Go to main content

man pages section 1: User Commands

Exit Print View

Updated: July 2017

tar (1g)


tar - an archiving utility


Traditional usage
tar {A|c|d|r|t|u|x}[GnSkUWOmpsMBiajJzZhPlRvwo] [ARG...]

UNIX-style usage

tar -c [-f ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [FILE...]

tar -d [-f ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [FILE...]

tar -t [-f ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [MEMBER...]

tar -r [-f ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [FILE...]

tar -u [-f ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [FILE...]

tar -x [-f ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [MEMBER...]

GNU-style usage
tar {--catenate|--concatenate} [OPTIONS] ARCHIVE ARCHIVE

tar --create [--file ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [FILE...]

tar {--diff|--compare} [--file ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [FILE...]

tar --delete [--file ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [MEMBER...]

tar --append [-f ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [FILE...]

tar --list [-f ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [MEMBER...]

tar --test-label [--file ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [LABEL...]

tar --update [--file ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [FILE...]

tar --update [-f ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [FILE...]

tar {--extract|--get} [-f ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [MEMBER...]


TAR(1)                          GNU TAR Manual                          TAR(1)

       tar, gtar - an archiving utility

   Traditional usage
       tar {A|c|d|r|t|u|x}[GnSkUWOmpsMBiajJzZhPlRvwo] [ARG...]

   UNIX-style usage

       tar -c [-f ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [FILE...]

       tar -d [-f ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [FILE...]

       tar -t [-f ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [MEMBER...]

       tar -r [-f ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [FILE...]

       tar -u [-f ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [FILE...]

       tar -x [-f ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [MEMBER...]

   GNU-style usage
       tar {--catenate|--concatenate} [OPTIONS] ARCHIVE ARCHIVE

       tar --create [--file ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [FILE...]

       tar {--diff|--compare} [--file ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [FILE...]

       tar --delete [--file ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [MEMBER...]

       tar --append [-f ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [FILE...]

       tar --list [-f ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [MEMBER...]

       tar --test-label [--file ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [LABEL...]

       tar --update [--file ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [FILE...]

       tar --update [-f ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [FILE...]

       tar {--extract|--get} [-f ARCHIVE] [OPTIONS] [MEMBER...]

       This manpage is a short description of GNU tar.  For a detailed discus-
       sion, including examples and usage recommendations, refer  to  the  GNU
       Tar Manual available in texinfo format.  If the info reader and the tar
       documentation are properly installed on your system, the command

           info tar

       should give you access to the complete manual.

       You can also view the manual using the info mode in emacs(1),  or  find
       it in various formats online at


       If any discrepancies occur between this manpage and the GNU Tar Manual,
       the later shall be considered the authoritative source.

       GNU tar is an archiving program designed to store multiple files  in  a
       single file (an archive), and to manipulate such archives.  The archive
       can be either a regular file or a device (e.g. a tape drive, hence  the
       name  of  the  program,  which  stands for tape archiver), which can be
       located either on the local or on a remote machine.

   Option styles
       Options to GNU tar can be given in three different styles.   In  tradi-
       tional style, the first argument is a cluster of option letters and all
       subsequent arguments supply arguments to  those  options  that  require
       them.   The arguments are read in the same order as the option letters.
       Any command line words that remain after all options has been processed
       are treated as non-optional arguments: file or archive member names.

       For  example,  the c option requires creating the archive, the v option
       requests the verbose operation, and the f option takes an argument that
       sets  the  name of the archive to operate upon.  The following command,
       written in the traditional style, instructs tar to store all files from
       the  directory /etc into the archive file etc.tar verbosely listing the
       files being archived:

       tar cfv a.tar /etc

       In UNIX or short-option style, each option letter is  prefixed  with  a
       single  dash,  as  in other command line utilities.  If an option takes
       argument, the argument follows it, either as a  separate  command  line
       word,  or  immediately  following  the  option.  However, if the option
       takes an optional argument, the argument must follow the option  letter
       without any intervening whitespace, as in -g/tmp/snar.db.

       Any  number  of  options not taking arguments can be clustered together
       after a single dash, e.g. -vkp.  Options that take  arguments  (whether
       mandatory  or  optional), can appear at the end of such a cluster, e.g.
       -vkpf a.tar.

       The example command above written in the short-option style could  look

       tar -cvf a.tar /etc
       tar -c -v -f a.tar /etc

       In GNU or long-option style, each option begins with two dashes and has
       a meaningful name, consisting of lower-case letters and  dashes.   When
       used,  the  long option can be abbreviated to its initial letters, pro-
       vided that this does not create ambiguity.  Arguments to  long  options
       are  supplied  either as a separate command line word, immediately fol-
       lowing the option, or separated from the option by an equals sign  with
       no intervening whitespace.  Optional arguments must always use the lat-
       ter method.

       Here are several ways of writing the example command in this style:

       tar --create --file a.tar --verbose /etc
       or (abbreviating some options):
       tar --cre --file=a.tar --verb /etc

       The options in all three styles can be intermixed,  although  doing  so
       with old options is not encouraged.

   Operation mode
       The options listed in the table below tell GNU tar what operation it is
       to perform.  Exactly one of  them  must  be  given.   Meaning  of  non-
       optional arguments depends on the operation mode requested.

       -A, --catenate, --concatenate
              Append archive to the end of another archive.  The arguments are
              treated as the names of archives to append.  All  archives  must
              be  of the same format as the archive they are appended to, oth-
              erwise the resulting archive  might  be  unusable  with  non-GNU
              implementations of tar.  Notice also that when more than one ar-
              chive is given, the members from archives other than  the  first
              one  will  be  accessible in the resulting archive only if using
              the -i (--ignore-zeros) option.

              Compressed archives cannot be concatenated.

       -c, --create
              Create a new archive.  Arguments supply the names of  the  files
              to  be  archived.   Directories are archived recursively, unless
              the --no-recursion option is given.

       -d, --diff, --compare
              Find differences between archive and file system.  The arguments
              are  optional  and  specify  archive members to compare.  If not
              given, the current working directory is assumed.

              Delete from the archive.  The arguments supply names of the  ar-
              chive  members  to  be  removed.   At least one argument must be

              This option does not operate on compressed archives.   There  is
              no short option equivalent.

       -r, --append
              Append  files to the end of an archive.  Arguments have the same
              meaning as for -c (--create).

       -t, --list
              List the contents of an archive.  Arguments are optional.   When
              given, they specify the names of the members to list.

              Test the archive volume label and exit.  When used without argu-
              ments, it prints the volume label (if any) and exits with status
              0.  When one or more command line arguments are given.  tar com-
              pares the volume label with each argument.  It exits with code 0
              if  a  match  is found, and with code 1 otherwise.  No output is
              displayed, unless used together with the -v (--verbose) option.

              There is no short option equivalent for this option.

       -u, --update
              Append files which are newer than the corresponding copy in  the
              archive.   Arguments  have  the  same  meaning as with -c and -r

       -x, --extract, --get
              Extract files from an archive.  Arguments  are  optional.   When
              given,   they  specify  names  of  the  archive  members  to  be

              Show built-in defaults for various tar options and  exit.
              No arguments are allowed.

       -?, --help
              Display  a  short  option summary and exit.  No arguments

              Display a list of available options and exit.   No  argu-
              ments allowed.

              Print program version and copyright information and exit.

   Operation modifiers
              Check  device  numbers when creating incremental archives

       -g, --listed-incremental=FILE
              Handle new GNU-format incremental backups.  FILE  is  the
              name  of  a  snapshot  file,  where tar stores additional
              information which is used to decide which  files  changed
              since  the  previous  incremental dump and, consequently,
              must be dumped again.  If FILE does not exist when creat-
              ing  an archive, it will be created and all files will be
              added to the resulting archive (the level  0  dump).   To
              create incremental archives of non-zero level N, create a
              copy of the snapshot file created during the  level  N-1,
              and use it as FILE.

              When  listing  or extracting, the actual contents of FILE
              is not inspected, it is needed only  due  to  syntactical
              requirements.   It  is  therefore  common practice to use
              /dev/null in its place.

       -G, --incremental
              Handle old GNU-format incremental backups.

              Do not exit with nonzero on unreadable files.

              Set dump level for  created  listed-incremental  archive.
              Currently  only --level=0 is meaningful: it instructs tar
              to truncate the snapshot  file  before  dumping,  thereby
              forcing a level 0 dump.

       -n, --seek
              Assume  the archive is seekable.  Normally tar determines
              automatically whether the archive can be seeked  or  not.
              This option is intended for use in cases when such recog-
              nition fails.  It takes effect only  if  the  archive  is
              open   for   reading   (e.g.  with  --list  or  --extract

              Do not check device numbers when creating incremental ar-

              Assume the archive is not seekable.

              Process  only  the Nth occurrence of each file in the ar-
              chive.  This option is valid only when used with  one  of
              the following subcommands: --delete, --diff, --extract or
              --list and when a list of files is given  either  on  the
              command line or via the -T option.  The default N is 1.

              Disable the use of some potentially harmful options.

              Set   version  of  the  sparse  format  to  use  (implies
              --sparse).  This option implies --sparse.  Valid argument
              values  are 0.0, 0.1, and 1.0.  For a detailed discussion
              of sparse formats, refer to the GNU Tar Manual,  appendix
              D,  "Sparse  Formats".   Using  info  reader,  it  can be
              accessed running the following command: info tar  'Sparse

       -S, --sparse
              Handle  sparse files efficiently.  Some files in the file
              system may have segments which were actually never  writ-
              ten (quite often these are database files created by such
              systems as DBM).  When given this option, tar attempts to
              determine  if  the  file is sparse prior to archiving it,
              and if so, to reduce the resulting archive  size  by  not
              dumping empty parts of the file.

   Overwrite control
       These options control tar actions when extracting a file over an
       existing copy on disk.

       -k, --keep-old-files
              Don't replace existing files when extracting.

              Don't replace existing files that are  newer  than  their
              archive copies.

              Preserve metadata of existing directories.

              Extract all files into DIR, or, if used without argument,
              into a subdirectory named by the base name of the archive
              (minus  standard  compression  suffixes  recognizable  by

              Overwrite existing files when extracting.

              Overwrite metadata of existing directories when  extract-
              ing (default).

              Recursively  remove  all  files in the directory prior to
              extracting it.

              Remove files from disk after adding them to the archive.

       -U, --unlink-first
              Remove each file prior to extracting over it.

       -W, --verify
              Verify the archive after writing it.

   Output stream selection

       Ignore subprocess exit codes.

              Treat non-zero exit codes of children as error (default).

       -O, --to-stdout
              Extract files to standard output.

              Pipe extracted files to COMMAND.   The  argument  is  the
              pathname  of an external program, optionally with command
              line arguments.  The program will be invoked and the con-
              tents  of  the file being extracted supplied to it on its
              standard output.  Additional data will  be  supplied  via
              the following environment variables:

                     Type  of  the file. It is a single letter with the
                     following meaning:

                             f           Regular file
                             d           Directory
                             l           Symbolic link
                             h           Hard link
                             b           Block device
                             c           Character device

                     Currently only regular files are supported.

                     File mode, an octal number.

                     The name of the file.

                     Name of the file as stored in the archive.

                     Name of the file owner.

                     Name of the file owner group.

                     Time of last access. It is a decimal number,  rep-
                     resenting seconds since the Epoch.  If the archive
                     provides  times  with  nanosecond  precision,  the
                     nanoseconds  are appended to the timestamp after a
                     decimal point.

                     Time of last modification.

                     Time of last status change.

                     Size of the file.

                     UID of the file owner.

                     GID of the file owner.

              Additionally, the following variables contain information
              about tar operation mode and the archive being processed:

                     GNU tar version number.

                     The name of the archive tar is processing.

                     Current  blocking  factor, i.e. number of 512-byte
                     blocks in a record.

                     Ordinal number of the  volume  tar  is  processing
                     (set if reading a multi-volume archive).

                     Format  of  the  archive being processed.  One of:
                     gnu, oldgnu, posix, ustar, v7.   TAR_SUBCOMMAND  A
                     short  option (with a leading dash) describing the
                     operation tar is executing.

   Handling of file attributes
              Preserve access times on dumped files, either by  restor-
              ing  the times after reading (METHOD=replace, this is the
              default) or by not setting the times in the  first  place

              Delay  setting  modification  times  and  permissions  of
              extracted directories until the end of  extraction.   Use
              this  option  when  extracting  from an archive which has
              unusual member ordering.

              Force NAME as group for added files.

              Force symbolic mode CHANGES for added files.

              Set mtime for added  files.   DATE-OR-FILE  is  either  a
              date/time  in almost arbitrary formate, or the name of an
              existing file.  In the latter case the mtime of that file
              will be used.

       -m, --touch
              Don't extract file modified time.

              Cancel  the effect of the prior --delay-directory-restore

              Extract files as yourself (default for ordinary users).

              Apply the user's umask when extracting  permissions  from
              the archive (default for ordinary users).

              Always use numbers for user/group names.

              Force NAME as owner for added files.

       -p, --preserve-permissions, --same-permissions
              extract  information  about file permissions (default for

              Same as both -p and -s.

              Try extracting files with the same ownership as exists in
              the archive (default for superuser).

       -s, --preserve-order, --same-order
              Sort names to extract to match archive

              When  creating an archive, sort directory entries accord-
              ing to ORDER, which is one of none, name, or inode.

              The default is --sort=none, which stores archive  members
              in the same order as returned by the operating system.

              Using --sort=name ensures the member ordering in the cre-
              ated archive is uniform and reproducible.

              Using --sort=inode reduces the number of disk seeks  made
              when creating the archive and thus can considerably speed
              up archivation.  This sorting order is supported only  if
              the underlying system provides the necessary information.

   Device selection and switching
       -f, --file=ARCHIVE
              Use  archive  file  or device ARCHIVE.  If this option is
              not given, tar will first examine the  environment  vari-
              able `TAPE'.  If it is set, its value will be used as the
              archive name.  Otherwise, tar will assume the compiled-in
              default.  The default value can be inspected either using
              the --show-defaults option, or at  the  end  of  the  tar
              --help output.

              An  archive  name that has a colon in it specifies a file
              or device on a remote machine.  The part before the colon
              is  taken as the machine name or IP address, and the part
              after it as the file or device pathname, e.g.:


              An optional username can be  prefixed  to  the  hostname,
              placing a @ sign between them.

              By  default,  the  remote host is accessed via the rsh(1)
              command.  Nowadays it is common to  use  ssh(1)  instead.
              You  can  do  so  by  giving  the  following command line


              The  remote  mashine  should  have  the  rmt(8)   command
              installed.  If its pathname does not match tar's default,
              you can inform tar about the correct pathname  using  the
              --rmt-command option.

              Archive file is local even if it has a colon.

       -F, --info-script=COMMAND, --new-volume-script=COMMAND
              Run  COMMAND  at  the end of each tape (implies -M).  The
              command can include arguments.   When  started,  it  will
              inherit tar's environment plus the following variables:

                     GNU tar version number.

                     The name of the archive tar is processing.

                     Current  blocking  factor, i.e. number of 512-byte
                     blocks in a record.

                     Ordinal number of the  volume  tar  is  processing
                     (set if reading a multi-volume archive).

                     Format  of  the  archive being processed.  One of:
                     gnu, oldgnu, posix, ustar, v7.

                     A short option (with a  leading  dash)  describing
                     the operation tar is executing.

              TAR_FD File  descriptor  which can be used to communicate
                     the new volume name to tar.

              If the info script fails, tar exits; otherwise, it begins
              writing the next volume.

       -L, --tape-length=
              Change tape after writing Nx1024 bytes.  If N is followed
              by a  size  suffix  (see  the  subsection  Size  suffixes
              below), the suffix specifies the multiplicative factor to
              be used instead of 1024.

              This option implies -M.

       -M, --multi-volume
              Create/list/extract multi-volume archive.

              Use COMMAND instead of  rmt  when  accessing  remote  ar-
              chives.  See the description of the -f option, above.

              Use  COMMAND  instead  of  rsh  when accessing remote ar-
              chives.  See the description of the -f option, above.

              When this option is used in conjunction with --multi-vol-
              ume,  tar will keep track of which volume of a multi-vol-
              ume archive it is working in FILE.

   Device blocking
       -b, --blocking-factor=BLOCKS
              Set record size to BLOCKSx512 bytes.

       -B, --read-full-records
              When  listing  or  extracting,  accept  incomplete  input
              records after end-of-file marker.

       -i, --ignore-zeros
              Ignore  zeroed  blocks in archive.  Normally two consecu-
              tive 512-blocks filled with zeroes mean EOF and tar stops
              reading  after  encountering them.  This option instructs
              it to read further and is useful  when  reading  archives
              created with the -A option.

              Set  record  size.   NUMBER  is  the  number of bytes per
              record.  It must be multiple of 512.  It can can be  suf-
              fixed  with a size suffix, e.g. --record-size=10K, for 10
              Kilobytes.  See the subsection Size suffixes, for a  list
              of valid suffixes.

   Archive format selection
       -H, --format=FORMAT
              Create archive of the given format.  Valid formats are:

              gnu    GNU tar 1.13.x format

              oldgnu GNU format as per tar <= 1.12.

              pax, posix
                     POSIX 1003.1-2001 (pax) format.

              ustar  POSIX 1003.1-1988 (ustar) format.

              v7     Old V7 tar format.

       --old-archive, --portability
              Same as --format=v7.

              Control pax keywords when creating PAX archives (-H pax).
              This option  is  equivalent  to  the  -o  option  of  the

              Same as --format=posix.

       -V, --label=TEXT
              Create  archive  with  volume  name  TEXT.  If listing or
              extracting, use TEXT as a  globbing  pattern  for  volume

   Compression options
       -a, --auto-compress
              Use archive suffix to determine the compression program.

       -I, --use-compress-program=COMMAND
              Filter  data  through  COMMAND.   It  must  accept the -d
              option, for decompression.  The argument can contain com-
              mand line options.

       -j, --bzip2
              Filter the archive through bzip2(1).

       -J, --xz
              Filter the archive through xz(1).

       --lzip Filter the archive through lzip(1).

       --lzma Filter the archive through lzma(1).

       --lzop Filter the archive through lzop(1).

              Do  not  use  archive suffix to determine the compression

       -z, --gzip, --gunzip, --ungzip
              Filter the archive through gzip(1).

       -Z, --compress, --uncompress
              Filter the archive through compress(1).

   Local file selection
              Add FILE to the archive (useful if its name starts with a

              Backup  before  removal.   The  CONTROL argument, if sup-
              plied, controls the backup policy.  Its valid values are:

              none, off
                     Never make backups.

              t, numbered
                     Make numbered backups.

              nil, existing
                     Make numbered backups if numbered  backups  exist,
                     simple backups otherwise.

              never, simple
                     Always make simple backups

              If CONTROL is not given, the value is taken from the VER-
              SION_CONTROL environment variable.  If  it  is  not  set,
              existing is assumed.

       -C, --directory=DIR
              Change to directory DIR.

              Exclude  files matching PATTERN, a glob(3)-style wildcard

              Exclude backup and lock files.

              Exclude   contents   of   directories   containing   file
              CACHEDIR.TAG, except for the tag file itself.

              Exclude  directories containing file CACHEDIR.TAG and the
              file itself.

              Exclude   everything   under    directories    containing

              Before  dumping a directory, see if it contains FILE.  If
              so, read exclusion patterns from this file.  The patterns
              affect only the directory itself.

              Same  as --exclude-ignore, except that patterns from FILE
              affect both the directory and all its subdirectories.

              Exclude contents of directories containing  FILE,  except
              for FILE itself.

              Exclude directories containing FILE.

              Exclude everything under directories containing FILE.

              Exclude version control system directories.

              Exclude  files that match patterns read from VCS-specific
              ignore files.  Supported files are:  .cvsignore,  .gitig-
              nore, .bzrignore, and .hgignore.

       -h, --dereference
              Follow  symlinks;  archive  and dump the files they point

              Follow hard links; archive and dump the files they  refer

       -K, --starting-file=MEMBER
              Begin at the given member in the archive.

              Work on files whose data changed after the DATE.  If DATE
              starts with / or . it is taken to be  a  file  name;  the
              mtime of that file is used as the date.

              Disable the effect of the previous --null option.

              Avoid descending automatically in directories.

              Do not unquote input file or member names.

       --null Instruct  subsequent  -T  options to read null-terminated
              names, disable handling of the -C option  read  from  the

       -N, --newer=DATE, --after-date=DATE
              Only  store files newer than DATE.  If DATE starts with /
              or . it is taken to be a file name;  the  ctime  of  that
              file is used as the date.

              Stay in local file system when creating archive.

       -P, --absolute-names
              Don't strip leading slashes from file names when creating

              Recurse into directories (default).

              Backup before removal, override  usual  suffix.   Default
              suffix  is  ~,  unless overridden by environment variable

       -T, --files-from=FILE
              Get names to extract or create from FILE.

              Unquote file or member names (default).

       -X, --exclude-from=FILE
              Exclude files matching patterns listed in FILE.

   File name transformations
              Strip  NUMBER  leading  components  from  file  names  on

       --transform=EXPRESSIONR, --xform=EXPRESSION
              Use sed replace EXPRESSION to transform file names.

   File name matching options
       These options affect both exclude and include patterns.

              Patterns match file name start.

              Ignore case.

              Patterns match after any / (default for exclusion).

              Case sensitive matching (default).

              Verbatim string matching.

              Wildcards do not match /.

              Use wildcards (default for exclusion).

              Wildcards match / (default for exclusion).

   Informative output
              Display progress messages every Nth record (default 10).

              Run ACTION on each checkpoint.

              Print file time to its full resolution.

              Send verbose output to FILE.

       -l, --check-links
              Print a message if not all links are dumped.

              Disable quoting for characters from STRING.

              Additionally quote characters from STRING.

              Set  quoting style for file and member names.  Valid val-
              ues for STYLE are literal,  shell,  shell-always,  c,  c-
              maybe, escape, locale, clocale.

       -R, --block-number
              Show block number within archive with each message.

              When listing or extracting, list each directory that does
              not match search criteria.

       --show-transformed-names, --show-stored-names
              Show  file  or  archive  names  after  transformation  by
              --strip and --transform options.

              Print  total bytes after processing the archive.  If SIG-
              NAL is given, print  total  bytes  when  this  signal  is
              delivered.  Allowed signals are: SIGHUP, SIGQUIT, SIGINT,
              SIGUSR1, and SIGUSR2.  The SIG prefix can be omitted.

       --utc  Print file modification times in UTC.

       -v, --verbose
              Verbosely list files processed.

              Enable or disable warning messages identified by KEYWORD.
              The  messages  are suppressed if KEYWORD is prefixed with
              no- and enabled otherwise.

              Multiple --warning messages accumulate.

              Keywords controlling general tar operation:

              all    Enable all warning messages.  This is the default.

              none   Disable all warning messages.

                     "%s: file name read contains nul character"

                     "A lone zero block at %s"

              Keywords applicable for tar --create:

                     "%s: contains a cache directory tag %s; %s"

                     "%s: File shrank by %s bytes; padding with zeros"

              xdev   "%s:  file  is  on  a  different  filesystem;  not

                     "%s: Unknown file type; file ignored"
                     "%s: socket ignored"
                     "%s: door ignored"

                     "%s: file is unchanged; not dumped"

                     "%s: file is the archive; not dumped"

                     "%s: File removed before we read it"

                     "%s: file changed as we read it"

              Keywords applicable for tar --extract:

                     "%s: implausibly old time stamp %s"
                     "%s: time stamp %s is %s s in the future"

                     "Extracting contiguous files as regular files"

                     "Attempting  extraction  of symbolic links as hard

                     "%s: Unknown file type '%c', extracted  as  normal

                     "Current %s is newer or same age"

                     "Ignoring unknown extended header keyword '%s'"

                     Controls verbose description of failures occurring
                     when trying to run alternative  decompressor  pro-
                     grams.    This  warning  is  disabled  by  default
                     (unless --verbose is used).  A common  example  of
                     what you can get when using this warning is:

                     $ tar --warning=decompress-program -x -f archive.Z
                     tar (child): cannot run compress: No such file or directory
                     tar (child): trying gzip

                     This  means that tar first tried to decompress ar-
                     chive.Z using compress,  and,  when  that  failed,
                     switched to gzip.

                     "Record size = %lu blocks"

              Keywords controlling incremental extraction:

                     "%s: Directory has been renamed from %s"
                     "%s: Directory has been renamed"

                     "%s: Directory is new"

              xdev   "%s: directory is on a different device: not purg-

                     "Malformed dumpdir: 'X' never used"

       -w, --interactive, --confirmation
              Ask for confirmation for every action.

   Compatibility options
       -o     When creating, same as --old-archive.   When  extracting,
              same as --no-same-owner.

   Size suffixes
               Suffix    Units                   Byte Equivalent
               b         Blocks                  SIZE x 512
               B         Kilobytes               SIZE x 1024
               c         Bytes                   SIZE
               G         Gigabytes               SIZE x 1024^3
               K         Kilobytes               SIZE x 1024
               k         Kilobytes               SIZE x 1024
               M         Megabytes               SIZE x 1024^2
               P         Petabytes               SIZE x 1024^5
               T         Terabytes               SIZE x 1024^4
               w         Words                   SIZE x 2

       Tar exit code indicates whether it was able to successfully per-
       form the requested operation, and if not,  what  kind  of  error

       0      Successful termination.

       1      Some files differ.  If tar was invoked with the --compare
              (--diff, -d) command line option, this  means  that  some
              files in the archive differ from their disk counterparts.
              If tar  was  given  one  of  the  --create,  --append  or
              --update  options,  this  exit code means that some files
              were changed while being archived and  so  the  resulting
              archive does not contain the exact copy of the file set.

       2      Fatal  error.   This means that some fatal, unrecoverable
              error occurred.

       If a subprocess that had been  invoked  by  tar  exited  with  a
       nonzero  exit  code,  tar  itself  exits with that code as well.
       This can happen, for example, if a compression option (e.g.  -z)
       was  used  and  the external compressor program failed.  Another
       example is rmt failure during backup to a remote device.

       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       |Availability   | archiver/gnu-tar |
       |Stability      | Volatile         |
       bzip2(1), compress(1), gzip(1), lzma(1), lzop(1),  rmt(8),  sym-
       link(7), tar(5), xz(1).

       Complete  tar  manual: run info tar or use emacs(1) info mode to
       read it.

       Online copies of GNU tar documentation in various formats can be
       found at:


       Report bugs to <bug-tar@gnu.org>.

       Copyright (C) 2013 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
       License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later
       This is free software: you are free to change  and  redistribute
       it.  There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

       This    software    was   built   from   source   available   at
       https://java.net/projects/solaris-userland.  The original commu-
       nity          source         was         downloaded         from

       Further information about this software can be found on the open
       source community website at http://www.gnu.org/software/tar/.

TAR                            February 22, 2014                        TAR(1)