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- FTP Server configuration file
The ftpaccess file is used to configure the operation of the FTP Server.
The following access capabilities are supported:
If an anonymous user is a member of any of class, the FTP Server performs a setegid(2) to groupname. This allows access to group and owner read-only files and directories to a particular class of anonymous users. groupname is a valid group returned by getgrnam(3C).
Define class of users, with source addresses of the form addrglob. Multiple members of class may be defined. There may be multiple class commands listing additional members of the class. If multiple class commands can apply to the current session, the first one listed in the access file is used. If a valid class for a host is not defined, access is denied. typelist is a comma-separated list of any of the keywords anonymous, guest, and real. If the real keyword is included, the class can match users using FTP to access real accounts. If the anonymous keyword is included the class can match users using anonymous FTP. The guest keyword matches guest access accounts.
addrglob may be a globbed domain name or a globbed numeric IPv4 address. It may also be the name of a file, starting with a slash ('/'), which contains additional address globs. IPv4 numeric addresses may also be specified in the form address:netmask or address/CIDR. IPv6 numeric addresses can only be specified with an optional CIDR, not using globs or netmasks.
Placing an exclamation (!) before an addrglob negates the test. For example,
class rmtuser real !*.example.com
classifies real users from outside the example.com domain as the class rmtuser. Use care with this option. Remember, the result of each test is OR'ed with other tests on the line.
Deny access to host(s) that match addrglob and display message_file. If the value of addrglob is !nameserved access to sites without a working nameservers is denied. message_file may contain magic cookies. See message for more details.
For guestgroup, if a real user is a member of any groupname, the session is set up like anonymous FTP. groupname is a valid group returned by getgrnam(3C). The user's home directory must be set up exactly as anonymous FTP would be. The home directory field of the passwd entry is divided into two directories. The first field is the root directory that is the argument to the chroot(2) call. The second field is the user's home directory, relative to the root directory. Use a “/./” to separate the two fields. For example, the following is the real entry in /etc/passwd:
When guest1 successfully logs in, the FTP Server performs a chroot() to /export/home/guests and then chdir(2) to /guest1. The guest user is only able to access the directory structure under /export/home/guests, which looks and act as / to guest1, just as an anonymous FTP user would. The d option to ftpconfig(1M) is useful when creating guest FTP user accounts. The group name may be specified by either name or numeric ID. To use a numeric group ID, place a percent sign (%) before the number. You can give ranges. Use an asterisk to indicate all groups. guestuser works like guestgroup, except that it uses the user name or numeric ID. realuser and realgroup have the same syntax, but they reverse the effect of guestuser and guestgroup. They allow real user access when the remote user would otherwise be determined a guest.
guestuser * realgroup admin
causes all non-anonymous users to be treated as guest, with the sole exception of users in the admin group, who are granted real user access.
Adjust the process nice value of the FTP server process by the indicated nice-delta value if the remote user is a member of the named class. If class is not specified, then use nice-delta as the default adjustment to the FTP server process nice value. This default nice value adjustment is used to adjust the nice value of the server process only for those users who do not belong to any class for which a class-specific nice directive exists in the ftpaccess file.
Set the umask applied to files created by the FTP server if the remote user is a member of the named class. If class is not specified, then use the umask as the default for classes that do not have one specified.. The mode of files created may be specified by using the upload directive.
Set the TCP window size (socket buffer size) for the data connection. Use this to control network traffic. For instance, slow PPP dialin links may need smaller TCP windows to speed up throughput. If you do not know what this does, do not set it.
Set the IP Class of Service for either the control or data connection.
For connections using AF_INET type sockets, this sets the Type of Service field in the IP header to the value specified.
For connections using AF_INET6 type sockets, this sets the Traffic Class field in the IP header to the value specified.
When configured through inetd.conf(4), the socket type is controlled by the protocol field of the ftp service. When running in standalone mode the default socket type is AF_INET6. The in.ftpd(1M) 4 option selects AF_INET.
typelist is a comma-separated list of any of the keywords anonymous, guest, real, and class=. When class= appears, it must be followed by a class name.
Set the TCP SO_KEEPALIVE option for control and data sockets. This can be used to control network disconnect. If yes, then set it. If no, then use the system default (usually off). You probably want to set this.
Set various timeout conditions.
How long the FTP Server waits for an incoming (PASV) data connection. The default is 120 seconds.
How long the FTP Server waits and attempts to establish an outgoing (PORT) data connection. This effects the actual connection attempt. The daemon makes several attempts, sleeping between each attempt, before giving up. The default is 120 seconds.
How long the FTP Server waits for some activity on the data connection. You should keep this long because the remote client may have a slow link, and there can be quite a bit of data queued for the client. The default is 1200 seconds.
How long the FTP server generates pathnames matching a pattern from wild cards. The default is 120 seconds.
How long the FTP Server waits for the next command. The default is 900 seconds. The default can also be overridden by using the t option at the command-line. This access clause overrides both.
The SITE IDLE command allows the remote client to establish a higher value for the idle timeout. The maxidle clause sets the upper limit that the client may request. The default can also be overridden by using the T option at the command-line. This access clause overrides both. The default is 7200 seconds.
The maximum time the FTP server allows for the entire RFC931 (AUTH/ident) conversation. Setting this to zero (0) disables the server's use of this protocol. The information obtained by means of RFC931 is recorded in the system logs and is not actually used in any authentication. The default is 10 seconds.
Limit the number of data files a user in the given class may transfer. The limit may be placed on files in, out, or total. If no class is specified, the limit is the default for classes which do not have a limit specified. The optional parameter raw applies the limit to the total traffic rather than just data files.
Limit the number of data bytes a user in the given class may transfer. The limit may be placed on bytes in, out, or total. If no class is specified, the limit is the default for classes which do not have a limit specified. Note that once it has been exceeded, this limit prevents transfers, but it does not terminate a transfer in progress. The optional parameter raw applies the limit to total traffic rather than just data files.
Limit the total time a session can take. By default, there is no limit. Real users are never limited.
Control which hosts may be used for anonymous access. If used without hostname, all anonymous access is denied to this site. More than one hostname may be specified. Anonymous access are only allowed on the named machines. If access is denied, the user is asked to use the first hostname listed.
Limit class to n users at times times, displaying message_file if the user is denied access. A limit check is performed at login time only. If multiple limit commands can apply to the current session, the first applicable one is used. Failing to define a valid limit, or a limit of -1, is equivalent to no limits. The format of times is¸:
The value of day can be Su, Mo, Tu, We, Th, Fr, Sa, Wk (for any weekday Monday through Friday), or Any. time-range is in 24–hour clock notation. If a time range is not specified, any time of the day is matched. Multiple day and time-range may be specified by the “|” symbol. For example, Wk1730-0900|Sa|Su specifies 5:30 p.m. to 9:00 a.m., Monday through Friday, and anytime on weekends. message_file may contain magic cookies. See message for more details.
Always deny retrievability of these files. If filename specifies a pathname that begins with '/' character, then only those files are marked no retrieve. Otherwise all files that match the filename are refused transfer. For example, noretrieve /etc/passwd core specifies no one is able to retrieve the /etc/passwd file. You are allowed to transfer any file named passwd that is not in /etc.
On the other hand, no one is able to get files named core, wherever they are. Directory specifications mark all files and subdirectories in the named directory unretrievable. The filename may be specified as a file glob. For example,
noretrieve /etc /home/*/.htaccess
specifies that no files in /etc or any of its subdirectories may be retrieved. Also, no files named .htaccess anywhere under the /home directory may be retrieved. The optional first parameter selects whether names are interpreted as absolute or relative to the current chroot'd environment. The default is to interpret names beginning with a slash as absolute. The noretrieve restrictions may be placed upon members of particular classes. If any class= is specified, the named files cannot be retrieved only if the current user is a member of one of the given classes.
Allows retrieval of files which would otherwise be denied by noretrieve.
After number login failures, log a repeated login failures message and terminate the FTP connection. The default value for number is 5.
Allow or deny use of the SITE GROUP and SITE GPASS commands after the user logs in. The SITE GROUP and SITE GPASS commands specify an enhanced access group and associated password. If the group name and password are valid, the user becomes a member of the group specified in the group access file /etc/ftpd/ftpgroups by means of setegid(2). See ftpgroups(4) for the format of the file. For this option to work for anonymous FTP users, the FTP Server must keep /etc/group permanently open and load the group access file into memory. This means that the FTP Server now has an additional file descriptor open, and the necessary passwords and access privileges granted to users by means of SITE GROUP is static for the duration of an FTP session. If you have an urgent need to change the access groups or passwords now, you have to kill all of the running FTP Servers.
The following informational capabilities are supported:
The greeting command allows you to control how much information is given out before the remote user logs in. greeting full, which is the default greeting, shows the hostname and daemon version. greeting brief shows the hostname. greeting terse simply says FTP Server ready. Although full is the default, brief is suggested.
The text form allows you to specify any greeting message. message can be any string. Whitespace (spaces and tabs) is converted to a single space.
The banner command operates similarly to the message command, except that the banner is displayed before the user enters the username. The path is relative to the real system root, not to the base of the anonymous FTP directory.
Use of the banner command can completely prevent non-compliant FTP clients from making use of the FTP Server. Not all clients can handle multi-line responses, which is how the banner is displayed.
Use this command to define the email address for the FTP Server administrator. This string is printed every time the %E magic cookie is used in message files.
Defines the default host name of the FTP Server. This string is printed on the greeting message and every time the %L magic cookie is used. The host name for virtual servers overrides this value. If no host name is specified, the default host name for the local machine is used.
Define a file with path such that the FTP Server displays the contents of the file to the user at login time or upon using the change working directory command. The when parameter may be LOGIN or CWD=dirglob. If whenis CWD=dirglob, dirglob specifies the new default directory that triggers the notification. A dirglob of “*” matches all directories.
The optional class specification allows the message to be displayed only to members of a particular class. More than one class may be specified.
Magic cookies can be present in path that cause the FTP Server to replace the cookie with a specified text string:
Local time. For example, Thu Nov 15 17:12:42 1990.
Free space in partition of CWD, in Kbytes.
Current working directory.
The email address for the FTP Server administrator.
Remote host name.
Local host name.
Username given at login time.
Username as defined by means of RFC 931 authentication.
Maximum allowed number of users in this class.
Current number of users in this class.
The following quota magic cookies are also supported but not always set (see the quota-info capability):
absolute limit on disk blocks allocated
preferred limit on disk blocks
current block count
maximum number of allocated inodes (+1)
preferred inode limit
current number of allocated inodes
time limit for excessive disk use
time limit for excessive files
The message is displayed only once to avoid annoying the user. Remember that when messages are triggered by an anonymous or guest FTP user, they must be relative to the base of the anonymous or guest FTP directory tree.
Enable retrieval of quota information for users matching uid-range. This sets the quota magic cookies. Retrieving quota information might cause a significant delay when logging into the server.
uid-range can be a username, single UID, or a UID range. Place a percent sign(%) before a number. An asterisk means “all users.”
Define a file with pathglob such that the FTP Server notifies the user at login time or upon using the change working directory command that the file exists and the date that it was modified. The when parameter may be LOGIN or CWD=dirglob. If when is CWD=dirglob, dirglob specifies the new default directory that triggers the notification. A dirglob of “*” matches all directories. The message is only displayed once, to avoid bothering users. Remember that when README messages are triggered by an anonymous or guest FTP user, the pathglob must be relative to the base of the anonymous or guest FTP directory tree.
The optional class specification allows the message to be displayed only to members of a particular class. You can specify more than one class.
The following logging capabilities are supported:
Enables logging of the individual FTP commands sent by users. typelist is a comma-separated list of any of the keywords anonymous, guest, and real. Command logging information is written to the system log.
Log file transfers made by FTP users to the xferlog(4) file. Logging of incoming transfers to the server can be enabled separately from outbound transfers from the server. directions is a comma-separated list of any of the two keywords inbound and outbound, and respectively causes transfers to be logged for files sent to and from the server.
Enables logging of violations of security rules to the system log, including for example, noretrieve and .notar.
Redirect the logging messages for incoming and outgoing transfers to syslog. Without this option the messages are written to xferlog. When you specify syslog+xferlog, the transfer log messages are sent to both the system log file and the xferlog file.
Customize the format of the transfer log entry written. formatstring can be any string, which might include magic cookies. Strings of whitespace characters are converted into a single space.
The following transfer-specific magic cookies are recognized only immediately after a transfer has been completed:
xferlog(4) includes a description of these fields. If no xferlog format entry is present, the default is:
xferlog format %T %Xt %R %Xn %XP %Xy %Xf %Xd %Xm %U ftp %Xa %u %Xc
The following miscellaneous capabilities are supported:
Define an alias, string, for a directory. Use this command to add the concept of logical directories. For example: alias rfc: /pub/doc/rfc would allow the user to access /pub/doc/rfc from any directory by the command cd rfc:. Aliases only apply to the cd command.
Define an entry in the cdpath. This command defines a search path that is used when changing directories. For example:
cdpath /pub/packages cdpath /.aliases
would allow the user to move into any directory directly under either the /pub/packages or the /.aliases directories. The search path is defined by the order in which the lines appear in the ftpaccess file. If the user were to give the command ftp> cd foo the directory is searched for in the following order:
an alias called foo
The cdpath is only available with the cd command. If you have a large number of aliases, you might want to set up an aliases directory with links to all of the areas you wish to make available to users.
Enable the use of conversions marked with the O_COMPRESS, O_UNCOMPRESS, and O_TAR options in /etc/ftpd/ftpconversions. See ftpconversions(4).
If the file pointed to by path exists, the server checks the file regularly to see if the server is going to be shut down. If a shutdown is planned, the user is notified. New connections are denied after a specified time before shutdown. Current connections are dropped at a specified time before shutdown.
The format of the file specified by path is:
year month day hour minute deny_offset disc_offset text
A value of 1970 or greater.
A value of 0 to 11.
A value of 1 to 31.
A value of 0 to 23.
A value of 0 to 59.
The offsets in HHMM format that new connections is denied and existing connections is disconnected before the shutdown time.
Follows the normal rules for any message. The following additional magic cookies are available:
The time at which the system is going to shut down.
The time at which new connections is denied.
The time at which current connections is dropped.
All times are in the form: ddd MMM DD hh:mm:ss YYYY. Only one shutdown command can be present in the configuration file. You can use the external program ftpshut(1M) to automate generation of this file.
Listen only on the IP address specified. If the value is not set, then the FTP Server listens for connections on every IP address. This applies only when the FTP Server is run in standalone mode.
Enable the FTP Server limited virtual hosting capabilities. The address is the IP address of the virtual server. The second argument specifies that the path is either the path to the root of the filesystem for this virtual server, the banner presented to the user when connecting to this virtual server, or the logfile where transfers are recorded for this virtual server. If the logfile is not specified the default log file is used. All other message files and permissions as well as any other settings in this file apply to all virtual servers. The address may also be specified as a hostname rather than as an IP number. This is strongly discouraged since, if DNS is not available at the time the FTP session begins, the hostname is not matched.
In contrast to limited virtual hosting, complete virtual hosting allows separate configuration files to be virtual host specific. See ftpservers(4). The only additions that are necessary in a virtual host's ftpaccess file is the root directive that ensures the correct root directory is used for the virtual host. This only works with complete virtual hosting, which in contrast to limited virtual hosting, allows separate configuration files to be specified for each virtual host.
path is either the root of the filesystem for this virtual server or the logfile where transfers for this virtual server are recorded. root and logfile may only be specified when not preceded by virtual address in a virtual hosts's ftpaccess file.
Set the hostname shown in the greeting message and status command, or the email address used in message files and on the HELP command, to the given string.
By default, real and guest users are not allowed to log in on the virtual server, unless they are guests that are chroot'd to the virtual root. The users listed on the virtual allow line(s) are granted access. You can grant access to all users by giving '*' as the username. The virtual deny clauses are processed after the virtual allow clauses. Thus specific users can be denied access although all users were allowed in an earlier clause.
Deny log in access to anonymous users on the virtual server. Anonymous users are generally allowed to log in on the virtual server if this option is not specified.
Use a different passwd file for the virtual host.
Use a different shadow file for the virtual host.
By default, all users are allowed access to the non-virtual FTP Server. Use defaultserver deny to revoke access for specific real and guest users. Specify '*' to deny access to all users, except anonymous users. Specific real and guest users can then be allowed access by using defaultserver allow.
By default, all users are allowed access to the non-virtual FTP Server. Use defaultserver private to revoke access for anonymous users.
The virtual and defaultserver allow, deny and private clauses provide a means to control which users are allowed access to which FTP Servers.
Allow control of the address reported in response to a passive command. When any control connection matching cidr requests a passive data connection (PASV), the externalip address is reported. This does not change the address that the daemon actually listens on, only the address reported to the client. This feature allows the daemon to operate correctly behind IP renumbering firewalls. For example:
passive address 10.0.1.15 10.0.0.0/8 passive address 192.168.1.5 0.0.0.0/0
Clients connecting from the class-A network 10 is told the passive connection is listening on IP address 10.0.1.15 while all others is told the connection is listening on 192.168.1.5. Multiple passive addresses may be specified to handle complex, or multi-gatewayed, networks.
Allows control of the TCP port numbers which may be used for a passive data connection. If the control connection matches the cidr, a port in the range min to max is randomly selected for the daemon to listen on. This feature allows firewalls to limit the ports that remote clients may use to connect into the protected network.
cidr is shorthand for an IP address followed by a slash and the number of left-most bits that represent the network address, as opposed to the machine address. For example, if you are using the reserved class-A network 10, instead of a netmask of 255.0.0.0, use a CIDR of /8, as in 10.0.0.0/8, to represent your network.
When min and max are both 0, the kernel rather than the FTP server selects the TCP port to listen on. Kernel port selection is usually not desirable if the kernel allocates TCP ports sequentially. If in doubt, let the FTP server do the port selection.
Normally, the FTP Server does not allow a PORT command to specify an address different than that of the control connection. Nor does it allow a PASV connection from another address.
The port-allow clause provides a list of addresses that the specified class of user may give on a PORT command. These addresses is allowed even if they do not match the IP address of the client-side of the control connection.
The pasv-allow clause provides a list of addresses that the specified class of user may make data connections from. These addresses are allowed even if they do not match the IP address of the client-side of the control connection.
Use the lslong, lsshort, and lsplain clauses to specify the commands and options to use to generate directory listings. The options cannot contain spaces, and the default values for these clauses are generally correct. Use lslong, lsshort, or lsplain only if absolutely necessary.
Specify the name of a mail server that accepts upload notifications for the FTP Server. Multiple mail servers may be listed. The FTP Server attempts to deliver the upload notification to each, in order, until one accepts the message. If no mail servers are specified, localhost is used. This option is only meaningful if anyone is to be notified of anonymous uploads. See incmail.
Specify email addresses to be notified of anonymous uploads. Multiple addresses can be specified. Each receives a notification. If no addresses are specified, no notifications are sent.
If addresses are specified for a virtual host, only those addresses are sent notification of anonymous uploads on that host. Otherwise, notifications are sent to the global addresses.
defaultserver addresses only apply when the FTP session is not using one of the virtual hosts. In this way, you can receive notifications for your default anonymous area, but not see notifications to virtual hosts that do not have their own notifications.
Specify the sender's email address for anonymous upload notifications. Only one address may be specified. If no mailfrom applies, email is sent from the default mailbox name wu-ftpd. To avoid problems if the recipient attempts to reply to a notification, or if downstream mail problems generate bounces, you should ensure the mailfrom address is deliverable.
Set the send or receive buffer sizes used for binary transfers. They have no effect on ASCII transfers.
Allows or disallows the lookup of the remote host's name. Name lookups can be slow, but skipping them means that places where an addrglob is matched (for example, in the class capability) matches only an IP address, not a name. Also deny !nameserved and dns refuse_no_reverse or refuse_mismatch denies access when a name lookup is not done. The default is to lookup the remote host's name.
Only IP addresses, not names, are matched in addrglob.
Controls the behavior at the end of a download or directory listing. If yes, shutdown the data connection for sending and wait for the client to close its end before sending a transfer complete reply on the control connection. This is the default behavior. If no, close the data connection and send the transfer complete reply without waiting for the client. With this behavior, data loss can go undetected.
If a client hangs at the end of a directory listing, or the system has many sockets in the FIN_WAIT_2 state, try setting to no as a workaround for broken client behavior.
The following permission capabilities are supported:
Allows or disallows the ability to perform the specified function. By default, all real and guest users are allowed. Anonymous users are only allowed overwrite and umask.
typelist is a comma-separated list of any of the keywords anonymous, guest, real and class=. When class= appears, it must be followed by a classname. If any class= appears, the typelist restriction applies only to users in that class.
Define the level and enforcement of password checking done by the FTP Server for anonymous FTP.
No password checking is performed.
The password must contain an '@'.
The password must be RFC 822 compliant.
Warn, but permit the login.
Notify and deny the login.
Consider the email address given as an argument as invalid. If passwd-check is set to enforce, anonymous users giving this address as a password cannot log in. That way, you can stop users from having stupid WWW browsers use fake addresses like IE?0User@ or mozilla@. (by using this, you are not shutting out users using a WWW browser for ftp - you just make them configure their browser correctly.) Only one address is allowed per line, but you can have as many deny-email addresses as you like.
For users in typelist, path-filter defines regular expressions that control what characters can be used in the filename of an uploaded file or created directory. There may be multiple disallowed regular expressions. If a filename is invalid due to failure to match the regular expression criteria, message is displayed to the user. For example:
path-filter anonymous /etc/pathmsg ^[-A-Za-z0-9._]*$ ^\. ^-
specifies that all upload filenames for anonymous users must be made of only the characters A-Z, a-z, 0-9, and ._- and may not begin with a . or a -. If the filename is invalid, /etc/pathmsg is displayed to the user.
Define a directory with dirglob that permits or denies uploads. If it does permit uploads, all newly created files is owned by owner and group and has their permissions set according to mode. Existing files that are overwritten retains their original ownership and permissions. Directories are matched on a best-match basis. For example:
upload /var/ftp * no upload /var/ftp /incoming yes ftp daemon 0666 upload /var/ftp /incoming/gifs yes jlc guest 0600 nodirs
would only allow uploads into /incoming and /incoming/gifs. Files that were uploaded to /incoming are owned by ftp/daemon and have permissions of 0666. Files uploaded to /incoming/gifs are owned by jlc/guest and have permissions of 0600. The optional dirs and nodirs keywords can be specified to allow or disallow the creation of new subdirectories using the mkdir command. If the upload command is used, directory creation is allowed by default. To turn it off by default, you must specify a user, group and mode followed by the nodirs keyword as the first line where the upload command is used in this file. If directories are permitted, the optional d_mode determines the permissions for a newly created directory. If d_mode is omitted, the permissions are inferred from mode. The permissions are 0777 if mode is also omitted. The upload keyword only applies to users who have a home directory of root-dir. root-dir may be specified as * to match any home directory. The owner or group may each be specified as *, in which case any uploaded files or directories are created with the ownership of the directory in which they are created. The optional first parameter selects whether root-dir names are interpreted as absolute or relative to the current chroot'd environment. The default is to interpret <root-dir> names as absolute. You can specify any number of class=classname restrictions. If any are specified, this upload clause only takes effect if the current user is a member of one of the classes.
In the absence of any matching upload clause, real and guest users can upload files and make directories, but anonymous users cannot. The mode of uploaded files is 0666. For created directories, the mode is 0777. Both modes are modified by the current umask setting.
Define files by means of a comma-separated file-glob-list in subdir matched by subdir-glob under root-dir that have restricted transfer throughput of bytes-per-second on download when the remote hostname or remote IP address matches the comma-separated remote-glob-list. Entries are matched on a best-match basis. For example:
throughput /e/ftp * * oo - * throughput /e/ftp /sw* * 1024 0.5 * throughput /e/ftp /sw* README oo - * throughput /e/ftp /sw* * oo - *.foo.com
would set maximum throughput per default, but restrict download to 1024 bytes per second for any files under /e/ftp/sw/ that are not named README. The only exceptions are remote hosts from within the domain foo.com which always get maximum throughput. Every time a remote client has retrieved a file under /e/ftp/sw/ the bytes per seconds of the matched entry line are internally multiplied by a factor, here 0.5. When the remote client retrieves its second file, it is served with 512 bytes per second, the third time with only 256 bytes per second, the fourth time with only 128 bytes per second, and so on. The string oo for the bytes per second field means no throughput restriction. A multiply factor of 1.0 or - means no change of the throughput after every successful transfer. The root-dir here must match the home directory specified in the password database . The throughput keyword only applies to users who have a home directory of root-dir.
root-dir specifies the chroot() path for anonymous users. If no anonymous-root is matched, the old method of parsing the home directory for the FTP user is used. If no class is specified, this is the root directory for anonymous users who do not match any other anonymous-root specification. Multiple classes may be specified on this line. If an anonymous-root is chosen for the user, the FTP user's home directory in the root-dir/etc/passwd file is used to determine the initial directory and the FTP user's home directory in the system-wide /etc/passwd is not used. For example:
anonymous-root /home/ftp anonymous-root /home/localftp localnet
causes all anonymous users to be chroot'd to the directory /home/ftp. If the FTP user exists in /home/ftp/etc/passwd, their initial CWD is that home directory. Anonymous users in the class localnet, however, are chroot'd to the directory /home/localftp and their initial CWD is taken from the FTP user's home directory in /home/localftp/etc/passwd.
root-dir specifies the chroot() path for guest users. If no guest-root is matched, the old method of parsing the user's home directory is used. If no uid-range is specified, this is the root directory for guestusers who do not match any other guest-root specification. Multiple UID ranges may be given on this line. If a guest-root is chosen for the user, the user's home directory in the root-dir/etc/passwd file is used to determine the initial directory and the home directory in the system-wide /etc/passwd is not used. uid-range specifies names or numeric UID values. To use numbers, put a percent sign (%) symbol before it or before the range. Ranges are specified by giving the lower and upper bounds (inclusive), separated by a dash. If the lower bound is omitted, it means all up to. If the upper bound is omitted, it means all starting from. For example:
guest-root /home/users guest-root /home/staff %100-999 sally guest-root /home/users/owner/ftp frank
causes all guest users to chroot() to /home/users then starts each user in the user's home directory, as specifiedin /home/users/etc/passwd. Users in the range 100 through 999, inclusive, and user sally, is chroot'd to /home/staff and the CWD is taken from their entries in /home/staff/etc/passwd. The single user frank is chroot'd to /home/users/owner/ftp and the CWD is from his entry in /home/users/owner/ftp/etc/passwd.
The order is important for both anonymous-root and guest-root. If a user would match multiple clauses, only the first applies; with the exception of the clause which has no class or uid-range, which applies only if no other clause matches.
Use these clauses to specify UID and GID values that is denied access to the FTP Server. The allow-uid and allow-gid clauses may be used to allow access for UID and GID values which would otherwise be denied. These checks occur before all others. deny is checked before allow. The default is to allow access. These clauses do not apply to anonymous users. Use defaultserver private to deny access to anonymous users. In most cases, these clauses obviate the need for an ftpusers(4) file. For example, the following clauses deny FTP Server access to all privileged or special users and groups, except the guest1 user or group.
deny-gid %-99 nobody noaccess nogroup deny-uid %-99 nobody noaccess nobody4 allow-gid guest1 allow-uid guest1
Support for the ftpusers file still exists, so it may be used when changing the ftpaccess file is not desired. In any place a single UID or GID is allowed throughout the ftpaccess file, either names or numbers also may be used. To use a number, put a percent sign (%) symbol before it. In places where a range is allowed, put the percent sign before the range. A “*” matches all UIDs or GIDs.
These clauses control whether or not real or guest users is allowed access to areas on the FTP site outside their home directories. These clauses are not meant to replace the use of guestgroup and guestuser. Instead, use these clauses to supplement the operation of guests. The unrestricted-uid and unrestricted-gid clauses may be used to allow users outside their home directories who would otherwise be restricted.
The following example shows the intended use for these clauses. Assume user dick has a home directory /home/dick and jane has a home directory /home/jane:
guest-root /home dick jane restricted-uid dick jane
While both dick and jane are chroot'd to /home, they cannot access each other's files because they are restricted to their home directories. However, you should not rely solely upon the FTP restrictions to control access. As with all other FTP access rules, you should also use directory and file permissions to support the operation of the ftpaccess configuration.
The SITE EXEC feature traditionally limits the number of lines of output that may be sent to the remote client. Use this clause to set this limit. If this clause is omitted, the limit is 20 lines. A limit of 0 (zero) implies no limit. Be very careful if you choose to remove the limit. If a clause is found matching the remote user's class, that limit is used. Otherwise, the clause with class '*', or no class given, is used. For example:
site-exec-max-lines 200 remote site-exec-max-lines 0 local site-exec-max-lines 25
limits output from SITE EXEC (and therefore SITE INDEX) to 200 lines for remote users, specifies there is no limit at all for local users, and sets a limit of 25 lines for all other users.
Refuse FTP sessions when the forward and reverse lookups for the remote site do not match. Lookups are done using the system's name service as configured in nsswitch.conf(4). Display the named file, like a message file, admonishing the user. If the optional override is specified, allow the connection after complaining.
Refuse FTP sessions when the remote host's IP address has no associated name. Lookups are done using the system's name service as configured in nsswitch.conf(4). Display the named file, such as a message file, admonishing the user. If the optional override is specified, allow the connection after complaining.
Modify certain internal resolver variables. This only has an effect when DNS is used as the system's name service. The line takes a series of options which are used to set the RES_OPTIONS environment variable. See resolv.conf(4) for details. For example:
dns resolveroptions rotate attempts:1
turns on querying name servers round-robin and selects querying each name server only once.
Lines that begin with a # sign are treated as comment lines and are ignored.
See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:
compress(1), ls(1), tar(1), ftpaddhost(1M), ftpconfig(1M), ftpshut(1M), in.ftpd(1M), chroot(2), nice(2), umask(2), getgrnam(3C), resolver(3RESOLV), ftpconversions(4), ftpgroups(4), ftpservers(4), ftpusers(4), nsswitch.conf(4), resolv.conf(4), timezone(4), xferlog(4), attributes(5), fnmatch(5)
Crocker, David H. RFC 822, Standard For The Format Of ARPA Internet Text Messages. Network Information Center. August 1982.
St. Johns, Michael. RFC 931, Authentication Server. Network Working Group. January 1985.