.

    Similarly, for production environments, do not use default passwords for administrative accounts, including SYSMAN and DBSNMP.

  8. Enforce password management.

    Apply basic password management rules (such as password length, history, complexity, and so forth) to all user passwords. Oracle Database has password policies enabled for the default profile. Guideline 1 in this section lists these password policies.

    You can find information about user accounts by querying the DBA_USERS view. The PASSWORD column of the DBA_USERS view indicates whether the password is global, external, or null. The DBA_USERS view provides useful information such as the user account status, whether the account is locked, and password versions.

    Oracle also recommends, if possible, using Oracle strong authentication with network authentication services (such as Kerberos), token cards, smart cards, or X.509 certificates. These services provide strong authentication of users, and provide protection against unauthorized access to Oracle Database.

  9. Do not store user passwords in clear text in Oracle tables.

    For better security, do not store passwords in clear text (that is, human readable) in Oracle tables. You can correct this problem by using a secure external password store to encrypt the password within an Oracle wallet. (An Oracle wallet is a secure software container that stores authentication and signing credentials.) See Managing the Secure External Password Store for Password Credentials for information.

    When you create or modify a password for a user account, Oracle Database automatically creates a cryptographic hash or digest of the password. If you query the DBA_USERS view to find information about a user account, the data in the PASSWORD column indicates if the user password is global, external, or null. The DBA_USERS view also has a column called PASSWORD_VERSIONS, which lists the types of cryptographic hash that exist for the user's password (11G or 12C). See Oracle Database Reference for information in the section on DBA_USERS about the cryptographic algorithm that these abbreviations correspond to.

  10. Disable the HTTP verifier if the user is not going to be using either XDB authentication or HTTP Digest authentication.

    The HTTP verifier is used only for XDB authentication and HTTP Digest authentication. If a user is not going to use XDB authentication or HTTP Digest authentication, then you can safely remove the HTTP verifier from the user's list of verifiers. To remove a user's HTTP verifier, execute the following statement:


A.6 Guidelines for Securing Data

Oracle provides guidelines for securing data on your system.

  1. Enable data dictionary protection.

    Oracle recommends that you protect the data dictionary to prevent users that have the ANY system privilege from using those privileges on the data dictionary. Altering or manipulating the data in data dictionary tables can permanently and detrimentally affect the operation of a database.

    To enable data dictionary protection, set the following initialization parameter to FALSE (which is the default) in the initsid.ora control file:


    You can set the O7_DICTIONARY_ACCESSIBILITY parameter in a server parameter file. For more information about server parameter files, see Oracle Database Vault Administrator’s Guide.

    After you set O7_DICTIONARY_ACCESSIBILTY to FALSE, only users who have the SELECT ANY DICTIONARY privilege and those authorized users making DBA-privileged (for example CONNECT / AS SYSDBA) connections can use the ANY system privilege on the data dictionary. If O7_DICTIONARY_ACCESSIBILITY parameter is not set to FALSE, then any user with the DROP ANY TABLE (for example) system privilege will be able to drop parts of the data dictionary. However, if a user needs view access to the data dictionary, then you can grant that user the SELECT ANY DICTIONARY system privilege.


    • In a default installation, the O7_DICTIONARY_ACCESSIBILITY parameter is set to FALSE. However, in Oracle8i, this parameter is set to TRUE by default, and must be changed to FALSE to enable this security feature.

    • The SELECT ANY DICTIONARY privilege is not included in the GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES statement, but you can grant it through a role. Configuring Privilege and Role Authorization, describes roles in detail.

  2. Restrict operating system access.

    Follow these guidelines:

    • Limit the number of operating system users.

    • Limit the privileges of the operating system accounts (administrative, root-privileged, or database administrative) on the Oracle Database host computer to the least privileges required for a user to perform necessary tasks.

    • Restrict the ability to modify the default file and directory permissions for the Oracle Database home (installation) directory or its contents. Even privileged operating system users and the Oracle owner should not modify these permissions, unless instructed otherwise by Oracle.

    • Restrict symbolic links. Ensure that when you provide a path or file to the database, neither the file nor any part of the path is modifiable by an untrusted user. The file and all components of the path should be owned by the database administrator or trusted account, such as root.

      This recommendation applies to all types of log files, trace files, external tables, BFILE data types, and so on.

  3. Encrypt sensitive data and all backup media that contains database files.

    According to common regulatory compliance requirements, you must encrypt sensitive data such as credit card numbers and passwords. When you delete sensitive data from the database, encrypted data does not linger in data blocks, operating system files, or sectors on disk.

    In most cases, you may want to use Transparent Data Encryption to encrypt your sensitive data. See Oracle Database Advanced Security Guide for more information. See also Security Problems That Encryption Does Not Solve for when you should not encrypt data.

  4. For Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) environments on Linux and UNIX systems, use Oracle ASM File Access Control to restrict access to the Oracle ASM disk groups.

    If you use different operating system users and groups for Oracle Database installations, then you can configure Oracle ASM File Access Control to restrict the access to files in Oracle ASM disk groups to only authorized users. For example, a database administrator would only be able to access the data files for the databases he or she manages. This administrator would not be able to see or overwrite the data files belonging (or used by) other databases.

    For more information about managing Oracle ASM File Access Control for disk groups, see Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide. For information about the various privileges required for multiple software owners, see also Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide.

A.7 Guidelines for Securing the ORACLE_LOADER Access Driver

Oracle provides guidelines to secure the ORACLE_LOADER access driver.

  1. Create a separate operating system directory to store the access driver preprocessors. You (or the operating system manager) may need to create multiple directories if different Oracle Database users will run different preprocessors. If you want to prevent one set of users from using one preprocessor while allowing those users access to another preprocessor, then place the preprocessors in separate directories. If all the users need equal access, then you can place the preprocessors together in one directory. After you create these operating system directories, in SQL*Plus, you can create a directory object for each directory.

  2. Grant the operating system user ORACLE the correct operating system privileges to run the access driver preprocessor. In addition, protect the preprocessor program from WRITE access by operating system users other than the user responsible for managing the preprocessor program.

  3. Grant the EXECUTE privilege to each user who will run the preprocessor program in the directory object. Do not grant this user the WRITE privilege on the directory object. Never grant users both the EXECUTE and WRITE privilege for directory objects.

  4. Grant the WRITE privilege sparingly to anyone who will manage directory objects that contain preprocessors. This prevents database users from accidentally or maliciously overwriting the preprocessor program.

  5. Create a separate operating system directory and directory object for any data files that are required for external tables. Ensure that these are separate from the directory and directory object used by the access directory preprocessor.

    Work with the operating system manager to ensure that only the appropriate operating system users have access to this directory. Grant the ORACLE operating system user READ access to any directory that has a directory object with READ privileges granted to database users. Similarly, grant the ORACLE operating system user WRITE access to any directory that has the WRITE privilege granted to database users.

  6. Create a separate operating system directory and directory object for any files that the access driver generates. This includes log files, bad files, and discarded files. You and the operating system manager must ensure that this directory and directory object have the proper protections, similar to those described in Guideline 5. The database user may need to access these files when resolving problems in data files, so you and the operating system manager must determine a way for this user to read those files.

  7. Grant the CREATE ANY DIRECTORY and DROP ANY DIRECTORY privileges sparingly. Users who have these privileges and users who have been granted the DBA role have full access to all directory objects.

  8. Consider auditing the DROP ANY DIRECTORY privilege. See Auditing System Privileges for more information about auditing privileges.

  9. Consider auditing the directory object. See Auditing Object Actions for more information.

See Also:

Oracle Database Utilities for more information about the ORACLE_DATAPUMP access driver

A.8 Guidelines for Securing a Database Installation and Configuration

Oracle provides guidelines to secure the database installation and configuration.

Changes were made to the default configuration of Oracle Database to make it more secure. The recommendations in this section augment the new, secure default configuration.

  1. Before you begin an Oracle Database installation on UNIX systems, ensure that the umask value is 022 for the Oracle owner account.

    See Oracle Database Administrator's Reference for Linux and UNIX-Based Operating Systems for more information about managing Oracle Database on Linux and UNIX systems.

  2. Install only what is required.

    Options and Products: The Oracle Database CD pack contains products and options in addition to the database. Install additional products and options only as necessary. Use the Custom Installation feature to avoid installing unnecessary products, or perform a typical installation, and then deinstall options and products that are not required. There is no need to maintain additional products and options if they are not being used. They can always be properly installed, as required.

    Sample Schemas: Oracle Database provides sample schemas to provide a common platform for examples. If your database will be used in a production environment, then do not install the sample schema. If you have installed the sample schema on a test database, then before going to production, remove or relock the sample schema accounts. See Oracle Database Sample Schemas for more information about the sample schemas.

  3. During installation, when you are prompted for a password, create a secure password.

    Follow Guidelines 1, 6, and 7 in Guidelines for Securing Passwords.

  4. Immediately after installation, lock and expire default user accounts.

    See Guideline 1 in Guidelines for Securing User Accounts and Privileges.

A.9 Guidelines for Securing the Network

Security for network communications is improved by using client, listener, and network guidelines to ensure thorough protection.

A.9.1 Client Connection Security

Authenticating clients stringently, configuring encryption for the connection, and using strong authentication strengthens client connections.

Because authenticating client computers is problematic, typically, user authentication is performed instead. This approach avoids client system issues that include falsified IP addresses, hacked operating systems or applications, and falsified or stolen client system identities.

Nevertheless, the following guidelines improve the security of client connections:

  1. Enforce access controls effectively and authenticate clients stringently.

    By default, Oracle allows operating system-authenticated logins only over secure connections, which precludes using Oracle Net and a shared server configuration. This default restriction prevents a user over a network connection.

    Setting the initialization parameter REMOTE_OS_AUTHENT to TRUE forces the database to accept the client operating system user name received over an unsecure connection and use it for account access. Because clients, such as PCs, are not trusted to perform operating system authentication properly, it is poor security practice to use this feature.

    The default setting, REMOTE_OS_AUTHENT = FALSE, creates a more secure configuration that enforces proper, server-based authentication of clients connecting to an Oracle database. Be aware that the REMOTE_OS_AUTHENT was deprecated in Oracle Database Release 11g (11.1) and is retained only for backward compatibility.

    You should not alter the default setting of the REMOTE_OS_AUTHENT initialization parameter, which is FALSE.

    Setting this parameter to FALSE does not mean that users cannot connect remotely. It means that the database will not trust that the client has already authenticated, and will therefore apply its standard authentication processes.

    Be aware that the REMOTE_OS_AUTHENT parameter was deprecated in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), and is retained only for backward compatibility.

  2. Configure the connection to use encryption.

    Oracle native network encryption makes eavesdropping difficult.

  3. Set up strong authentication.

    See Configuring Kerberos Authentication, for more information about using Kerberos and public key infrastructure (PKI).

  4. In an Oracle Data Guard environment, set the ADG_ACCOUNT_INFO_TRACKING initialization parameter.

    The ADG_ACCOUNT_INFO_TRACKING parameter controls login attempts on Oracle Active Data Guard standby databases. It provides more security against login attacks across an Oracle Database production environment and all Active Data Guard standby databases. Use one of the following settings:

    • LOCAL (default) enforces the existing behavior, which maintains a local copy of user account information in the standby database’s in-memory view. This setting only tracks login failures locally on a per-database basis. It denies the login when the maximum of failed logins is reached.

    • GLOBAL increases the security of logins by maintaining a single global copy of user account information across all Data Guard primary and standby databases. Login failures across all databases in the Data Guard environment count toward the maximum count. When this count is reached, then logins anywhere are denied access.

    To learn more about the ADG_ACCOUNT_INFO_TRACKING parameter, see Oracle Database Reference

A.9.2 Network Connection Security

Protecting the network and its traffic from inappropriate access or modification is the essence of network security.

You should consider all paths the data travels, and assess the threats on each path and node. Then, take steps to lessen or eliminate those threats and the consequences of a security breach. In addition, monitor and audit to detect either increased threat levels or penetration attempts.

To manage network connections, you can use Oracle Net Manager. For more information about Net Manager, see Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide.

The following practices improve network security:

  1. Use Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) when administering the listener.

    See Secure Sockets Layer Connection Security for more information.

  2. Prevent online administration by requiring the administrator to have the write privilege on the listener password and on the listener.ora file on the server.

    1. Add or alter this line in the listener.ora file:

    2. Use RELOAD to reload the configuration.

    3. Use SSL when administering the listener by making the TCPS protocol the first entry in the address list, as follows:

              (HOST = sales.us.example.com)
              (PORT = 8281)))

      To administer the listener remotely, you define the listener in the listener.ora file on the client computer. For example, to access listener USER281 remotely, use the following configuration:

      user281 =
        (DESCRIPTION =
          (ADDRESS =
            (PROTOCOL = tcps)
            (HOST = sales.us.example.com)
            (PORT = 8281))

    For more information about the parameters in listener.ora, see Oracle Database Net Services Reference.

  3. Do not set the listener password.

    Ensure that the password has not been set in the listener.ora file. The local operating system authentication will secure the listener administration. The remote listener administration is disabled when the password has not been set. This prevents brute force attacks of the listener password.

    The listener password has been deprecated in this release. It will not be supported in the next release of Oracle Database.

  4. When a host computer has multiple IP addresses associated with multiple network interface controller (NIC) cards, configure the listener to the specific IP address.

    This allows the listener to listen on all the IP addresses. You can restrict the listener to listen on a specific IP address. Oracle recommends that you specify the specific IP addresses on these types of computers, rather than allowing the listener to listen on all IP addresses. Restricting the listener to specific IP addresses helps to prevent an intruder from stealing a TCP end point from under the listener process.

  5. Restrict the privileges of the listener, so that it cannot read or write files in the database or the Oracle server address space.

    This restriction prevents external procedure agents spawned by the listener (or procedures executed by an agent) from inheriting the ability to perform read or write operations. The owner of this separate listener process should not be the owner that installed Oracle Database or executes the Oracle Database instance (such as ORACLE, the default owner).

    For more information about configuring external procedures in the listener, see Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide.

  6. Use encryption to secure the data in flight.

    See Introduction to Strong Authentication, for more information about network data encryption.

  7. Use a firewall.

    Appropriately placed and configured firewalls can prevent outside access to your databases.

    • Keep the database server behind a firewall. Oracle Database network infrastructure, Oracle Net Services (formerly known as SQL*Net), provides support for a variety of firewalls from various vendors. Supported proxy-enabled firewalls include Gauntlet from Network Associates and Raptor from Axent. Supported packet-filtering firewalls include PIX Firewall from Cisco, and supported stateful inspection firewalls (more sophisticated packet-filtered firewalls) include Firewall-1 from CheckPoint.

    • Ensure that the firewall is placed outside the network to be protected.

    • Configure the firewall to accept only those protocols, applications, or client/server sources that you know are safe.

    • Use a product such as Net8 and Oracle Connection Manager to manage multiplex multiple client network sessions through a single network connection to the database. It can filter on source, destination, and host name. This product enables you to ensure that connections are accepted only from physically secure terminals or from application Web servers with known IP addresses. (Filtering on IP address alone is not enough for authentication, because it can be falsified.)

  8. Prevent unauthorized administration of the Oracle listener.

    For more information about the listener, see Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide.

  9. Check network IP addresses.

    Use the Oracle Net valid node checking security feature to allow or deny access to Oracle server processes from network clients with specified IP addresses. To use this feature, set the following sqlnet.ora configuration file parameters:

    tcp.validnode_checking = YES
    tcp.excluded_nodes = {list of IP addresses}
    tcp.invited_nodes = {list of IP addresses}

    The tcp.validnode_checking parameter enables the feature. The tcp.excluded_nodes and tcp.invited_nodes parameters deny and enable specific client IP addresses from making connections to the Oracle listener. This helps to prevent potential Denial of Service attacks.

    You can use Oracle Net Manager to configure these parameters. See Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for more information.

  10. Encrypt network traffic.

    If possible, use Oracle native network data encryption to encrypt network traffic among clients, databases, and application servers. For detailed information about native network encryption, see Configuring Oracle Database Native Network Encryption and Data Integrity.

  11. Secure the host operating system (the system on which Oracle Database is installed).

    Secure the host operating system by disabling all unnecessary operating system services. Both UNIX and Windows provide a variety of operating system services, most of which are not necessary for typical deployments. These services include FTP, TFTP, TELNET, and so forth. Be sure to close both the UDP and TCP ports for each service that is being disabled. Disabling one type of port and not the other does not make the operating system more secure.

  12. Configure database link communication protocol.

    To specify the protocols over which the database link communication takes place, set the OUTBOUND_DBLINK_PROTOCOLS initialization parameter to one of the following settings:

    • ALL (default) enables all net protocols to be used for the database links.

    • comma-separated_list_of_protocols can be set TPC, TCPS, or IPC. For example, for a single protocol:


      For multiple protocols:

    • NONE disables any database link communication.

  13. If necessary, disable LDAP lookup for global database links.

    Set the ALLOW_GLOBAL_DBLINKS initialization parameter to enable or disable LDAP lookup for global database links. Settings are as follows:

    • ON enables LDAP lookup for global database links.

    • OFF (default) disables LDAP lookup for global database links.

A.9.3 Secure Sockets Layer Connection Security

Oracle provides guidelines for securing Secure Sockets Layer (SSL).

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is the Internet standard protocol for secure communication, providing mechanisms for data integrity and data encryption. These mechanisms can protect the messages sent and received by you or by applications and servers, supporting secure authentication, authorization, and messaging through certificates and, if necessary, encryption. Good security practices maximize protection and minimize gaps or disclosures that threaten security.

  1. Ensure that configuration files (for example, for clients and listeners) use the correct port for SSL, which is the port configured upon installation.

    You can run HTTPS on any port, but the standards specify port 443, where any HTTPS-compliant browser looks by default. The port can also be specified in the URL, for example:


    If a firewall is in use, then it too must use the same ports for secure (SSL) communication.

  2. Ensure that TCPS is specified as the PROTOCOL in the ADDRESS parameter in the tnsnames.ora file (typically on the client or in the LDAP directory).

    An identical specification must appear in the listener.ora file (typically in the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin directory).

  3. Ensure that the SSL mode is consistent for both ends of every communication. For example, the database (on one side) and the user or application (on the other) must have the same SSL mode.

    The mode can specify either client or server authentication (one-way), both client and server authentication (two-way), or no authentication.

  4. Ensure that the server supports the client cipher suites and the certificate key algorithm in use.

  5. Enable DN matching for both the server and client, to prevent the server from falsifying its identity to the client during connections.

    This setting ensures that the server identity is correct by matching its global database name against the DN from the server certificate.

    You can enable DN matching in the tnsnames.ora file. For example:


    Otherwise, a client application would not check the server certificate, which could allow the server to falsify its identity.

  6. Do not remove the encryption from your RSA private key inside your server.key file, which requires that you enter your pass phrase to read and parse this file.


    A server without SSL does not require a pass phrase.

    If you decide your server is secure enough, you could remove the encryption from the RSA private key while preserving the original file. This enables system boot scripts to start the database server, because no pass phrase is needed. Ideally, restrict permissions to the root user only, and have the Web server start as root, but then log on as another user. Otherwise, anyone who gets this key can impersonate you on the Internet, or decrypt the data that was sent to the server.

    See Also:

A.10 Guideline for Securing External Procedures

The ENFORCE_CREDENTIAL environment variable controls how an extproc process authenticates user credentials and callout functions.

You can specify this variable in the extproc.ora file. Before modifying this variable, review your site's security requirements for the handling of external libraries. For maximum security, set the ENFORCE_CREDENTIAL variable to TRUE. The default setting is FALSE.

A.11 Guidelines for Auditing

Oracle provides guidelines for auditing.

A.11.1 Manageability of Audited Information

Although auditing is relatively inexpensive, limit the number of audited events as much as possible.

This minimizes the performance impact on the execution of audited statements and the size of the audit trail, making it easier to analyze and understand.

Follow these guidelines when devising an auditing strategy:

  1. Evaluate your reason for auditing.

    After you have a clear understanding of the reasons for auditing, you can devise an appropriate auditing strategy and avoid unnecessary auditing.

    For example, suppose you are auditing to investigate suspicious database activity. This information by itself is not specific enough. What types of suspicious database activity do you suspect or have you noticed? A more focused auditing strategy might be to audit unauthorized deletions from arbitrary tables in the database. This purpose narrows the type of action being audited and the type of object being affected by the suspicious activity.

  2. Audit knowledgeably.

    Audit the minimum number of statements, users, or objects required to get the targeted information. This prevents unnecessary audit information from cluttering the meaningful information and using valuable space in the SYSTEM tablespace. Balance your need to gather sufficient security information with your ability to store and process it.

    For example, if you are auditing to gather information about database activity, then determine exactly what types of activities you want to track, audit only the activities of interest, and audit only for the amount of time necessary to gather the information that you want. As another example, do not audit objects if you are only interested in logical I/O information for each session.

  3. Before you implement an auditing strategy, consult your legal department.

    You should have the legal department of your organization review your audit strategy. Because your auditing will monitor other users in your organization, you must ensure that you are correctly following the compliance and corporate policy of your site.

A.11.2 Audits of Typical Database Activity

Oracle provides guidelines for when you must gather historical information about particular database activities.

  1. Audit only pertinent actions.

    At a minimum, audit user access, the use of system privileges, and changes to the database schema structure. To avoid cluttering meaningful information with useless audit records and reduce the amount of audit trail administration, only audit the targeted database activities. Remember also that auditing too much can affect database performance.

    For example, auditing changes to all tables in a database produces far too many audit trail records and can slow down database performance. However, auditing changes to critical tables, such as salaries in a Human Resources table, is useful.

    You can audit specific actions by using fine-grained auditing, which is described in Auditing Specific Activities with Fine-Grained Auditing.

  2. Archive audit records and purge the audit trail.

    After you collect the required information, archive the audit records of interest and then purge the audit trail of this information. See the following sections:

  3. Remember your company's privacy considerations.

    Privacy regulations often lead to additional business privacy policies. Most privacy laws require businesses to monitor access to personally identifiable information (PII), and monitoring is implemented by auditing. A business-level privacy policy should address all relevant aspects of data access and user accountability, including technical, legal, and company policy concerns.

  4. Check the Oracle Database log files for additional audit information.

    The log files generated by Oracle Database contain useful information that you can use when auditing a database. For example, an Oracle database creates an alert file to record STARTUP and SHUTDOWN operations, and structural changes such as adding data files to the database.

    For example, if you want to audit committed or rolled back transactions, you can use the redo log files.

  5. To reduce the size of the audit trail and recursive SQL statements, audit only top-level statements.

    If you have concerns that the unified audit policy that you create will generate a very large number of records, then include the ONLY TOPLEVEL clause in the CREATE AUDIT POLICY statement. For example, an audit of the DBMS_STATS.GATHER_DATABASE_STATS SQL statement can generate thousands of audit records. You can audit top-level statements from all users, including user SYS.

A.11.3 Audits of Suspicious Database Activity

Oracle provides guidelines for when you audit to monitor suspicious database activity.

  1. First audit generally, and then specifically.

    When you start to audit for suspicious database activity, often not much information is available to target specific users or schema objects. Therefore, audit generally first, that is, by using the unified audit policies. Configuring Audit Policies explains how you can audit SQL statements, schema objects, privileges, and so on.

    After you have recorded and analyzed the preliminary audit information, alter your audit policies to audit specific actions and privileges. You can add conditions to your policies to exclude unnecessary audit records. You an also use the EXCEPT clause in the AUDIT POLICY statement to exclude specific users who do not need to be audited. See Auditing Activities with Unified Audit Policies and the AUDIT Statement for more information about unified audit policies.

    You can use fine-grained auditing, which is described in Auditing Specific Activities with Fine-Grained Auditing, to audit specific actions.

    Continue this process until you have gathered enough evidence to draw conclusions about the origin of the suspicious database activity.

  2. Audit common suspicious activities.

    Common suspicious activities are as follows:

    • Users who access the database during unusual hours

    • Multiple failed user login attempts

    • Login attempts by non-existent users

    In addition, be aware that sensitive data, such as credit card numbers, can appear in the audit trail columns, such as SQL text when used in the SQL query. You should also monitor users who share accounts or multiple users who are logging in from the same IP address. You can query the UNIFIED_AUDIT_TRAIL data dictionary view to find this kind of activity. For a very granular approach, create fine-grained audit policies.

A.11.4 Audits of Sensitive Data

Oracle recommends that you include the ACTIONS ALL clause when you create unified audit policies on sensitive objects.

Including this clause ensures the generation of audit record for both direct access and indirect access of these sensitive objects. Only use ACTIONS ALL for the audit of sensitive objects.

A.11.5 Recommended Audit Settings

Oracle provides predefined policies that contain recommended audit settings that apply to most sites.

For example:

  • ORA_SECURECONFIG audits the same default audit settings from Oracle Database Release 11g. It tracks the use of a number of privileges such as ALTER ANY TABLE, GRANT ANY PRIVILEGE, and CREATE USER. The actions that it tracks include ALTER USER, CREATE ROLE, LOGON, and other commonly performed activities. This policy is enabled by default only when the database is created in Oracle Database Release 12c.

  • ORA_DATABASE_PARAMETER audits commonly used Oracle Database parameter settings: ALTER DATABASE, ALTER SYSTEM, and CREATE SPFILE. By default, this policy is not enabled.

  • ORA_ACCOUNT_MGMT audits the commonly used user account and privilege settings: CREATE USER, ALTER USER, DROP USER, CREATE ROLE, DROP ROLE,ALTER ROLE, SET ROLE, GRANT, and REVOKE. By default, this policy is not enabled.

See Also:

Auditing Activities with the Predefined Unified Audit Policies for detailed information about these and other predefined audit policies

A.11.6 Best Practices for Querying the UNIFIED_AUDIT_TRAIL Data Dictionary View

To get the best results from querying the UNIFIED_AUDIT_TRAIL data dictionary view, you should follow these guidelines.

  1. Ensure the statistics of unified audit internal table are up to date.

    Execute the DBMS_STATS.GATHER_TABLE_STATS procedure on the AUD$UNIFIED table in the AUDSYS schema to ensure that the unified audit table statistics are updated before you query the UNIFIED_AUDIT_TRAIL data dictionary view.

  2. Load the unified audit records that were written to operating system spillover files.

    You can do this either explicitly or by configuring an Oracle Scheduler job, using the DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.LOAD_UNIFIED_AUDIT_FILES procedure.

  3. When the number of records in the unified audit trail reaches a significantly large number (for example, a million), then initiate the proper archiving and purging mechanisms.

    Archiving and purging the unified audit trial reduces the amount of data that otherwise could grow and cause read performance problems. Oracle recommends that you configure standard purging policies. The purging policies that you create will depend on the rate of audit records that are generated on your system. Frequent purges are required for high audit record generation rates.

  4. Move the unified audit trail to a custom tablespace.

    Using a custom tablespace enables you to better manage audit data and reduces the impact on other objects in the SYSAUX tablespace. By default, the unified audit trail records are written to the SYSAUX tablespace. To use a different tablespace, execute the DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.SET_AUDIT_TRAIL_LOCATION procedure.

  5. When you query the UNIFIED_AUDIT_TRAIL data dictionary view, include the EVENT_TIMESTAMP_UTC column in a WHERE clause.

    The EVENT_TIMESTAMP_UTC column records the timestamp of audited events in the UTC timezone. Including this column in the query helps to achieve the partition pruning, and thus improves read performance of the UNIFIED_AUDIT_TRAIL view.

A.12 Addressing the CONNECT Role Change

The CONNECT role, introduced with Oracle Database version 7, added new and robust support for database roles.

A.12.1 Why Was the CONNECT Role Changed?

The CONNECT role is used in sample code, applications, documentation, and technical papers.

In Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2), the CONNECT role was changed. If you are upgrading from a release earlier than Oracle Database 10.2 to the current release, then you should be aware of how the CONNECT role has changed in the most recent release.

The CONNECT role was originally established a special set of privileges. These privileges were as follows: ALTER SESSION, CREATE CLUSTER, CREATE DATABASE LINK, CREATE SEQUENCE, CREATE SESSION, CREATE SYNONYM, CREATE TABLE, CREATE VIEW.

Beginning in Oracle Database 10g Release 2, the CONNECT role has only the CREATE SESSION privilege, all other privileges are removed. Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 1, the CONNECT role had the CREATE SESSION and SET CONTAINER privileges.

Although the CONNECT role was frequently used to provision new accounts in Oracle Database, connecting to the database does not require all those privileges. Making this change enables you to enforce good security practices more easily.

Each user should have only the privileges needed to perform his or her tasks, an idea called the principle of least privilege. Least privilege mitigates risk by limiting privileges, so that it remains easy to do what is needed while concurrently reducing the ability to do inappropriate things, either inadvertently or maliciously.

A.12.2 How the CONNNECT Role Change Affects Applications

The CONNECT role changes can be seen in database upgrades, account provisioning, and installation of applications using new databases.

A.12.2.1 How the CONNECT Role Change Affects Database Upgrades

You should be aware of how the CONNECT role affects database upgrades.

Upgrading your existing Oracle database to Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2) automatically changes the CONNECT role to have only the CREATE SESSION privilege.

Most applications are not affected because the applications objects already exist: no new tables, views, sequences, synonyms, clusters, or database links need to be created.

Applications that create tables, views, sequences, synonyms, clusters, or database links, or that use the ALTER SESSION command dynamically, may fail due to insufficient privileges.

A.12.2.2 How the CONNECT Role Change Affects Account Provisioning

You should be aware of how the CONNECT role affects accounts provisioning.

If your application or DBA grants the CONNECT role as part of the account provisioning process, then only CREATE SESSION privileges are included. Any additional privileges must be granted either directly or through another role.

This issue can be addressed by creating a new customized database role.

A.12.2.3 How the CONNECT Role Change Affects Applications Using New Databases

You should be aware of how the CONNECT role affects applications that use new databases.

New databases created using the Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2) Utility (DBCA), or using database creation templates generated from DBCA, define the CONNECT role with only the CREATE SESSION privilege.

Installing an application to use a new database may fail if the database schema used for the application is granted privileges solely through the CONNECT role.

A.12.3 How the CONNECT Role Change Affects Users

The change to the CONNECT role affects general users, application developers, and client/server applications differently.

A.12.3.1 How the CONNECT Role Change Affects General Users

You should be aware of how the CONNECT role affects general users.

The new CONNECT role supplies only the CREATE SESSION privilege. Users who connect to the database to use an application are not affected, because the CONNECT role still has the CREATE SESSION privilege.

However, appropriate privileges will not be present for a certain set of users if they are provisioned solely with the CONNECT role. These are users who create tables, views, sequences, synonyms, clusters, or database links, or use the ALTER SESSION command. The privileges they need are no longer provided with the CONNECT role. To authorize the additional privileges needed, the database administrator must create and apply additional roles for the appropriate privileges, or grant them directly to the users who need them.

Note that the ALTER SESSION privilege is required for setting events. Few database users should require the ALTER SESSION privilege.

The ALTER SESSION privilege is not required for other alter session commands.

A.12.3.2 How the CONNECT Role Change Affects Application Developers

You should be aware of how the CONNECT role affects application developers.

Application developers provisioned solely with the CONNECT role do not have appropriate privileges to create tables, views, sequences, synonyms, clusters, or database links, nor to use the ALTER SESSION statement.

You must either create and apply additional roles for the appropriate privileges, or grant them directly to the application developers who need them.

A.12.3.3 How the CONNECT Role Change Affects Client Server Applications

You should be aware of how the CONNECT role affects client server applications.

Most client/server applications that use dedicated user accounts will not be affected by this change.

However, applications that create private synonyms or temporary tables using dynamic SQL in the user schema during account provisioning or run-time operations will be affected. They will require additional roles or grants to acquire the system privileges appropriate to their activities.

A.12.4 Approaches to Addressing the CONNECT Role Change

Oracle recommends three approaches to address the impact of the CONNECT role change.

A.12.4.1 Creating a New Database Role

The privileges removed from the CONNECT role can be managed by creating a new database role.

  1. Connect to the upgraded Oracle database and create a new database role.

    The following example uses a role called my_app_developer.

    CREATE ROLE my_app_developer;
  2. Determine which users or database roles have the CONNECT role, and grant the new role to these users or roles.
    NAME                           ADMIN_OPTI DEF
    ------------------------------ ---------- ---
    R1                             YES        YES
    R2                             NO         YES
    GRANT my_app_developer TO R1 WITH ADMIN OPTION;
    GRANT my_app_developer TO R2;
  3. Determine the privileges that users require by creating a privilege analysis policy.

    The information that you gather can then be analyzed and used to create additional database roles with finer granularity. Privileges that are not used can then be revoked for specific users.

    For example:

      name          => 'my_app_dev_role_pol',
      description   => 'Captures my_app_developer role use',
      type          => DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.G_ROLE,
      roles         => role_name_list('my_app_developer');

  4. After a period of time, isable the privilege analysis policy and then generate a report.

  5. After you generate the report, query the privilege analysis data dictionary views.

    For example:


See Also:

Oracle Database Vault Administrator’s Guide for more information about privilege analysis

A.12.4.2 Restoring the CONNECT Privilege

The rstrconn.sql script restores the CONNECT privileges.

After a database upgrade or new database creation, you can use this script to grant the privileges that were removed from the CONNECT role in Oracle Database 10g release 2 (10.2). If you use this approach, then you should revoke privileges that are not used from users who do not need them.

To restore the CONNECT privilege:

  1. Run the rstrconn.sql script, which is in the $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin directory.
  2. Monitor the privileges that are used.

    For example:

    CREATE AUDIT POLICY connect_priv_pol
    AUDIT POLICY connect_priv_pol BY psmith;
  3. Periodically, monitor database privilege usage.

    For example:

    USERID                         NAME
    ------------------------------ ----------------
    ACME                           CREATE TABLE
    ACME                           CREATE SEQUENCE
    ACME                           CREATE TABLE
    ACME                           ALTER SESSION
    APPS                           CREATE TABLE
    APPS                           CREATE TABLE
    APPS                           CREATE TABLE
    APPS                           CREATE TABLE
    8 rows selected.
A.12.4.3 Data Dictionary View to Show CONNECT Grantees

The DBA_CONNECT_ROLE_GRANTEES data dictionary view enables administrators who continue using the old CONNECT role to see which users have that role.

Table A-1 shows the columns in the DBA_CONNECT_ROLE_GRANTEES view.

Table A-1 Columns and Contents for DBA_CONNECT_ROLE_GRANTEES

Column Datatype NULL Description




User granted the CONNECT role




Role (or nested roles) by which the user is granted CONNECT




YES if user has the ADMIN option on CONNECT; otherwise, NO

A.12.4.4 Least Privilege Analysis Studies

Oracle partners and application providers should conduct a least privilege analysis so that they can deliver more secure products to their Oracle customers.

The principle of least privilege mitigates risk by limiting privileges to the minimum set required to perform a given function.

For each class of users that the analysis shows need the same set of privileges, create a role with only those privileges. Remove all other privileges from those users, and assign that role to those users. As needs change, you can grant additional privileges, either directly or through these new roles, or create new roles to meet new needs. This approach helps to ensure that inappropriate privileges have been limited, thereby reducing the risk of inadvertent or malicious harm.

You can create policies that analyze the use of privileges by database users. The policies capture this information and make it available in data dictionary views. Based on these reports, you can determine who should have access to your data.

See Also:

Oracle Database Vault Administrator’s Guide for more information about privilege analysis