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Updated: July 2017

mysqldump (1)


mysqldump - a database backup program


mysqldump [options] [db_name [tbl_name ...]]


MYSQLDUMP(1)                 MySQL Database System                MYSQLDUMP(1)

       mysqldump - a database backup program

       mysqldump [options] [db_name [tbl_name ...]]

       The mysqldump client utility performs logical backups, producing a set
       of SQL statements that can be executed to reproduce the original
       database object definitions and table data. It dumps one or more MySQL
       databases for backup or transfer to another SQL server. The mysqldump
       command can also generate output in CSV, other delimited text, or XML

       o   Performance and Scalability Considerations

       o   Invocation Syntax

       o   Option Syntax - Alphabetical Summary

       o   Connection Options

       o   Option-File Options

       o   DDL Options

       o   Debug Options

       o   Help Options

       o   Internationalization Options

       o   Replication Options

       o   Format Options

       o   Filtering Options

       o   Performance Options

       o   Transactional Options

       o   Option Groups

       o   Examples

       o   Restrictions

           If you have tables that contain generated columns, use the
           mysqldump utility provided with MySQL 5.7.9 or higher to create
           your dump files. The mysqldump utility provided in earlier releases
           uses incorrect syntax for generated column definitions (Bug
           #20769542). You can use the INFORMATION_SCHEMA.COLUMNS table to
           identify tables with generated columns.

       mysqldump requires at least the SELECT privilege for dumped tables,
       SHOW VIEW for dumped views, TRIGGER for dumped triggers, and LOCK
       TABLES if the --single-transaction option is not used. Certain options
       might require other privileges as noted in the option descriptions.

       To reload a dump file, you must have the privileges required to execute
       the statements that it contains, such as the appropriate CREATE
       privileges for objects created by those statements.

       mysqldump output can include ALTER DATABASE statements that change the
       database collation. These may be used when dumping stored programs to
       preserve their character encodings. To reload a dump file containing
       such statements, the ALTER privilege for the affected database is

           A dump made using PowerShell on Windows with output redirection
           creates a file that has UTF-16 encoding:

               shell> mysqldump [options] > dump.sql

           However, UTF-16 is not permitted as a connection character set (see
           Section 11.1.4, "Connection Character Sets and Collations"), so the
           dump file will not load correctly. To work around this issue, use
           the --result-file option, which creates the output in ASCII format:

               shell> mysqldump [options] --result-file=dump.sql
       Performance and Scalability Considerations.PP mysqldump advantages
       include the convenience and flexibility of viewing or even editing the
       output before restoring. You can clone databases for development and
       DBA work, or produce slight variations of an existing database for
       testing. It is not intended as a fast or scalable solution for backing
       up substantial amounts of data. With large data sizes, even if the
       backup step takes a reasonable time, restoring the data can be very
       slow because replaying the SQL statements involves disk I/O for
       insertion, index creation, and so on.

       For large-scale backup and restore, a physical backup is more
       appropriate, to copy the data files in their original format that can
       be restored quickly:

       o   If your tables are primarily InnoDB tables, or if you have a mix of
           InnoDB and MyISAM tables, consider using the mysqlbackup command of
           the MySQL Enterprise Backup product. (Available as part of the
           Enterprise subscription.) It provides the best performance for
           InnoDB backups with minimal disruption; it can also back up tables
           from MyISAM and other storage engines; and it provides a number of
           convenient options to accommodate different backup scenarios. See
           Section 27.2, "MySQL Enterprise Backup Overview".

       mysqldump can retrieve and dump table contents row by row, or it can
       retrieve the entire content from a table and buffer it in memory before
       dumping it. Buffering in memory can be a problem if you are dumping
       large tables. To dump tables row by row, use the --quick option (or
       --opt, which enables --quick). The --opt option (and hence --quick) is
       enabled by default, so to enable memory buffering, use --skip-quick.

       If you are using a recent version of mysqldump to generate a dump to be
       reloaded into a very old MySQL server, use the --skip-opt option
       instead of the --opt or --extended-insert option.

       For additional information about mysqldump, see Section 8.4, "Using
       mysqldump for Backups".  Invocation Syntax.PP There are in general
       three ways to use mysqldump--in order to dump a set of one or more
       tables, a set of one or more complete databases, or an entire MySQL
       server--as shown here:

           shell> mysqldump [options] db_name [tbl_name ...]
           shell> mysqldump [options] --databases db_name ...
           shell> mysqldump [options] --all-databases

       To dump entire databases, do not name any tables following db_name, or
       use the --databases or --all-databases option.

       To see a list of the options your version of mysqldump supports, issue
       the command mysqldump --help.  Option Syntax - Alphabetical Summary.PP
       mysqldump supports the following options, which can be specified on the
       command line or in the [mysqldump] and [client] groups of an option
       file. For information about option files used by MySQL programs, see
       Section 5.2.6, "Using Option Files".  Connection Options.PP The
       mysqldump command logs into a MySQL server to extract information. The
       following options specify how to connect to the MySQL server, either on
       the same machine or a remote system.

       o   --bind-address=ip_address

           On a computer having multiple network interfaces, use this option
           to select which interface to use for connecting to the MySQL

       o   --compress, -C

           Compress all information sent between the client and the server if
           both support compression.

       o   --default-auth=plugin

           A hint about the client-side authentication plugin to use. See
           Section 7.3.8, "Pluggable Authentication".

       o   --enable-cleartext-plugin

           Enable the mysql_clear_password cleartext authentication plugin.
           (See Section, "The Cleartext Client-Side Authentication

           This option was added in MySQL 5.7.10.

       o   --host=host_name, -h host_name

           Dump data from the MySQL server on the given host. The default host
           is localhost.

       o   --login-path=name

           Read options from the named login path in the .mylogin.cnf login
           path file. A "login path" is an option group containing options
           that specify which MySQL server to connect to and which account to
           authenticate as. To create or modify a login path file, use the
           mysql_config_editor utility. See mysql_config_editor(1).

       o   --password[=password], -p[password]

           The password to use when connecting to the server. If you use the
           short option form (-p), you cannot have a space between the option
           and the password. If you omit the password value following the
           --password or -p option on the command line, mysqldump prompts for

           Specifying a password on the command line should be considered
           insecure. See Section, "End-User Guidelines for Password
           Security". You can use an option file to avoid giving the password
           on the command line.

       o   --pipe, -W

           On Windows, connect to the server using a named pipe. This option
           applies only if the server supports named-pipe connections.

       o   --plugin-dir=dir_name

           The directory in which to look for plugins. Specify this option if
           the --default-auth option is used to specify an authentication
           plugin but mysqldump does not find it. See Section 7.3.8,
           "Pluggable Authentication".

       o   --port=port_num, -P port_num

           The TCP/IP port number to use for the connection.

       o   --protocol={TCP|SOCKET|PIPE|MEMORY}

           The connection protocol to use for connecting to the server. It is
           useful when the other connection parameters normally would cause a
           protocol to be used other than the one you want. For details on the
           permissible values, see Section 5.2.2, "Connecting to the MySQL

       o   --secure-auth

           Do not send passwords to the server in old (pre-4.1) format. This
           prevents connections except for servers that use the newer password
           format. This option was added in MySQL 5.7.4.

           As of MySQL 5.7.5, this option is deprecated and will be removed in
           a future MySQL release. It is always enabled and attempting to
           disable it (--skip-secure-auth, --secure-auth=0) produces an error.
           Before MySQL 5.7.5, this option is enabled by default but can be

               Passwords that use the pre-4.1 hashing method are less secure
               than passwords that use the native password hashing method and
               should be avoided. Pre-4.1 passwords are deprecated and support
               for them is removed in MySQL 5.7.5. For account upgrade
               instructions, see Section, "Migrating Away from Pre-4.1
               Password Hashing and the mysql_old_password Plugin".

       o   --socket=path, -S path

           For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use, or, on
           Windows, the name of the named pipe to use.

       o   --ssl*

           Options that begin with --ssl specify whether to connect to the
           server using SSL and indicate where to find SSL keys and
           certificates. See Section 7.4.5, "Command Options for Secure

       o   --tls-version=protocol_list

           The protocols permitted by the client for encrypted connections.
           The value is a comma-separated list containing one or more protocol
           names. The protocols that can be named for this option depend on
           the SSL library used to compile MySQL. For details, see
           Section 7.4.3, "Secure Connection Protocols and Ciphers".

           This option was added in MySQL 5.7.10.

       o   --user=user_name, -u user_name

           The MySQL user name to use when connecting to the server.

       You can also set the following variables by using --var_name=value

       o   max_allowed_packet

           The maximum size of the buffer for client/server communication. The
           default is 24MB, the maximum is 1GB.

       o   net_buffer_length

           The initial size of the buffer for client/server communication.
           When creating multiple-row INSERT statements (as with the
           --extended-insert or --opt option), mysqldump creates rows up to
           net_buffer_length bytes long. If you increase this variable, ensure
           that the MySQL server net_buffer_length system variable has a value
           at least this large.
       Option-File Options.PP These options are used to control which option
       files to read.

       o   --defaults-extra-file=file_name

           Read this option file after the global option file but (on Unix)
           before the user option file. If the file does not exist or is
           otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs.  file_name is interpreted
           relative to the current directory if given as a relative path name
           rather than a full path name.

       o   --defaults-file=file_name

           Use only the given option file. If the file does not exist or is
           otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs.  file_name is interpreted
           relative to the current directory if given as a relative path name
           rather than a full path name.

           Exception: Even with --defaults-file, client programs read

       o   --defaults-group-suffix=str

           Read not only the usual option groups, but also groups with the
           usual names and a suffix of str. For example, mysqldump normally
           reads the [client] and [mysqldump] groups. If the
           --defaults-group-suffix=_other option is given, mysqldump also
           reads the [client_other] and [mysqldump_other] groups.

       o   --no-defaults

           Do not read any option files. If program startup fails due to
           reading unknown options from an option file, --no-defaults can be
           used to prevent them from being read.

           The exception is that the .mylogin.cnf file, if it exists, is read
           in all cases. This permits passwords to be specified in a safer way
           than on the command line even when --no-defaults is used.
           (.mylogin.cnf is created by the mysql_config_editor utility. See

       o   --print-defaults

           Print the program name and all options that it gets from option
       DDL Options.PP Usage scenarios for mysqldump include setting up an
       entire new MySQL instance (including database tables), and replacing
       data inside an existing instance with existing databases and tables.
       The following options let you specify which things to tear down and set
       up when restoring a dump, by encoding various DDL statements within the
       dump file.

       o   --add-drop-database

           Write a DROP DATABASE statement before each CREATE DATABASE
           statement. This option is typically used in conjunction with the
           --all-databases or --databases option because no CREATE DATABASE
           statements are written unless one of those options is specified.

       o   --add-drop-table

           Write a DROP TABLE statement before each CREATE TABLE statement.

       o   --add-drop-trigger

           Write a DROP TRIGGER statement before each CREATE TRIGGER

       o   --all-tablespaces, -Y

           Adds to a table dump all SQL statements needed to create any
           tablespaces used by an NDB table. This information is not otherwise
           included in the output from mysqldump. This option is currently
           relevant only to MySQL Cluster tables, which are not supported in
           MySQL 5.7.

       o   --no-create-db, -n

           Suppress the CREATE DATABASE statements that are otherwise included
           in the output if the --databases or --all-databases option is

       o   --no-create-info, -t

           Do not write CREATE TABLE statements that create each dumped table.

               This option does not exclude statements creating log file
               groups or tablespaces from mysqldump output; however, you can
               use the --no-tablespaces option for this purpose.

       o   --no-tablespaces, -y

           This option suppresses all CREATE LOGFILE GROUP and CREATE
           TABLESPACE statements in the output of mysqldump.

       o   --replace

           Write REPLACE statements rather than INSERT statements.
       Debug Options.PP The following options print debugging information,
       encode debugging information in the dump file, or let the dump
       operation proceed regardless of potential problems.

       o   --allow-keywords

           Permit creation of column names that are keywords. This works by
           prefixing each column name with the table name.

       o   --comments, -i

           Write additional information in the dump file such as program
           version, server version, and host. This option is enabled by
           default. To suppress this additional information, use

       o   --debug[=debug_options], -# [debug_options]

           Write a debugging log. A typical debug_options string is
           d:t:o,file_name. The default value is d:t:o,/tmp/mysqldump.trace.

       o   --debug-check

           Print some debugging information when the program exits.

       o   --debug-info

           Print debugging information and memory and CPU usage statistics
           when the program exits.

       o   --dump-date

           If the --comments option is given, mysqldump produces a comment at
           the end of the dump of the following form:

               -- Dump completed on DATE

           However, the date causes dump files taken at different times to
           appear to be different, even if the data are otherwise identical.
           --dump-date and --skip-dump-date control whether the date is added
           to the comment. The default is --dump-date (include the date in the
           comment).  --skip-dump-date suppresses date printing.

       o   --force, -f

           Ignore all errors; continue even if an SQL error occurs during a
           table dump.

           One use for this option is to cause mysqldump to continue executing
           even when it encounters a view that has become invalid because the
           definition refers to a table that has been dropped. Without
           --force, mysqldump exits with an error message. With --force,
           mysqldump prints the error message, but it also writes an SQL
           comment containing the view definition to the dump output and
           continues executing.

           If the --ignore-error option is also given to ignore specific
           errors, --force takes precedence.

       o   --log-error=file_name

           Log warnings and errors by appending them to the named file. The
           default is to do no logging.

       o   --skip-comments

           See the description for the --comments option.

       o   --verbose, -v

           Verbose mode. Print more information about what the program does.
       Help Options.PP The following options display information about the
       mysqldump command itself.

       o   --help, -?

           Display a help message and exit.

       o   --version, -V

           Display version information and exit.
       Internationalization Options.PP The following options change how the
       mysqldump command represents character data with national language

       o   --character-sets-dir=dir_name

           The directory where character sets are installed. See Section 11.5,
           "Character Set Configuration".

       o   --default-character-set=charset_name

           Use charset_name as the default character set. See Section 11.5,
           "Character Set Configuration". If no character set is specified,
           mysqldump uses utf8.

       o   --no-set-names, -N

           Turns off the --set-charset setting, the same as specifying

       o   --set-charset

           Write SET NAMES default_character_set to the output. This option is
           enabled by default. To suppress the SET NAMES statement, use
       Replication Options.PP The mysqldump command is frequently used to
       create an empty instance, or an instance including data, on a slave
       server in a replication configuration. The following options apply to
       dumping and restoring data on replication master and slave servers.

       o   --apply-slave-statements

           For a slave dump produced with the --dump-slave option, add a STOP
           SLAVE statement before the CHANGE MASTER TO statement and a START
           SLAVE statement at the end of the output.

       o   --delete-master-logs

           On a master replication server, delete the binary logs by sending a
           PURGE BINARY LOGS statement to the server after performing the dump
           operation. This option automatically enables --master-data.

       o   --dump-slave[=value]

           This option is similar to --master-data except that it is used to
           dump a replication slave server to produce a dump file that can be
           used to set up another server as a slave that has the same master
           as the dumped server. It causes the dump output to include a CHANGE
           MASTER TO statement that indicates the binary log coordinates (file
           name and position) of the dumped slave's master. The CHANGE MASTER
           TO statement reads the values of Relay_Master_Log_File and
           Exec_Master_Log_Pos from the SHOW SLAVE STATUS output and uses them
           for MASTER_LOG_FILE and MASTER_LOG_POS respectively. These are the
           master server coordinates from which the slave should start

               Inconsistencies in the sequence of transactions from the relay
               log which have been executed can cause the wrong position to be
               used. See Section, "Replication and Transaction
               Inconsistencies" for more information.
           --dump-slave causes the coordinates from the master to be used
           rather than those of the dumped server, as is done by the
           --master-data option. In addition, specfiying this option causes
           the --master-data option to be overridden, if used, and effectively

               This option should not be used if the server where the dump is
               going to be applied uses gtid_mode=ON and
           The option value is handled the same way as for --master-data
           (setting no value or 1 causes a CHANGE MASTER TO statement to be
           written to the dump, setting 2 causes the statement to be written
           but encased in SQL comments) and has the same effect as
           --master-data in terms of enabling or disabling other options and
           in how locking is handled.

           This option causes mysqldump to stop the slave SQL thread before
           the dump and restart it again after.

           In conjunction with --dump-slave, the --apply-slave-statements and
           --include-master-host-port options can also be used.

       o   --include-master-host-port

           For the CHANGE MASTER TO statement in a slave dump produced with
           the --dump-slave option, add MASTER_HOST and MASTER_PORT options
           for the host name and TCP/IP port number of the slave's master.

       o   --master-data[=value]

           Use this option to dump a master replication server to produce a
           dump file that can be used to set up another server as a slave of
           the master. It causes the dump output to include a CHANGE MASTER TO
           statement that indicates the binary log coordinates (file name and
           position) of the dumped server. These are the master server
           coordinates from which the slave should start replicating after you
           load the dump file into the slave.

           If the option value is 2, the CHANGE MASTER TO statement is written
           as an SQL comment, and thus is informative only; it has no effect
           when the dump file is reloaded. If the option value is 1, the
           statement is not written as a comment and takes effect when the
           dump file is reloaded. If no option value is specified, the default
           value is 1.

           This option requires the RELOAD privilege and the binary log must
           be enabled.

           The --master-data option automatically turns off --lock-tables. It
           also turns on --lock-all-tables, unless --single-transaction also
           is specified, in which case, a global read lock is acquired only
           for a short time at the beginning of the dump (see the description
           for --single-transaction). In all cases, any action on logs happens
           at the exact moment of the dump.

           It is also possible to set up a slave by dumping an existing slave
           of the master, using the --dump-slave option, which overrides
           --master-data and causes it to be ignored if both options are used.

       o   --set-gtid-purged=value

           This option enables control over global transaction ID (GTID)
           information written to the dump file, by indicating whether to add
           a SET @@global.gtid_purged statement to the output. This option may
           also cause a statement to be written to the output that disables
           binary logging while the dump file is being reloaded.

           The following table shows the permitted option values. The default
           value is AUTO.

           |Value | Meaning                     |
           |OFF   | Add no SET statement to     |
           |      | the output.                 |
           |ON    | Add a SET statement to the  |
           |      | output. An error occurs if  |
           |      |                     GTIDs   |
           |      | are not enabled on the      |
           |      | server.                     |
           |AUTO  | Add a SET statement to the  |
           |      | output if GTIDs are         |
           |      |                     enabled |
           |      | on the server.              |
           The --set-gtid-purged option has the following effect on binary
           logging when the dump file is reloaded:

           o   --set-gtid-purged=OFF: SET @@SESSION.SQL_LOG_BIN=0; is not
               added to the output.

           o   --set-gtid-purged=ON: SET @@SESSION.SQL_LOG_BIN=0; is added to
               the output.

           o   --set-gtid-purged=AUTO: SET @@SESSION.SQL_LOG_BIN=0; is added
               to the output if GTIDs are enabled on the server you are
               backing up (that is, if AUTO evaluates to ON).
       Format Options.PP The following options specify how to represent the
       entire dump file or certain kinds of data in the dump file. They also
       control whether certain optional information is written to the dump

       o   --compact

           Produce more compact output. This option enables the
           --skip-add-drop-table, --skip-add-locks, --skip-comments,
           --skip-disable-keys, and --skip-set-charset options.

       o   --compatible=name

           Produce output that is more compatible with other database systems
           or with older MySQL servers. The value of name can be ansi,
           mysql323, mysql40, postgresql, oracle, mssql, db2, maxdb,
           no_key_options, no_table_options, or no_field_options. To use
           several values, separate them by commas. These values have the same
           meaning as the corresponding options for setting the server SQL
           mode. See Section 6.1.8, "Server SQL Modes".

           This option does not guarantee compatibility with other servers. It
           only enables those SQL mode values that are currently available for
           making dump output more compatible. For example,
           --compatible=oracle does not map data types to Oracle types or use
           Oracle comment syntax.

           This option requires a server version of 4.1.0 or higher. With
           older servers, it does nothing.

       o   --complete-insert, -c

           Use complete INSERT statements that include column names.

       o   --create-options

           Include all MySQL-specific table options in the CREATE TABLE

       o   --fields-terminated-by=..., --fields-enclosed-by=...,
           --fields-optionally-enclosed-by=..., --fields-escaped-by=...

           These options are used with the --tab option and have the same
           meaning as the corresponding FIELDS clauses for LOAD DATA INFILE.
           See Section 14.2.6, "LOAD DATA INFILE Syntax".

       o   --hex-blob

           Dump binary columns using hexadecimal notation (for example, 'abc'
           becomes 0x616263). The affected data types are BINARY, VARBINARY,
           the BLOB types, and BIT.

       o   --lines-terminated-by=...

           This option is used with the --tab option and has the same meaning
           as the corresponding LINES clause for LOAD DATA INFILE. See
           Section 14.2.6, "LOAD DATA INFILE Syntax".

       o   --quote-names, -Q

           Quote identifiers (such as database, table, and column names)
           within ` characters. If the ANSI_QUOTES SQL mode is enabled,
           identifiers are quoted within " characters. This option is enabled
           by default. It can be disabled with --skip-quote-names, but this
           option should be given after any option such as --compatible that
           may enable --quote-names.

       o   --result-file=file_name, -r file_name

           Direct output to the named file. The result file is created and its
           previous contents overwritten, even if an error occurs while
           generating the dump.

           This option should be used on Windows to prevent newline \n
           characters from being converted to \r\n carriage return/newline

       o   --tab=dir_name, -T dir_name

           Produce tab-separated text-format data files. For each dumped
           table, mysqldump creates a tbl_name.sql file that contains the
           CREATE TABLE statement that creates the table, and the server
           writes a tbl_name.txt file that contains its data. The option value
           is the directory in which to write the files.

               This option should be used only when mysqldump is run on the
               same machine as the mysqld server. Because the server creates
               files *.txt file in the directory that you specify, the
               directory must be writable by the server and the MySQL account
               that you use must have the FILE privilege. Because mysqldump
               creates *.sql in the same directory, it must be writable by
               your system login account.
           By default, the .txt data files are formatted using tab characters
           between column values and a newline at the end of each line. The
           format can be specified explicitly using the --fields-xxx and
           --lines-terminated-by options.

           Column values are converted to the character set specified by the
           --default-character-set option.

       o   --tz-utc

           This option enables TIMESTAMP columns to be dumped and reloaded
           between servers in different time zones.  mysqldump sets its
           connection time zone to UTC and adds SET TIME_ZONE='+00:00' to the
           dump file. Without this option, TIMESTAMP columns are dumped and
           reloaded in the time zones local to the source and destination
           servers, which can cause the values to change if the servers are in
           different time zones.  --tz-utc also protects against changes due
           to daylight saving time.  --tz-utc is enabled by default. To
           disable it, use --skip-tz-utc.

       o   --xml, -X

           Write dump output as well-formed XML.

           NULL, 'NULL', and Empty Values: For a column named column_name, the
           NULL value, an empty string, and the string value 'NULL' are
           distinguished from one another in the output generated by this
           option as follows.

           |Value:                | XML Representation:             |
           |NULL (unknown value)  | <field name="column_name"       |
           |                      | xsi:nil="true" />               |
           |'' (empty string)     | <field                          |
           |                      | name="column_name"></field>     |
           |'NULL' (string value) | <field                          |
           |                      | name="column_name">NULL</field> |
           The output from the mysql client when run using the --xml option
           also follows the preceding rules. (See the section called "MYSQL

           XML output from mysqldump includes the XML namespace, as shown

               shell> mysqldump --xml -u root world City
               <?xml version="1.0"?>
               <mysqldump xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance">
               <database name="world">
               <table_structure name="City">
               <field Field="ID" Type="int(11)" Null="NO" Key="PRI" Extra="auto_increment" />
               <field Field="Name" Type="char(35)" Null="NO" Key="" Default="" Extra="" />
               <field Field="CountryCode" Type="char(3)" Null="NO" Key="" Default="" Extra="" />
               <field Field="District" Type="char(20)" Null="NO" Key="" Default="" Extra="" />
               <field Field="Population" Type="int(11)" Null="NO" Key="" Default="0" Extra="" />
               <key Table="City" Non_unique="0" Key_name="PRIMARY" Seq_in_index="1" Column_name="ID"
               Collation="A" Cardinality="4079" Null="" Index_type="BTREE" Comment="" />
               <options Name="City" Engine="MyISAM" Version="10" Row_format="Fixed" Rows="4079"
               Avg_row_length="67" Data_length="273293" Max_data_length="18858823439613951"
               Index_length="43008" Data_free="0" Auto_increment="4080"
               Create_time="2007-03-31 01:47:01" Update_time="2007-03-31 01:47:02"
               Collation="latin1_swedish_ci" Create_options="" Comment="" />
               <table_data name="City">
               <field name="ID">1</field>
               <field name="Name">Kabul</field>
               <field name="CountryCode">AFG</field>
               <field name="District">Kabol</field>
               <field name="Population">1780000</field>
               <field name="ID">4079</field>
               <field name="Name">Rafah</field>
               <field name="CountryCode">PSE</field>
               <field name="District">Rafah</field>
               <field name="Population">92020</field>
       Filtering Options.PP The following options control which kinds of
       schema objects are written to the dump file: by category, such as
       triggers or events; by name, for example, choosing which databases and
       tables to dump; or even filtering rows from the table data using a
       WHERE clause.

       o   --all-databases, -A

           Dump all tables in all databases. This is the same as using the
           --databases option and naming all the databases on the command

       o   --databases, -B

           Dump several databases. Normally, mysqldump treats the first name
           argument on the command line as a database name and following names
           as table names. With this option, it treats all name arguments as
           database names.  CREATE DATABASE and USE statements are included in
           the output before each new database.

           This option may be used to dump the INFORMATION_SCHEMA and
           performace_schema databases, which normally are not dumped even
           with the --all-databases option. (Also use the --skip-lock-tables

       o   --events, -E

           Include Event Scheduler events for the dumped databases in the
           output. This option requires the EVENT privileges for those

           The output generated by using --events contains CREATE EVENT
           statements to create the events. However, these statements do not
           include attributes such as the event creation and modification
           timestamps, so when the events are reloaded, they are created with
           timestamps equal to the reload time.

           If you require events to be created with their original timestamp
           attributes, do not use --events. Instead, dump and reload the
           contents of the mysql.event table directly, using a MySQL account
           that has appropriate privileges for the mysql database.

       o   --ignore-error=error[,error]...

           Ignore the specified errors. The option value is a comma-separated
           list of error numbers specifying the errors to ignore during
           mysqldump execution. If the --force option is also given to ignore
           all errors, --force takes precedence.

           This option was added in MySQL 5.7.1.

       o   --ignore-table=db_name.tbl_name

           Do not dump the given table, which must be specified using both the
           database and table names. To ignore multiple tables, use this
           option multiple times. This option also can be used to ignore

       o   --no-data, -d

           Do not write any table row information (that is, do not dump table
           contents). This is useful if you want to dump only the CREATE TABLE
           statement for the table (for example, to create an empty copy of
           the table by loading the dump file).

       o   --routines, -R

           Include stored routines (procedures and functions) for the dumped
           databases in the output. This option requires the SELECT privilege
           for the mysql.proc table.

           The output generated by using --routines contains CREATE PROCEDURE
           and CREATE FUNCTION statements to create the routines. However,
           these statements do not include attributes such as the routine
           creation and modification timestamps, so when the routines are
           reloaded, they are created with timestamps equal to the reload

           If you require routines to be created with their original timestamp
           attributes, do not use --routines. Instead, dump and reload the
           contents of the mysql.proc table directly, using a MySQL account
           that has appropriate privileges for the mysql database.

       o   --tables

           Override the --databases or -B option.  mysqldump regards all name
           arguments following the option as table names.

       o   --triggers

           Include triggers for each dumped table in the output. This option
           is enabled by default; disable it with --skip-triggers.

           To be able to dump a table's triggers, you must have the TRIGGER
           privilege for the table.

           Before MySQL 5.7.2, a table cannot have multiple triggers that have
           the same combination of trigger event (INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE) and
           action time (BEFORE, AFTER). MySQL 5.7.2 lifts this limitation and
           multiple triggers are permitted.  mysqldump dumps triggers in
           activation order so that when the dump file is reloaded, triggers
           are created in the same activation order. However, if a mysqldump
           dump file contains multiple triggers for a table that have the same
           trigger event and action time, an error occurs for attempts to load
           the dump file into an older server that does not support multiple
           triggers. (For a workaround, see Section, "Changes
           Affecting Downgrades from MySQL 5.7"; you can convert triggers to
           be compatible with older servers.)

       o   --where='where_condition', -w 'where_condition'

           Dump only rows selected by the given WHERE condition. Quotes around
           the condition are mandatory if it contains spaces or other
           characters that are special to your command interpreter.


       Performance Options.PP The following options are the most relevant for
       the performance particularly of the restore operations. For large data
       sets, restore operation (processing the INSERT statements in the dump
       file) is the most time-consuming part. When it is urgent to restore
       data quickly, plan and test the performance of this stage in advance.
       For restore times measured in hours, you might prefer an alternative
       backup and restore solution, such as MySQL Enterprise Backup for
       InnoDB-only and mixed-use databases.

       Performance is also affected by the transactional options, primarily
       for the dump operation.

       o   --disable-keys, -K

           For each table, surround the INSERT statements with /*!40000 ALTER
           TABLE tbl_name DISABLE KEYS */; and /*!40000 ALTER TABLE tbl_name
           ENABLE KEYS */; statements. This makes loading the dump file faster
           because the indexes are created after all rows are inserted. This
           option is effective only for nonunique indexes of MyISAM tables.

       o   --extended-insert, -e

           Write INSERT statements using multiple-row syntax that includes
           several VALUES lists. This results in a smaller dump file and
           speeds up inserts when the file is reloaded.

       o   --insert-ignore

           Write INSERT IGNORE statements rather than INSERT statements.

       o   --opt

           This option, enabled by default, is shorthand for the combination
           of --add-drop-table --add-locks --create-options --disable-keys
           --extended-insert --lock-tables --quick --set-charset. It gives a
           fast dump operation and produces a dump file that can be reloaded
           into a MySQL server quickly.

           Because the --opt option is enabled by default, you only specify
           its converse, the --skip-opt to turn off several default settings.
           See the discussion of mysqldump option groups for information about
           selectively enabling or disabling a subset of the options affected
           by --opt.

       o   --quick, -q

           This option is useful for dumping large tables. It forces mysqldump
           to retrieve rows for a table from the server a row at a time rather
           than retrieving the entire row set and buffering it in memory
           before writing it out.

       o   --skip-opt

           See the description for the --opt option.
       Transactional Options.PP The following options trade off the
       performance of the dump operation, against the reliability and
       consistency of the exported data.

       o   --add-locks

           Surround each table dump with LOCK TABLES and UNLOCK TABLES
           statements. This results in faster inserts when the dump file is
           reloaded. See Section, "Speed of INSERT Statements".

       o   --flush-logs, -F

           Flush the MySQL server log files before starting the dump. This
           option requires the RELOAD privilege. If you use this option in
           combination with the --all-databases option, the logs are flushed
           for each database dumped. The exception is when using
           --lock-all-tables, --master-data, or --single-transaction: In this
           case, the logs are flushed only once, corresponding to the moment
           that all tables are locked by FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK. If you
           want your dump and the log flush to happen at exactly the same
           moment, you should use --flush-logs together with
           --lock-all-tables, --master-data, or --single-transaction.

       o   --flush-privileges

           Add a FLUSH PRIVILEGES statement to the dump output after dumping
           the mysql database. This option should be used any time the dump
           contains the mysql database and any other database that depends on
           the data in the mysql database for proper restoration.

               For upgrades to MySQL 5.7.2 or higher from older versions, do
               not use --flush-privileges. For upgrade instructions in this
               case, see Section, "Changes Affecting Upgrades to
               MySQL 5.7".

       o   --lock-all-tables, -x

           Lock all tables across all databases. This is achieved by acquiring
           a global read lock for the duration of the whole dump. This option
           automatically turns off --single-transaction and --lock-tables.

       o   --lock-tables, -l

           For each dumped database, lock all tables to be dumped before
           dumping them. The tables are locked with READ LOCAL to permit
           concurrent inserts in the case of MyISAM tables. For transactional
           tables such as InnoDB, --single-transaction is a much better option
           than --lock-tables because it does not need to lock the tables at

           Because --lock-tables locks tables for each database separately,
           this option does not guarantee that the tables in the dump file are
           logically consistent between databases. Tables in different
           databases may be dumped in completely different states.

           Some options, such as --opt, automatically enable --lock-tables. If
           you want to override this, use --skip-lock-tables at the end of the
           option list.

       o   --no-autocommit

           Enclose the INSERT statements for each dumped table within SET
           autocommit = 0 and COMMIT statements.

       o   --order-by-primary

           Dump each table's rows sorted by its primary key, or by its first
           unique index, if such an index exists. This is useful when dumping
           a MyISAM table to be loaded into an InnoDB table, but makes the
           dump operation take considerably longer.

       o   --shared-memory-base-name=name

           On Windows, the shared-memory name to use, for connections made
           using shared memory to a local server. The default value is MYSQL.
           The shared-memory name is case sensitive.

           The server must be started with the --shared-memory option to
           enable shared-memory connections.

       o   --single-transaction

           This option sets the transaction isolation mode to REPEATABLE READ
           and sends a START TRANSACTION SQL statement to the server before
           dumping data. It is useful only with transactional tables such as
           InnoDB, because then it dumps the consistent state of the database
           at the time when START TRANSACTION was issued without blocking any

           When using this option, you should keep in mind that only InnoDB
           tables are dumped in a consistent state. For example, any MyISAM or
           MEMORY tables dumped while using this option may still change

           While a --single-transaction dump is in process, to ensure a valid
           dump file (correct table contents and binary log coordinates), no
           other connection should use the following statements: ALTER TABLE,
           consistent read is not isolated from those statements, so use of
           them on a table to be dumped can cause the SELECT that is performed
           by mysqldump to retrieve the table contents to obtain incorrect
           contents or fail.

           The --single-transaction option and the --lock-tables option are
           mutually exclusive because LOCK TABLES causes any pending
           transactions to be committed implicitly.

           To dump large tables, combine the --single-transaction option with
           the --quick option.
       Option Groups

       o   The --opt option turns on several settings that work together to
           perform a fast dump operation. All of these settings are on by
           default, because --opt is on by default. Thus you rarely if ever
           specify --opt. Instead, you can turn these settings off as a group
           by specifying --skip-opt, the optionally re-enable certain settings
           by specifying the associated options later on the command line.

       o   The --compact option turns off several settings that control
           whether optional statements and comments appear in the output.
           Again, you can follow this option with other options that re-enable
           certain settings, or turn all the settings on by using the
           --skip-compact form.

       When you selectively enable or disable the effect of a group option,
       order is important because options are processed first to last. For
       example, --disable-keys --lock-tables --skip-opt would not have the
       intended effect; it is the same as --skip-opt by itself.  Examples.PP
       To make a backup of an entire database:

           shell> mysqldump db_name > backup-file.sql

       To load the dump file back into the server:

           shell> mysql db_name < backup-file.sql

       Another way to reload the dump file:

           shell> mysql -e "source /path-to-backup/backup-file.sql" db_name

       mysqldump is also very useful for populating databases by copying data
       from one MySQL server to another:

           shell> mysqldump --opt db_name | mysql --host=remote_host -C db_name

       You can dump several databases with one command:

           shell> mysqldump --databases db_name1 [db_name2 ...] > my_databases.sql

       To dump all databases, use the --all-databases option:

           shell> mysqldump --all-databases > all_databases.sql

       For InnoDB tables, mysqldump provides a way of making an online backup:

           shell> mysqldump --all-databases --master-data --single-transaction > all_databases.sql

       This backup acquires a global read lock on all tables (using FLUSH
       TABLES WITH READ LOCK) at the beginning of the dump. As soon as this
       lock has been acquired, the binary log coordinates are read and the
       lock is released. If long updating statements are running when the
       FLUSH statement is issued, the MySQL server may get stalled until those
       statements finish. After that, the dump becomes lock free and does not
       disturb reads and writes on the tables. If the update statements that
       the MySQL server receives are short (in terms of execution time), the
       initial lock period should not be noticeable, even with many updates.

       For point-in-time recovery (also known as "roll-forward," when you need
       to restore an old backup and replay the changes that happened since
       that backup), it is often useful to rotate the binary log (see
       Section 6.4.4, "The Binary Log") or at least know the binary log
       coordinates to which the dump corresponds:

           shell> mysqldump --all-databases --master-data=2 > all_databases.sql


           shell> mysqldump --all-databases --flush-logs --master-data=2
                         > all_databases.sql

       The --master-data and --single-transaction options can be used
       simultaneously, which provides a convenient way to make an online
       backup suitable for use prior to point-in-time recovery if tables are
       stored using the InnoDB storage engine.

       For more information on making backups, see Section 8.2, "Database
       Backup Methods", and Section 8.3, "Example Backup and Recovery

       o   To select the effect of --opt except for some features, use the
           --skip option for each feature. To disable extended inserts and
           memory buffering, use --opt --skip-extended-insert --skip-quick.
           (Actually, --skip-extended-insert --skip-quick is sufficient
           because --opt is on by default.)

       o   To reverse --opt for all features except index disabling and table
           locking, use --skip-opt --disable-keys --lock-tables.
       Restrictions.PP mysqldump does not dump the INFORMATION_SCHEMA,
       performance_schema, or (as of MySQL 5.7.8) sys schema by default. To
       dump any of these, name them explicitly on the command line. You can
       also name them with the --databases option. For INFORMATION_SCHEMA and
       performance_schema, also use the --skip-lock-tables option.

       mysqldump does not dump the MySQL Cluster ndbinfo information database.

       It is not recommended to restore from a dump made using mysqldump to a
       MySQL 5.6.9 or earlier server that has GTIDs enabled. See
       Section, "Restrictions on Replication with GTIDs".

       mysqldump includes statements to recreate the general_log and
       slow_query_log tables for dumps of the mysql database. Log table
       contents are not dumped.

       If you encounter problems backing up views due to insufficient
       privileges, see Section C.5, "Restrictions on Views" for a workaround.

       Copyright (C) 1997, 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights

       This documentation is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
       modify it only under the terms of the GNU General Public License as
       published by the Free Software Foundation; version 2 of the License.

       This documentation is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
       but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
       General Public License for more details.

       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
       with the program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
       51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA or see

       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       |Availability   | database/mysql-57/client |
       |Stability      | Uncommitted              |
       For more information, please refer to the MySQL Reference Manual, which
       may already be installed locally and which is also available online at

       Oracle Corporation (http://dev.mysql.com/).

       This software was built from source available at
       https://java.net/projects/solaris-userland.  The original community
       source was downloaded from

       Further information about this software can be found on the open source
       community website at http://dev.mysql.com/.

MySQL 5.7                         11/26/2016                      MYSQLDUMP(1)