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package-json (5)

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package-json - Specifics of npm's package.json handling Description This document is all you need to know about what's required in your package.json file. It must be actual JSON, not just a JavaScript object literal. A lot of the behavior described in this document is affected by the config settings described in npm help config. name If you plan to publish your package, the most important things in your package.json are the name and version fields as they will be required. The name and version together form an identifier that is assumed to be completely unique. Changes to the package should come along with changes to the version. If you don't plan to publish your package, the name and version fields are optional. The name is what your thing is called. Some rules: o The name must be less than or equal to 214 characters. This includes the scope for scoped packages. o The names of scoped packages can begin with a dot or an underscore. This is not permitted without a scope. o New packages must not have uppercase letters in the name. o The name ends up being part of a URL, an argument on the command line, and a folder name. Therefore, the name can't contain any non-URL-safe characters. Some tips: o Don't use the same name as a core Node module. o Don't put "js" or "node" in the name. It's assumed that it's js, since you're writing a package.json file, and you can specify the engine using the "engines" field. (See below.) o The name will probably be passed as an argument to require(), so it should be something short, but also reasonably descriptive. o You may want to check the npm registry to see if there's something by that name already, before you get too attached to it. https://www.npmjs.com/ A name can be optionally prefixed by a scope, e.g. @myorg/mypackage. See npm help scope for more detail. version If you plan to publish your package, the most important things in your package.json are the name and version fields as they will be required. The name and version together form an identifier that is assumed to be completely unique. Changes to the package should come along with changes to the version. If you don't plan to publish your package, the name and version fields are optional. Version must be parseable by node-semver https://github.com/npm/node-semver, which is bundled with npm as a dependency. (npm install semver to use it yourself.) description Put a description in it. It's a string. This helps people discover your package, as it's listed in npm search. keywords Put keywords in it. It's an array of strings. This helps people dis- cover your package as it's listed in npm search. homepage The url to the project homepage. Example: "homepage": "https://github.com/owner/project#readme" bugs The url to your project's issue tracker and / or the email address to which issues should be reported. These are helpful for people who encounter issues with your package. It should look like this: { "url" : "https://github.com/owner/project/issues", "email" : "project@hostname.com" } You can specify either one or both values. If you want to provide only a url, you can specify the value for "bugs" as a simple string instead of an object. If a url is provided, it will be used by the npm bugs command. license You should specify a license for your package so that people know how they are permitted to use it, and any restrictions you're placing on it. If you're using a common license such as BSD-2-Clause or MIT, add a current SPDX license identifier for the license you're using, like this: { "license" : "BSD-3-Clause" } You can check the full list of SPDX license IDs https://spdx.org/licenses/. Ideally you should pick one that is OSI https://opensource.org/licenses/alphabetical approved. If your package is licensed under multiple common licenses, use an SPDX license expression syntax version 2.0 string https://www.npmjs.com/package/spdx, like this: { "license" : "(ISC OR GPL-3.0)" } If you are using a license that hasn't been assigned an SPDX identi- fier, or if you are using a custom license, use a string value like this one: { "license" : "SEE LICENSE IN <filename>" } Then include a file named <filename> at the top level of the package. Some old packages used license objects or a "licenses" property con- taining an array of license objects: // Not valid metadata { "license" : { "type" : "ISC", "url" : "https://opensource.org/licenses/ISC" } } // Not valid metadata { "licenses" : [ { "type": "MIT", "url": "https://www.opensource.org/licenses/mit-license.php" }, { "type": "Apache-2.0", "url": "https://opensource.org/licenses/apache2.0.php" } ] } Those styles are now deprecated. Instead, use SPDX expressions, like this: { "license": "ISC" } { "license": "(MIT OR Apache-2.0)" } Finally, if you do not wish to grant others the right to use a private or unpublished package under any terms: { "license": "UNLICENSED" } Consider also setting "private": true to prevent accidental publica- tion. people fields: author, contributors The "author" is one person. "contributors" is an array of people. A "person" is an object with a "name" field and optionally "url" and "email", like this: { "name" : "Barney Rubble", "email" : "b@rubble.com", "url" : "http://barnyrubble.tumblr.com/" } Or you can shorten that all into a single string, and npm will parse it for you: { "author": "Barney Rubble <b@rubble.com> (http://barnyrubble.tumblr.com/)" } Both email and url are optional either way. npm also sets a top-level "maintainers" field with your npm user info. funding You can specify an object containing an URL that provides up-to-date information about ways to help fund development of your package, or a string URL, or an array of these: { "funding": { "type" : "individual", "url" : "http://example.com/donate" }, "funding": { "type" : "patreon", "url" : "https://www.patreon.com/my-account" }, "funding": "http://example.com/donate", "funding": [ { "type" : "individual", "url" : "http://example.com/donate" }, "http://example.com/donateAlso", { "type" : "patreon", "url" : "https://www.patreon.com/my-account" } ] } Users can use the npm fund subcommand to list the funding URLs of all dependencies of their project, direct and indirect. A shortcut to visit each funding url is also available when providing the project name such as: npm fund <projectname> (when there are multiple URLs, the first one will be visited) files The optional files field is an array of file patterns that describes the entries to be included when your package is installed as a depen- dency. File patterns follow a similar syntax to .gitignore, but reversed: including a file, directory, or glob pattern (*, **/*, and such) will make it so that file is included in the tarball when it's packed. Omitting the field will make it default to ["*"], which means it will include all files. Some special files and directories are also included or excluded regardless of whether they exist in the files array (see below). You can also provide a .npmignore file in the root of your package or in subdirectories, which will keep files from being included. At the root of your package it will not override the "files" field, but in subdirectories it will. The .npmignore file works just like a .gitig- nore. If there is a .gitignore file, and .npmignore is missing, .gitig- nore's contents will be used instead. Files included with the "package.json#files" field cannot be excluded through .npmignore or .gitignore. Certain files are always included, regardless of settings: o package.json o README o LICENSE / LICENCE o The file in the "main" field README & LICENSE can have any case and extension. Conversely, some files are always ignored: o .git o CVS o .svn o .hg o .lock-wscript o .wafpickle-N o .*.swp o .DS_Store o ._* o npm-debug.log o .npmrc o node_modules o config.gypi o *.orig o package-lock.json (use npm help npm-shrinkwrap.json if you wish it to be published) main The main field is a module ID that is the primary entry point to your program. That is, if your package is named foo, and a user installs it, and then does require("foo"), then your main module's exports object will be returned. This should be a module relative to the root of your package folder. For most modules, it makes the most sense to have a main script and often not much else. If main is not set it defaults to index.js in the packages root folder. browser If your module is meant to be used client-side the browser field should be used instead of the main field. This is helpful to hint users that it might rely on primitives that aren't available in Node.js modules. (e.g. window) bin A lot of packages have one or more executable files that they'd like to install into the PATH. npm makes this pretty easy (in fact, it uses this feature to install the "npm" executable.) To use this, supply a bin field in your package.json which is a map of command name to local file name. When this package is installed glob- ally, that file will be linked where global bins go so it is available to run by name. When this package is installed as a dependency in another package, the file will be linked where it will be available to that package either directly by npm exec or by name in other scripts when invoking them via npm run-script. For example, myapp could have this: { "bin": { "myapp": "./cli.js" } } So, when you install myapp, it'll create a symlink from the cli.js script to /usr/local/bin/myapp. If you have a single executable, and its name should be the name of the package, then you can just supply it as a string. For example: { "name": "my-program", "version": "1.2.5", "bin": "./path/to/program" } would be the same as this: { "name": "my-program", "version": "1.2.5", "bin": { "my-program": "./path/to/program" } } Please make sure that your file(s) referenced in bin starts with #!/usr/bin/env node, otherwise the scripts are started without the node executable! Note that you can also set the executable files using directories.bin #directoriesbin. See npm help folders for more info on executables. man Specify either a single file or an array of filenames to put in place for the man program to find. If only a single file is provided, then it's installed such that it is the result from man <pkgname>, regardless of its actual filename. For example: { "name": "foo", "version": "1.2.3", "description": "A packaged foo fooer for fooing foos", "main": "foo.js", "man": "./man/doc.1" } would link the ./man/doc.1 file in such that it is the target for man foo If the filename doesn't start with the package name, then it's pre- fixed. So, this: { "name": "foo", "version": "1.2.3", "description": "A packaged foo fooer for fooing foos", "main": "foo.js", "man": [ "./man/foo.1", "./man/bar.1" ] } will create files to do man foo and man foo-bar. Man files must end with a number, and optionally a .gz suffix if they are compressed. The number dictates which man section the file is installed into. { "name": "foo", "version": "1.2.3", "description": "A packaged foo fooer for fooing foos", "main": "foo.js", "man": [ "./man/foo.1", "./man/foo.2" ] } will create entries for man foo and man 2 foo directories The CommonJS Packages http://wiki.commonjs.org/wiki/Packages/1.0 spec details a few ways that you can indicate the structure of your package using a directories object. If you look at npm's package.json https://registry.npmjs.org/npm/latest, you'll see that it has directo- ries for doc, lib, and man. In the future, this information may be used in other creative ways. directories.bin If you specify a bin directory in directories.bin, all the files in that folder will be added. Because of the way the bin directive works, specifying both a bin path and setting directories.bin is an error. If you want to specify indi- vidual files, use bin, and for all the files in an existing bin direc- tory, use directories.bin. directories.man A folder that is full of man pages. Sugar to generate a "man" array by walking the folder. repository Specify the place where your code lives. This is helpful for people who want to contribute. If the git repo is on GitHub, then the npm docs command will be able to find you. Do it like this: { "repository": { "type": "git", "url": "https://github.com/npm/cli.git" } } The URL should be a publicly available (perhaps read-only) url that can be handed directly to a VCS program without any modification. It should not be a url to an html project page that you put in your browser. It's for computers. For GitHub, GitHub gist, Bitbucket, or GitLab repositories you can use the same shortcut syntax you use for npm install: { "repository": "npm/npm", "repository": "github:user/repo", "repository": "gist:11081aaa281", "repository": "bitbucket:user/repo", "repository": "gitlab:user/repo" } If the package.json for your package is not in the root directory (for example if it is part of a monorepo), you can specify the directory in which it lives: { "repository": { "type": "git", "url": "https://github.com/facebook/react.git", "directory": "packages/react-dom" } } scripts The "scripts" property is a dictionary containing script commands that are run at various times in the lifecycle of your package. The key is the lifecycle event, and the value is the command to run at that point. See npm help scripts to find out more about writing package scripts. config A "config" object can be used to set configuration parameters used in package scripts that persist across upgrades. For instance, if a pack- age had the following: { "name": "foo", "config": { "port": "8080" } } It could also have a "start" command that referenced the npm_pack- age_config_port environment variable. dependencies Dependencies are specified in a simple object that maps a package name to a version range. The version range is a string which has one or more space-separated descriptors. Dependencies can also be identified with a tarball or git URL. Please do not put test harnesses or transpilers or other "development" time tools in your dependencies object. See devDependencies, below. See semver https://github.com/npm/node-semver#versions for more details about specifying version ranges. o version Must match version exactly o >version Must be greater than version o >=version etc o <version o <=version o ~version "Approximately equivalent to version" See semver https://github.com/npm/node-semver#versions o ^version "Compatible with version" See semver https://github.com/npm/node-semver#versions o 1.2.x 1.2.0, 1.2.1, etc., but not 1.3.0 o http://... See 'URLs as Dependencies' below o * Matches any version o "" (just an empty string) Same as * o version1 - version2 Same as >=version1 <=version2. o range1 || range2 Passes if either range1 or range2 are satisfied. o git... See 'Git URLs as Dependencies' below o user/repo See 'GitHub URLs' below o tag A specific version tagged and published as tag See npm help npm dist-tag o path/path/path See Local Paths #local-paths below For example, these are all valid: { "dependencies": { "foo": "1.0.0 - 2.9999.9999", "bar": ">=1.0.2 <2.1.2", "baz": ">1.0.2 <=2.3.4", "boo": "2.0.1", "qux": "<1.0.0 || >=2.3.1 <2.4.5 || >=2.5.2 <3.0.0", "asd": "http://asdf.com/asdf.tar.gz", "til": "~1.2", "elf": "~1.2.3", "two": "2.x", "thr": "3.3.x", "lat": "latest", "dyl": "file:../dyl" } } URLs as Dependencies You may specify a tarball URL in place of a version range. This tarball will be downloaded and installed locally to your package at install time. Git URLs as Dependencies Git urls are of the form: <protocol>://[<user>[:<password>]@]<hostname>[:<port>][:][/]<path>[#<commit-ish> | #semver:<semver>] <protocol> is one of git, git+ssh, git+http, git+https, or git+file. If #<commit-ish> is provided, it will be used to clone exactly that commit. If the commit-ish has the format #semver:<semver>, <semver> can be any valid semver range or exact version, and npm will look for any tags or refs matching that range in the remote repository, much as it would for a registry dependency. If neither #<commit-ish> or #semver:<semver> is specified, then master is used. Examples: git+ssh://git@github.com:npm/cli.git#v1.0.27 git+ssh://git@github.com:npm/cli#semver:^5.0 git+https://isaacs@github.com/npm/cli.git git://github.com/npm/cli.git#v1.0.27 GitHub URLs As of version 1.1.65, you can refer to GitHub urls as just "foo": "user/foo-project". Just as with git URLs, a commit-ish suffix can be included. For example: { "name": "foo", "version": "0.0.0", "dependencies": { "express": "expressjs/express", "mocha": "mochajs/mocha#4727d357ea", "module": "user/repo#feature\/branch" } } Local Paths As of version 2.0.0 you can provide a path to a local directory that contains a package. Local paths can be saved using npm install -S or npm install --save, using any of these forms: ../foo/bar ~/foo/bar ./foo/bar /foo/bar in which case they will be normalized to a relative path and added to your package.json. For example: { "name": "baz", "dependencies": { "bar": "file:../foo/bar" } } This feature is helpful for local offline development and creating tests that require npm installing where you don't want to hit an exter- nal server, but should not be used when publishing packages to the pub- lic registry. devDependencies If someone is planning on downloading and using your module in their program, then they probably don't want or need to download and build the external test or documentation framework that you use. In this case, it's best to map these additional items in a devDependen- cies object. These things will be installed when doing npm link or npm install from the root of a package, and can be managed like any other npm configura- tion param. See npm help config for more on the topic. For build steps that are not platform-specific, such as compiling Cof- feeScript or other languages to JavaScript, use the prepare script to do this, and make the required package a devDependency. For example: { "name": "ethopia-waza", "description": "a delightfully fruity coffee varietal", "version": "1.2.3", "devDependencies": { "coffee-script": "~1.6.3" }, "scripts": { "prepare": "coffee -o lib/ -c src/waza.coffee" }, "main": "lib/waza.js" } The prepare script will be run before publishing, so that users can consume the functionality without requiring them to compile it them- selves. In dev mode (ie, locally running npm install), it'll run this script as well, so that you can test it easily. peerDependencies In some cases, you want to express the compatibility of your package with a host tool or library, while not necessarily doing a require of this host. This is usually referred to as a plugin. Notably, your mod- ule may be exposing a specific interface, expected and specified by the host documentation. For example: { "name": "tea-latte", "version": "1.3.5", "peerDependencies": { "tea": "2.x" } } This ensures your package tea-latte can be installed along with the second major version of the host package tea only. npm install tea-latte could possibly yield the following dependency graph: tea-latte@1.3.5 tea@2.2.0 In npm versions 3 through 6, peerDependencies were not automatically installed, and would raise a warning if an invalid version of the peer dependency was found in the tree. As of npm v7, peerDependencies are installed by default. Trying to install another plugin with a conflicting requirement may cause an error if the tree cannot be resolved correctly. For this rea- son, make sure your plugin requirement is as broad as possible, and not to lock it down to specific patch versions. Assuming the host complies with semver https://semver.org/, only changes in the host package's major version will break your plugin. Thus, if you've worked with every 1.x version of the host package, use "^1.0" or "1.x" to express this. If you depend on features introduced in 1.5.2, use "^1.5.2". peerDependenciesMeta When a user installs your package, npm will emit warnings if packages specified in peerDependencies are not already installed. The peerDepen- denciesMeta field serves to provide npm more information on how your peer dependencies are to be used. Specifically, it allows peer depen- dencies to be marked as optional. For example: { "name": "tea-latte", "version": "1.3.5", "peerDependencies": { "tea": "2.x", "soy-milk": "1.2" }, "peerDependenciesMeta": { "soy-milk": { "optional": true } } } Marking a peer dependency as optional ensures npm will not emit a warn- ing if the soy-milk package is not installed on the host. This allows you to integrate and interact with a variety of host packages without requiring all of them to be installed. bundledDependencies This defines an array of package names that will be bundled when pub- lishing the package. In cases where you need to preserve npm packages locally or have them available through a single file download, you can bundle the packages in a tarball file by specifying the package names in the bundledDepen- dencies array and executing npm pack. For example: If we define a package.json like this: { "name": "awesome-web-framework", "version": "1.0.0", "bundledDependencies": [ "renderized", "super-streams" ] } we can obtain awesome-web-framework-1.0.0.tgz file by running npm pack. This file contains the dependencies renderized and super-streams which can be installed in a new project by executing npm install awe- some-web-framework-1.0.0.tgz. Note that the package names do not include any versions, as that information is specified in dependencies. If this is spelled "bundleDependencies", then that is also honored. optionalDependencies If a dependency can be used, but you would like npm to proceed if it cannot be found or fails to install, then you may put it in the option- alDependencies object. This is a map of package name to version or url, just like the dependencies object. The difference is that build failures do not cause installation to fail. Running npm install --no-optional will prevent these dependencies from being installed. It is still your program's responsibility to handle the lack of the dependency. For example, something like this: try { var foo = require('foo') var fooVersion = require('foo/package.json').version } catch (er) { foo = null } if ( notGoodFooVersion(fooVersion) ) { foo = null } // .. then later in your program .. if (foo) { foo.doFooThings() } Entries in optionalDependencies will override entries of the same name in dependencies, so it's usually best to only put in one place. engines You can specify the version of node that your stuff works on: { "engines": { "node": ">=0.10.3 <15" } } And, like with dependencies, if you don't specify the version (or if you specify "*" as the version), then any version of node will do. You can also use the "engines" field to specify which versions of npm are capable of properly installing your program. For example: { "engines": { "npm": "~1.0.20" } } Unless the user has set the engine-strict config flag, this field is advisory only and will only produce warnings when your package is installed as a dependency. os You can specify which operating systems your module will run on: { "os": [ "darwin", "linux" ] } You can also block instead of allowing operating systems, just prepend the blocked os with a '!': { "os": [ "!win32" ] } The host operating system is determined by process.platform It is allowed to both block and allow an item, although there isn't any good reason to do this. cpu If your code only runs on certain cpu architectures, you can specify which ones. { "cpu": [ "x64", "ia32" ] } Like the os option, you can also block architectures: { "cpu": [ "!arm", "!mips" ] } The host architecture is determined by process.arch private If you set "private": true in your package.json, then npm will refuse to publish it. This is a way to prevent accidental publication of private reposito- ries. If you would like to ensure that a given package is only ever published to a specific registry (for example, an internal registry), then use the publishConfig dictionary described below to override the registry config param at publish-time. publishConfig This is a set of config values that will be used at publish-time. It's especially handy if you want to set the tag, registry or access, so that you can ensure that a given package is not tagged with "latest", published to the global public registry or that a scoped module is pri- vate by default. See npm help config to see the list of config options that can be over- ridden. workspaces The optional workspaces field is an array of file patterns that describes locations within the local file system that the install client should look up to find each npm help workspace that needs to be symlinked to the top level node_modules folder. It can describe either the direct paths of the folders to be used as workspaces or it can define globs that will resolve to these same fold- ers. In the following example, all folders located inside the folder ./pack- ages will be treated as workspaces as long as they have valid pack- age.json files inside them: { "name": "workspace-example", "workspaces": [ "./packages/*" ] } See npm help workspaces for more examples. DEFAULT VALUES npm will default some values based on package contents. o "scripts": {"start": "node server.js"} If there is a server.js file in the root of your package, then npm will default the start command to node server.js. o "scripts":{"install": "node-gyp rebuild"} If there is a binding.gyp file in the root of your package and you have not defined an install or preinstall script, npm will default the install command to compile using node-gyp. o "contributors": [...] If there is an AUTHORS file in the root of your package, npm will treat each line as a Name <email> (url) for- mat, where email and url are optional. Lines which start with a # or are blank, will be ignored. SEE ALSO o semver https://github.com/npm/node-semver#versions o npm help workspaces o npm help init o npm help version o npm help config o npm help help o npm help install o npm help publish o npm help uninstall

Synopsis

Please see following description for synopsis

Description

PACKAGE.JSON(5)                                                PACKAGE.JSON(5)



NAME
       package.json - Specifics of npm's package.json handling

   Description
       This  document  is  all  you need to know about what's required in your
       package.json file.  It must be  actual  JSON,  not  just  a  JavaScript
       object literal.

       A  lot  of  the  behavior described in this document is affected by the
       config settings described in npm help config.

   name
       If you plan to publish your package, the most important things in  your
       package.json  are the name and version fields as they will be required.
       The name and version together form an identifier that is assumed to  be
       completely  unique.   Changes  to  the  package  should come along with
       changes to the version. If you don't plan to publish your package,  the
       name and version fields are optional.

       The name is what your thing is called.

       Some rules:

       o The  name must be less than or equal to 214 characters. This includes
         the scope for scoped packages.

       o The names of scoped packages can begin with a dot or  an  underscore.
         This is not permitted without a scope.

       o New packages must not have uppercase letters in the name.

       o The  name  ends  up  being  part of a URL, an argument on the command
         line, and a folder  name.  Therefore,  the  name  can't  contain  any
         non-URL-safe characters.


       Some tips:

       o Don't use the same name as a core Node module.

       o Don't  put  "js"  or  "node" in the name.  It's assumed that it's js,
         since you're writing a package.json file, and  you  can  specify  the
         engine using the "engines" field.  (See below.)

       o The  name  will probably be passed as an argument to require(), so it
         should be something short, but also reasonably descriptive.

       o You may want to check the npm registry to see if there's something by
         that   name   already,   before   you   get   too   attached  to  it.
         https://www.npmjs.com/


       A name can be optionally prefixed by a  scope,  e.g.  @myorg/mypackage.
       See npm help scope for more detail.

   version
       If  you plan to publish your package, the most important things in your
       package.json are the name and version fields as they will be  required.
       The  name and version together form an identifier that is assumed to be
       completely unique.  Changes to  the  package  should  come  along  with
       changes  to the version. If you don't plan to publish your package, the
       name and version fields are optional.

       Version       must       be       parseable       by        node-semver
       https://github.com/npm/node-semver,  which  is  bundled  with  npm as a
       dependency.  (npm install semver to use it yourself.)

   description
       Put a description in it.  It's a string.  This  helps  people  discover
       your package, as it's listed in npm search.

   keywords
       Put  keywords in it.  It's an array of strings.  This helps people dis-
       cover your package as it's listed in npm search.

   homepage
       The url to the project homepage.

       Example:

         "homepage": "https://github.com/owner/project#readme"

   bugs
       The url to your project's issue tracker and / or the email  address  to
       which  issues  should  be  reported.  These  are helpful for people who
       encounter issues with your package.

       It should look like this:

         {
           "url" : "https://github.com/owner/project/issues",
           "email" : "project@hostname.com"
         }

       You can specify either one or both values. If you want to provide  only
       a  url, you can specify the value for "bugs" as a simple string instead
       of an object.

       If a url is provided, it will be used by the npm bugs command.

   license
       You should specify a license for your package so that people  know  how
       they  are  permitted  to use it, and any restrictions you're placing on
       it.

       If you're using a common license such as BSD-2-Clause  or  MIT,  add  a
       current  SPDX  license  identifier  for  the license you're using, like
       this:

         {
           "license" : "BSD-3-Clause"
         }

       You   can   check   the    full    list    of    SPDX    license    IDs
       https://spdx.org/licenses/.   Ideally  you  should pick one that is OSI
       https://opensource.org/licenses/alphabetical approved.

       If your package is licensed under multiple common licenses, use an SPDX
       license       expression       syntax      version      2.0      string
       https://www.npmjs.com/package/spdx, like this:

         {
           "license" : "(ISC OR GPL-3.0)"
         }

       If you are using a license that hasn't been assigned  an  SPDX  identi-
       fier,  or  if  you  are using a custom license, use a string value like
       this one:

         {
           "license" : "SEE LICENSE IN <filename>"
         }

       Then include a file named <filename> at the top level of the package.

       Some old packages used license objects or a  "licenses"  property  con-
       taining an array of license objects:

         // Not valid metadata
         {
           "license" : {
             "type" : "ISC",
             "url" : "https://opensource.org/licenses/ISC"
           }
         }

         // Not valid metadata
         {
           "licenses" : [
             {
               "type": "MIT",
               "url": "https://www.opensource.org/licenses/mit-license.php"
             },
             {
               "type": "Apache-2.0",
               "url": "https://opensource.org/licenses/apache2.0.php"
             }
           ]
         }

       Those  styles  are  now deprecated. Instead, use SPDX expressions, like
       this:

         {
           "license": "ISC"
         }

         {
           "license": "(MIT OR Apache-2.0)"
         }

       Finally, if you do not wish to grant others the right to use a  private
       or unpublished package under any terms:

         {
           "license": "UNLICENSED"
         }

       Consider  also  setting  "private": true to prevent accidental publica-
       tion.

   people fields: author, contributors
       The "author" is one person.  "contributors" is an array of  people.   A
       "person"  is  an  object  with  a "name" field and optionally "url" and
       "email", like this:

         {
           "name" : "Barney Rubble",
           "email" : "b@rubble.com",
           "url" : "http://barnyrubble.tumblr.com/"
         }

       Or you can shorten that all into a single string, and npm will parse it
       for you:

         {
           "author": "Barney Rubble <b@rubble.com> (http://barnyrubble.tumblr.com/)"
         }

       Both email and url are optional either way.

       npm also sets a top-level "maintainers" field with your npm user info.

   funding
       You  can  specify  an object containing an URL that provides up-to-date
       information about ways to help fund development of your package,  or  a
       string URL, or an array of these:

         {
           "funding": {
             "type" : "individual",
             "url" : "http://example.com/donate"
           },

           "funding": {
             "type" : "patreon",
             "url" : "https://www.patreon.com/my-account"
           },

           "funding": "http://example.com/donate",

           "funding": [
             {
               "type" : "individual",
               "url" : "http://example.com/donate"
             },
             "http://example.com/donateAlso",
             {
               "type" : "patreon",
               "url" : "https://www.patreon.com/my-account"
             }
           ]
         }

       Users  can  use the npm fund subcommand to list the funding URLs of all
       dependencies of their project, direct and indirect. A shortcut to visit
       each funding url is also available when providing the project name such
       as: npm fund <projectname> (when there are multiple URLs, the first one
       will be visited)

   files
       The  optional  files  field is an array of file patterns that describes
       the entries to be included when your package is installed as  a  depen-
       dency.  File  patterns  follow  a  similar  syntax  to  .gitignore, but
       reversed: including a file, directory, or glob pattern  (*,  **/*,  and
       such)  will  make  it so that file is included in the tarball when it's
       packed. Omitting the field will make it default to ["*"],  which  means
       it will include all files.

       Some  special  files  and  directories  are  also  included or excluded
       regardless of whether they exist in the files array (see below).

       You can also provide a .npmignore file in the root of your  package  or
       in  subdirectories,  which  will keep files from being included. At the
       root of your package it will not override the  "files"  field,  but  in
       subdirectories  it  will. The .npmignore file works just like a .gitig-
       nore. If there is a .gitignore file, and .npmignore is missing, .gitig-
       nore's contents will be used instead.

       Files  included  with the "package.json#files" field cannot be excluded
       through .npmignore or .gitignore.

       Certain files are always included, regardless of settings:

       o package.json

       o README

       o LICENSE / LICENCE

       o The file in the "main" field


       README & LICENSE can have any case and extension.

       Conversely, some files are always ignored:

       o .git

       o CVS

       o .svn

       o .hg

       o .lock-wscript

       o .wafpickle-N

       o .*.swp

       o .DS_Store

       o ._*

       o npm-debug.log

       o .npmrc

       o node_modules

       o config.gypi

       o *.orig

       o package-lock.json (use npm help npm-shrinkwrap.json if you wish it to
         be published)


   main
       The  main  field is a module ID that is the primary entry point to your
       program.  That is, if your package is named foo, and  a  user  installs
       it,  and  then  does  require("foo"),  then  your main module's exports
       object will be returned.

       This should be a module relative to the root of your package folder.

       For most modules, it makes the most sense to have  a  main  script  and
       often not much else.

       If main is not set it defaults to index.js in the packages root folder.

   browser
       If your module is meant to be used client-side the browser field should
       be used instead of the main field. This is helpful to hint  users  that
       it  might  rely on primitives that aren't available in Node.js modules.
       (e.g.  window)

   bin
       A lot of packages have one or more executable files that they'd like to
       install  into  the  PATH.  npm makes this pretty easy (in fact, it uses
       this feature to install the "npm" executable.)

       To use this, supply a bin field in your package.json which is a map  of
       command  name  to local file name. When this package is installed glob-
       ally, that file will be linked where global bins go so it is  available
       to  run  by  name.   When  this package is installed as a dependency in
       another package, the file will be linked where it will be available  to
       that  package  either  directly by npm exec or by name in other scripts
       when invoking them via npm run-script.

       For example, myapp could have this:

         {
           "bin": {
             "myapp": "./cli.js"
           }
         }

       So, when you install myapp, it'll create  a  symlink  from  the  cli.js
       script to /usr/local/bin/myapp.

       If you have a single executable, and its name should be the name of the
       package, then you can just supply it as a string.  For example:

         {
           "name": "my-program",
           "version": "1.2.5",
           "bin": "./path/to/program"
         }

       would be the same as this:

         {
           "name": "my-program",
           "version": "1.2.5",
           "bin": {
             "my-program": "./path/to/program"
           }
         }

       Please make sure that  your  file(s)  referenced  in  bin  starts  with
       #!/usr/bin/env node, otherwise the scripts are started without the node
       executable!

       Note that you can also set the executable files  using  directories.bin
       #directoriesbin.

       See npm help folders for more info on executables.

   man
       Specify  either  a single file or an array of filenames to put in place
       for the man program to find.

       If only a single file is provided, then it's installed such that it  is
       the  result from man <pkgname>, regardless of its actual filename.  For
       example:

         {
           "name": "foo",
           "version": "1.2.3",
           "description": "A packaged foo fooer for fooing foos",
           "main": "foo.js",
           "man": "./man/doc.1"
         }

       would link the ./man/doc.1 file in such that it is the target  for  man
       foo

       If  the  filename  doesn't  start with the package name, then it's pre-
       fixed.  So, this:

         {
           "name": "foo",
           "version": "1.2.3",
           "description": "A packaged foo fooer for fooing foos",
           "main": "foo.js",
           "man": [
             "./man/foo.1",
             "./man/bar.1"
           ]
         }

       will create files to do man foo and man foo-bar.

       Man files must end with a number, and optionally a .gz suffix  if  they
       are  compressed.   The  number  dictates  which man section the file is
       installed into.

         {
           "name": "foo",
           "version": "1.2.3",
           "description": "A packaged foo fooer for fooing foos",
           "main": "foo.js",
           "man": [
             "./man/foo.1",
             "./man/foo.2"
           ]
         }

       will create entries for man foo and man 2 foo

   directories
       The CommonJS Packages  http://wiki.commonjs.org/wiki/Packages/1.0  spec
       details  a few ways that you can indicate the structure of your package
       using  a  directories  object.  If  you  look  at  npm's   package.json
       https://registry.npmjs.org/npm/latest,  you'll see that it has directo-
       ries for doc, lib, and man.

       In the future, this information may be used in other creative ways.

   directories.bin
       If you specify a bin directory in directories.bin,  all  the  files  in
       that folder will be added.

       Because  of the way the bin directive works, specifying both a bin path
       and setting directories.bin is an error. If you want to  specify  indi-
       vidual  files, use bin, and for all the files in an existing bin direc-
       tory, use directories.bin.

   directories.man
       A folder that is full of man pages.  Sugar to generate a "man" array by
       walking the folder.

   repository
       Specify the place where your code lives. This is helpful for people who
       want to contribute.  If the git repo is on GitHub, then  the  npm  docs
       command will be able to find you.

       Do it like this:

         {
           "repository": {
             "type": "git",
             "url": "https://github.com/npm/cli.git"
           }
         }

       The URL should be a publicly available (perhaps read-only) url that can
       be handed directly to a  VCS  program  without  any  modification.   It
       should  not  be  a  url  to  an  html project page that you put in your
       browser.  It's for computers.

       For GitHub, GitHub gist, Bitbucket, or GitLab repositories you can  use
       the same shortcut syntax you use for npm install:

         {
           "repository": "npm/npm",

           "repository": "github:user/repo",

           "repository": "gist:11081aaa281",

           "repository": "bitbucket:user/repo",

           "repository": "gitlab:user/repo"
         }

       If  the package.json for your package is not in the root directory (for
       example if it is part of a monorepo), you can specify the directory  in
       which it lives:

         {
           "repository": {
             "type": "git",
             "url": "https://github.com/facebook/react.git",
             "directory": "packages/react-dom"
           }
         }

   scripts
       The  "scripts" property is a dictionary containing script commands that
       are run at various times in the lifecycle of your package.  The key  is
       the lifecycle event, and the value is the command to run at that point.

       See npm help scripts to find out more about writing package scripts.

   config
       A  "config"  object can be used to set configuration parameters used in
       package scripts that persist across upgrades.  For instance, if a pack-
       age had the following:

         {
           "name": "foo",
           "config": {
             "port": "8080"
           }
         }

       It  could  also  have  a  "start" command that referenced the npm_pack-
       age_config_port environment variable.

   dependencies
       Dependencies are specified in a simple object that maps a package  name
       to a version range. The version range is a string which has one or more
       space-separated descriptors.  Dependencies can also be identified  with
       a tarball or git URL.

       Please  do not put test harnesses or transpilers or other "development"
       time tools in your dependencies object.  See devDependencies, below.

       See semver https://github.com/npm/node-semver#versions for more details
       about specifying version ranges.

       o version Must match version exactly

       o >version Must be greater than version

       o >=version etc

       o <version

       o <=version

       o ~version   "Approximately   equivalent   to   version"    See  semver
         https://github.com/npm/node-semver#versions

       o ^version     "Compatible     with      version"       See      semver
         https://github.com/npm/node-semver#versions

       o 1.2.x 1.2.0, 1.2.1, etc., but not 1.3.0

       o http://... See 'URLs as Dependencies' below

       o * Matches any version

       o "" (just an empty string) Same as *

       o version1 - version2 Same as >=version1 <=version2.

       o range1 || range2 Passes if either range1 or range2 are satisfied.

       o git... See 'Git URLs as Dependencies' below

       o user/repo See 'GitHub URLs' below

       o tag  A specific version tagged and published as tag  See npm help npm
         dist-tag

       o path/path/path See Local Paths #local-paths below


       For example, these are all valid:

         {
           "dependencies": {
             "foo": "1.0.0 - 2.9999.9999",
             "bar": ">=1.0.2 <2.1.2",
             "baz": ">1.0.2 <=2.3.4",
             "boo": "2.0.1",
             "qux": "<1.0.0 || >=2.3.1 <2.4.5 || >=2.5.2 <3.0.0",
             "asd": "http://asdf.com/asdf.tar.gz",
             "til": "~1.2",
             "elf": "~1.2.3",
             "two": "2.x",
             "thr": "3.3.x",
             "lat": "latest",
             "dyl": "file:../dyl"
           }
         }

   URLs as Dependencies
       You may specify a tarball URL in place of a version range.

       This tarball will be downloaded and installed locally to  your  package
       at install time.

   Git URLs as Dependencies
       Git urls are of the form:

         <protocol>://[<user>[:<password>]@]<hostname>[:<port>][:][/]<path>[#<commit-ish> | #semver:<semver>]

       <protocol> is one of git, git+ssh, git+http, git+https, or git+file.

       If  #<commit-ish>  is  provided,  it will be used to clone exactly that
       commit. If the commit-ish has the format #semver:<semver>, <semver> can
       be  any  valid semver range or exact version, and npm will look for any
       tags or refs matching that range in the remote repository, much  as  it
       would   for   a   registry  dependency.  If  neither  #<commit-ish>  or
       #semver:<semver> is specified, then master is used.

       Examples:

         git+ssh://git@github.com:npm/cli.git#v1.0.27
         git+ssh://git@github.com:npm/cli#semver:^5.0
         git+https://isaacs@github.com/npm/cli.git
         git://github.com/npm/cli.git#v1.0.27

   GitHub URLs
       As of version 1.1.65, you can refer  to  GitHub  urls  as  just  "foo":
       "user/foo-project".   Just as with git URLs, a commit-ish suffix can be
       included.  For example:

         {
           "name": "foo",
           "version": "0.0.0",
           "dependencies": {
             "express": "expressjs/express",
             "mocha": "mochajs/mocha#4727d357ea",
             "module": "user/repo#feature\/branch"
           }
         }

   Local Paths
       As of version 2.0.0 you can provide a path to a  local  directory  that
       contains  a  package.  Local paths can be saved using npm install -S or
       npm install --save, using any of these forms:

         ../foo/bar
         ~/foo/bar
         ./foo/bar
         /foo/bar

       in which case they will be normalized to a relative path and  added  to
       your package.json. For example:

         {
           "name": "baz",
           "dependencies": {
             "bar": "file:../foo/bar"
           }
         }

       This  feature  is  helpful  for  local offline development and creating
       tests that require npm installing where you don't want to hit an exter-
       nal server, but should not be used when publishing packages to the pub-
       lic registry.

   devDependencies
       If someone is planning on downloading and using your  module  in  their
       program,  then  they  probably don't want or need to download and build
       the external test or documentation framework that you use.

       In this case, it's best to map these additional items in a devDependen-
       cies object.

       These  things will be installed when doing npm link or npm install from
       the root of a package, and can be managed like any other npm configura-
       tion param.  See npm help config for more on the topic.

       For  build steps that are not platform-specific, such as compiling Cof-
       feeScript or other languages to JavaScript, use the prepare  script  to
       do this, and make the required package a devDependency.

       For example:

         {
           "name": "ethopia-waza",
           "description": "a delightfully fruity coffee varietal",
           "version": "1.2.3",
           "devDependencies": {
             "coffee-script": "~1.6.3"
           },
           "scripts": {
             "prepare": "coffee -o lib/ -c src/waza.coffee"
           },
           "main": "lib/waza.js"
         }

       The  prepare  script  will  be run before publishing, so that users can
       consume the functionality without requiring them to  compile  it  them-
       selves.   In dev mode (ie, locally running npm install), it'll run this
       script as well, so that you can test it easily.

   peerDependencies
       In some cases, you want to express the compatibility  of  your  package
       with  a  host tool or library, while not necessarily doing a require of
       this host.  This is usually referred to as a plugin. Notably, your mod-
       ule may be exposing a specific interface, expected and specified by the
       host documentation.

       For example:

         {
           "name": "tea-latte",
           "version": "1.3.5",
           "peerDependencies": {
             "tea": "2.x"
           }
         }

       This ensures your package tea-latte can be  installed  along  with  the
       second  major  version  of  the  host  package  tea  only.  npm install
       tea-latte could possibly yield the following dependency graph:

          tea-latte@1.3.5
          tea@2.2.0

       In npm versions 3 through 6, peerDependencies  were  not  automatically
       installed,  and would raise a warning if an invalid version of the peer
       dependency was found in the tree.  As of npm v7,  peerDependencies  are
       installed by default.

       Trying  to  install  another  plugin with a conflicting requirement may
       cause an error if the tree cannot be resolved correctly. For this  rea-
       son, make sure your plugin requirement is as broad as possible, and not
       to lock it down to specific patch versions.

       Assuming  the  host  complies  with  semver  https://semver.org/,  only
       changes  in  the  host  package's major version will break your plugin.
       Thus, if you've worked with every 1.x version of the host package,  use
       "^1.0"  or  "1.x" to express this. If you depend on features introduced
       in 1.5.2, use "^1.5.2".

   peerDependenciesMeta
       When a user installs your package, npm will emit warnings  if  packages
       specified in peerDependencies are not already installed. The peerDepen-
       denciesMeta field serves to provide npm more information  on  how  your
       peer  dependencies  are to be used. Specifically, it allows peer depen-
       dencies to be marked as optional.

       For example:

         {
           "name": "tea-latte",
           "version": "1.3.5",
           "peerDependencies": {
             "tea": "2.x",
             "soy-milk": "1.2"
           },
           "peerDependenciesMeta": {
             "soy-milk": {
               "optional": true
             }
           }
         }

       Marking a peer dependency as optional ensures npm will not emit a warn-
       ing  if  the soy-milk package is not installed on the host. This allows
       you to integrate and interact with a variety of host  packages  without
       requiring all of them to be installed.

   bundledDependencies
       This  defines  an array of package names that will be bundled when pub-
       lishing the package.

       In cases where you need to preserve npm packages locally or  have  them
       available  through  a single file download, you can bundle the packages
       in a tarball file by specifying the package names in the  bundledDepen-
       dencies array and executing npm pack.

       For example:

       If we define a package.json like this:

         {
           "name": "awesome-web-framework",
           "version": "1.0.0",
           "bundledDependencies": [
             "renderized",
             "super-streams"
           ]
         }

       we can obtain awesome-web-framework-1.0.0.tgz file by running npm pack.
       This file contains the dependencies renderized and super-streams  which
       can  be  installed  in  a  new  project  by  executing npm install awe-
       some-web-framework-1.0.0.tgz.  Note  that  the  package  names  do  not
       include any versions, as that information is specified in dependencies.

       If this is spelled "bundleDependencies", then that is also honored.

   optionalDependencies
       If  a  dependency  can be used, but you would like npm to proceed if it
       cannot be found or fails to install, then you may put it in the option-
       alDependencies  object.   This  is  a map of package name to version or
       url, just like the dependencies object.  The difference is  that  build
       failures  do  not  cause  installation  to  fail.   Running npm install
       --no-optional will prevent these dependencies from being installed.

       It is still your program's responsibility to handle  the  lack  of  the
       dependency.  For example, something like this:

         try {
           var foo = require('foo')
           var fooVersion = require('foo/package.json').version
         } catch (er) {
           foo = null
         }
         if ( notGoodFooVersion(fooVersion) ) {
           foo = null
         }

         // .. then later in your program ..

         if (foo) {
           foo.doFooThings()
         }

       Entries  in optionalDependencies will override entries of the same name
       in dependencies, so it's usually best to only put in one place.

   engines
       You can specify the version of node that your stuff works on:

         {
           "engines": {
             "node": ">=0.10.3 <15"
           }
         }

       And, like with dependencies, if you don't specify the  version  (or  if
       you specify "*" as the version), then any version of node will do.

       You  can  also use the "engines" field to specify which versions of npm
       are capable of properly installing your program.  For example:

         {
           "engines": {
             "npm": "~1.0.20"
           }
         }

       Unless the user has set the engine-strict config flag,  this  field  is
       advisory  only  and  will  only  produce  warnings when your package is
       installed as a dependency.

   os
       You can specify which operating systems your module will run on:

         {
           "os": [
             "darwin",
             "linux"
           ]
         }

       You can also block instead of allowing operating systems, just  prepend
       the blocked os with a '!':

         {
           "os": [
             "!win32"
           ]
         }

       The host operating system is determined by process.platform

       It is allowed to both block and allow an item, although there isn't any
       good reason to do this.

   cpu
       If your code only runs on certain cpu architectures,  you  can  specify
       which ones.

         {
           "cpu": [
             "x64",
             "ia32"
           ]
         }

       Like the os option, you can also block architectures:

         {
           "cpu": [
             "!arm",
             "!mips"
           ]
         }

       The host architecture is determined by process.arch

   private
       If  you  set "private": true in your package.json, then npm will refuse
       to publish it.

       This is a way to prevent accidental publication  of  private  reposito-
       ries.   If  you  would like to ensure that a given package is only ever
       published to a specific registry (for example, an  internal  registry),
       then  use  the publishConfig dictionary described below to override the
       registry config param at publish-time.

   publishConfig
       This is a set of config values that will be used at publish-time.  It's
       especially  handy  if  you  want to set the tag, registry or access, so
       that you can ensure that a given package is not tagged  with  "latest",
       published to the global public registry or that a scoped module is pri-
       vate by default.

       See npm help config to see the list of config options that can be over-
       ridden.

   workspaces
       The  optional  workspaces  field  is  an  array  of  file patterns that
       describes locations within the  local  file  system  that  the  install
       client  should look up to find each npm help workspace that needs to be
       symlinked to the top level node_modules folder.

       It can describe either the direct paths of the folders to  be  used  as
       workspaces or it can define globs that will resolve to these same fold-
       ers.

       In the following example, all folders located inside the folder ./pack-
       ages  will  be  treated  as workspaces as long as they have valid pack-
       age.json files inside them:

         {
           "name": "workspace-example",
           "workspaces": [
             "./packages/*"
           ]
         }

       See npm help workspaces for more examples.

   DEFAULT VALUES
       npm will default some values based on package contents.

       o "scripts": {"start": "node server.js"} If there is a  server.js  file
         in  the root of your package, then npm will default the start command
         to node server.js.

       o "scripts":{"install": "node-gyp rebuild"} If there is  a  binding.gyp
         file  in the root of your package and you have not defined an install
         or preinstall script, npm will default the install command to compile
         using node-gyp.

       o "contributors":  [...]   If  there  is an AUTHORS file in the root of
         your package, npm will treat each line as a Name <email>  (url)  for-
         mat, where email and url are optional.  Lines which start with a # or
         are blank, will be ignored.


   SEE ALSO
       o semver https://github.com/npm/node-semver#versions

       o npm help workspaces

       o npm help init

       o npm help version

       o npm help config

       o npm help help

       o npm help install

       o npm help publish

       o npm help uninstall




ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:


       +---------------+--------------------------+
       |ATTRIBUTE TYPE |     ATTRIBUTE VALUE      |
       +---------------+--------------------------+
       |Availability   | runtime/nodejs/nodejs-16 |
       +---------------+--------------------------+
       |Stability      | Pass-thru volatile       |
       +---------------+--------------------------+

NOTES
       Source code for open source software components in Oracle  Solaris  can
       be found at https://www.oracle.com/downloads/opensource/solaris-source-
       code-downloads.html.

       This    software    was    built    from    source     available     at
       https://github.com/oracle/solaris-userland.    The  original  community
       source   was   downloaded   from     https://github.com/nodejs/node/ar-
       chive/v16.11.1.zip.

       Further information about this software can be found on the open source
       community website at https://github.com/nodejs/node.



                                 October 2021                  PACKAGE.JSON(5)