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Updated: Thursday, June 13, 2019

rsyncd.conf (5)


rsyncd.conf - configuration file for rsync in daemon mode




rsyncd.conf(5)                                                  rsyncd.conf(5)

       rsyncd.conf - configuration file for rsync in daemon mode


       The  rsyncd.conf  file is the runtime configuration file for rsync when
       run as an rsync daemon.

       The rsyncd.conf  file  controls  authentication,  access,  logging  and
       available modules.

       The  file  consists of modules and parameters. A module begins with the
       name of the module in square brackets and continues until the next mod-
       ule begins. Modules contain parameters of the form "name = value".

       The  file is line-based -- that is, each newline-terminated line repre-
       sents either a comment, a module name or a parameter.

       Only the first equals sign in a parameter  is  significant.  Whitespace
       before  or  after the first equals sign is discarded. Leading, trailing
       and internal whitespace in module and parameter  names  is  irrelevant.
       Leading  and  trailing  whitespace  in  a parameter value is discarded.
       Internal whitespace within a parameter value is retained verbatim.

       Any line beginning with a hash (#) is ignored, as are lines  containing
       only  whitespace.  (If  a hash occurs after anything other than leading
       whitespace, it is considered a part of the line's content.)

       Any line ending in a \ is "continued" on the next line in the customary
       UNIX fashion.

       The  values  following  the  equals sign in parameters are all either a
       string (no quotes needed) or a boolean, which may be given  as  yes/no,
       0/1  or  true/false.  Case is not significant in boolean values, but is
       preserved in string values.

       The rsync daemon is launched  by  specifying  the  --daemon  option  to

       The  daemon must run with root privileges if you wish to use chroot, to
       bind to a port numbered under 1024 (as is the default 873), or  to  set
       file  ownership.   Otherwise,  it must just have permission to read and
       write the appropriate data, log, and lock files.

       You can launch it either via inetd, as a stand-alone daemon, or from an
       rsync  client  via a remote shell.  If run as a stand-alone daemon then
       just run the command "rsync --daemon" from a suitable startup script.

       When run via inetd you should add a line like this to /etc/services:

         rsync           873/tcp

       and a single line something like this to /etc/inetd.conf:

         rsync   stream  tcp     nowait  root   /usr/bin/rsync rsyncd --daemon

       Replace  "/usr/bin/rsync"  with  the  path  to  where  you  have  rsync
       installed  on your system.  You will then need to send inetd a HUP sig-
       nal to tell it to reread its config file.

       Note that you should not send the rsync daemon a HUP signal to force it
       to reread the rsyncd.conf file. The file is re-read on each client con-

       The first parameters in the file (before a  [module]  header)  are  the
       global  parameters.  Rsync also allows for the use of a "[global]" mod-
       ule name to indicate the start of one or more global-parameter sections
       (the name must be lower case).

       You  may  also  include any module parameters in the global part of the
       config file in which case the supplied value will override the  default
       for that parameter.

       You may use references to environment variables in the values of param-
       eters.  String parameters will have %VAR% references expanded  as  late
       as  possible (when the string is used in the program), allowing for the
       use  of  variables  that  rsync  sets  at  connection  time,  such   as
       RSYNC_USER_NAME.   Non-string  parameters (such as true/false settings)
       are expanded when read from the config file.  If a  variable  does  not
       exist in the environment, or if a sequence of characters is not a valid
       reference (such as an un-paired percent sign), the raw  characters  are
       passed  through  unchanged.  This helps with backward compatibility and
       safety (e.g. expanding a non-existent %VAR% to an  empty  string  in  a
       path  could  result in a very unsafe path).  The safest way to insert a
       literal % into a value is to use %%.

       motd file
              This parameter allows you to specify a "message of the  day"  to
              display  to  clients on each connect. This usually contains site
              information and any legal notices. The default is no motd  file.
              This  can  be  overridden  by  the  --dparam=motdfile=FILE  com-
              mand-line option when starting the daemon.

       pid file
              This parameter tells the rsync daemon to write its process ID to
              that  file.   If  the file already exists, the rsync daemon will
              abort rather than overwrite the file.  This can be overridden by
              the  --dparam=pidfile=FILE command-line option when starting the

       port   You can override the default port the daemon will listen  on  by
              specifying this value (defaults to 873).  This is ignored if the
              daemon is being run by inetd, and is superseded  by  the  --port
              command-line option.

              You  can  override the default IP address the daemon will listen
              on by specifying this value.  This is ignored if the  daemon  is
              being  run  by  inetd,  and  is superseded by the --address com-
              mand-line option.

       socket options
              This parameter can provide endless fun for people  who  like  to
              tune  their  systems to the utmost degree. You can set all sorts
              of socket options which may make transfers faster (or  slower!).
              Read  the  man page for the setsockopt() system call for details
              on some of the options you may be able to  set.  By  default  no
              special  socket  options  are  set.   These settings can also be
              specified via the --sockopts command-line option.

       listen backlog
              You can override the default backlog value when the daemon  lis-
              tens for connections.  It defaults to 5.

       After the global parameters you should define a number of modules, each
       module exports a  directory  tree  as  a  symbolic  name.  Modules  are
       exported  by  specifying a module name in square brackets [module] fol-
       lowed by the parameters for that module.  The module name  cannot  con-
       tain  a slash or a closing square bracket.  If the name contains white-
       space, each internal sequence of whitespace will be changed into a sin-
       gle  space,  while  leading  or  trailing whitespace will be discarded.
       Also, the name cannot be "global" as that  exact  name  indicates  that
       global parameters follow (see above).

       As  with GLOBAL PARAMETERS, you may use references to environment vari-
       ables in the values of parameters.  See the GLOBAL  PARAMETERS  section
       for more details.

              This  parameter specifies a description string that is displayed
              next to the module name when clients obtain a list of  available
              modules. The default is no comment.

       path   This  parameter specifies the directory in the daemon's filesys-
              tem to make available in this module.   You  must  specify  this
              parameter for each module in rsyncd.conf.

              You  may base the path's value off of an environment variable by
              surrounding the variable name with percent signs.  You can  even
              reference  a  variable  that  is set by rsync when the user con-
              nects.  For example, this would use the authorizing user's  name
              in the path:

                  path = /home/%RSYNC_USER_NAME%

              It  is fine if the path includes internal spaces -- they will be
              retained verbatim (which means that you shouldn't try to  escape
              them).   If  your final directory has a trailing space (and this
              is somehow not something you wish to  fix),  append  a  trailing
              slash to the path to avoid losing the trailing whitespace.

       use chroot
              If  "use  chroot"  is  true, the rsync daemon will chroot to the
              "path" before starting the file transfer with the client.   This
              has the advantage of extra protection against possible implemen-
              tation security holes, but it has the disadvantages of requiring
              super-user  privileges,  of  not  being  able to follow symbolic
              links that are either absolute or outside of the new root  path,
              and of complicating the preservation of users and groups by name
              (see below).

              As an additional safety feature, you can specify  a  dot-dir  in
              the  module's  "path"  to  indicate  the  point where the chroot
              should occur.  This allows rsync to  run  in  a  chroot  with  a
              non-"/"  path for the top of the transfer hierarchy.  Doing this
              guards against unintended library loading (since those  absolute
              paths  will not be inside the transfer hierarchy unless you have
              used an unwise pathname), and lets you setup libraries  for  the
              chroot  that are outside of the transfer.  For example, specify-
              ing  "/var/rsync/./module1"  will  chroot  to  the  "/var/rsync"
              directory  and set the inside-chroot path to "/module1".  If you
              had omitted the dot-dir, the chroot would have  used  the  whole
              path, and the inside-chroot path would have been "/".

              When  both  "use  chroot"  and "daemon chroot" are false, OR the
              inside-chroot path of "use chroot" is not "/", rsync  will:  (1)
              munge  symlinks by default for security reasons (see "munge sym-
              links" for a way to turn this off, but only if  you  trust  your
              users),  (2)  substitute  leading slashes in absolute paths with
              the module's path (so that options such as --backup-dir,  --com-
              pare-dest, etc. interpret an absolute path as rooted in the mod-
              ule's "path" dir), and (3) trim ".." path elements from args  if
              rsync  believes  they  would  escape  the module hierarchy.  The
              default for "use chroot" is true, and is the safer choice (espe-
              cially if the module is not read-only).

              When  this  parameter  is enabled, the "numeric-ids" option will
              also default to being enabled  (disabling  name  lookups).   See
              below  for what a chroot needs in order for name lookups to suc-

              If you copy library resources into the module's chroot area, you
              should  protect  them through your OS's normal user/group or ACL
              settings (to prevent the rsync module's user from being able  to
              change  them),  and  then  hide  them  from  the user's view via
              "exclude" (see how in the discussion  of  that  parameter).   At
              that  point  it  will be safe to enable the mapping of users and
              groups by name using the "numeric  ids"  daemon  parameter  (see

              Note  also that you are free to setup custom user/group informa-
              tion in the chroot area that is different from your normal  sys-
              tem.   For  example,  you could abbreviate the list of users and

       daemon chroot
              This parameter specifies a path to which the daemon will  chroot
              before  beginning  communication with clients. Module paths (and
              any "use chroot" settings) will then be  related  to  this  one.
              This lets you choose if you want the whole daemon to be chrooted
              (with this setting), just the transfers  to  be  chrooted  (with
              "use  chroot"),  or both.  Keep in mind that the "daemon chroot"
              area may need various OS/lib/etc files installed  to  allow  the
              daemon  to  function.   By  default  the daemon runs without any

       numeric ids
              Enabling this parameter disables the mapping of users and groups
              by name for the current daemon module.  This prevents the daemon
              from trying to load any user/group-related files  or  libraries.
              This  enabling  makes  the  transfer behave as if the client had
              passed the --numeric-ids command-line option.  By default,  this
              parameter  is  enabled  for  chroot  modules  and  disabled  for
              non-chroot modules.  Also keep in mind that uid/gid preservation
              requires  the  module  to  be running as root (see "uid") or for
              "fake super" to be configured.

              A chroot-enabled module should not have this  parameter  enabled
              unless you've taken steps to ensure that the module has the nec-
              essary resources it needs to translate names, and that it is not
              possible  for  a  user to change those resources.  That includes
              being the code being able to call functions  like  getpwuid()  ,
              getgrgid()  ,  getpwname()  ,  and getgrnam() .  You should test
              what libraries and config files are required for your OS and get
              those setup before starting to test name mapping in rsync.

       munge symlinks
              This  parameter  tells  rsync to modify all symlinks in the same
              way as  the  (non-daemon-affecting)  --munge-links  command-line
              option  (using a method described below).  This should help pro-
              tect your files from user trickery when your  daemon  module  is
              writable.   The default is disabled when "use chroot" is on with
              an inside-chroot path of "/", OR if "daemon chroot" is on,  oth-
              erwise it is enabled.

              If you disable this parameter on a daemon that is not read-only,
              there are tricks that a user can play with uploaded symlinks  to
              access  daemon-excluded  items (if your module has any), and, if
              "use chroot" is off, rsync can even be tricked into  showing  or
              changing  data that is outside the module's path (as access-per-
              missions allow).

              The way rsync disables the use of symlinks is to prefix each one
              with the string "/rsyncd-munged/".  This prevents the links from
              being used as long as that directory does not exist.  When  this
              parameter is enabled, rsync will refuse to run if that path is a
              directory or a symlink to a directory.  When  using  the  "munge
              symlinks"  parameter  in a chroot area that has an inside-chroot
              path of "/", you should add  "/rsyncd-munged/"  to  the  exclude
              setting for the module so that a user can't try to create it.

              Note:   rsync  makes  no attempt to verify that any pre-existing
              symlinks in the module's hierarchy are as safe as you want  them
              to  be  (unless,  of course, it just copied in the whole hierar-
              chy).  If you setup an rsync daemon on a new area or locally add
              symlinks,  you  can  manually  protect  your symlinks from being
              abused by prefixing "/rsyncd-munged/" to the start of every sym-
              link's  value.   There is a perl script in the support directory
              of the source code named "munge-symlinks" that can  be  used  to
              add or remove this prefix from your symlinks.

              When  this  parameter  is disabled on a writable module and "use
              chroot" is off (or the inside-chroot path is not "/"),  incoming
              symlinks  will be modified to drop a leading slash and to remove
              ".." path elements that rsync believes will allow a  symlink  to
              escape  the  module's  hierarchy.  There are tricky ways to work
              around this, though, so you had better trust your users  if  you
              choose this combination of parameters.

              This  specifies  the name of the character set in which the mod-
              ule's filenames are stored.   If  the  client  uses  an  --iconv
              option, the daemon will use the value of the "charset" parameter
              regardless of the character  set  the  client  actually  passed.
              This allows the daemon to support charset conversion in a chroot
              module without extra files in the chroot area, and also  ensures
              that  name-translation  is  done in a consistent manner.  If the
              "charset" parameter is not set, the --iconv option  is  refused,
              just as if "iconv" had been specified via "refuse options".

              If  you wish to force users to always use --iconv for a particu-
              lar module, add "no-iconv" to the  "refuse  options"  parameter.
              Keep  in  mind  that this will restrict access to your module to
              very new rsync clients.

       max connections
              This parameter allows you  to  specify  the  maximum  number  of
              simultaneous connections you will allow.  Any clients connecting
              when the maximum has been reached will receive a message telling
              them  to  try later.  The default is 0, which means no limit.  A
              negative value disables the module.  See also  the  "lock  file"

       log file
              When  the "log file" parameter is set to a non-empty string, the
              rsync daemon will log messages to the indicated file rather than
              using  syslog.  This  is particularly useful on systems (such as
              AIX) where syslog() doesn't work  for  chrooted  programs.   The
              file  is  opened  before  chroot()  is called, allowing it to be
              placed outside the transfer.  If this value is set on a per-mod-
              ule basis instead of globally, the global log will still contain
              any authorization failures or config-file error messages.

              If the daemon fails to open the specified  file,  it  will  fall
              back  to  using  syslog  and  output an error about the failure.
              (Note that the failure to open the specified log file used to be
              a fatal error.)

              This  setting  can be overridden by using the --log-file=FILE or
              --dparam=logfile=FILE command-line options.   The  former  over-
              rides  all  the log-file parameters of the daemon and all module
              settings.  The latter sets the daemon's log file and the default
              for  all the modules, which still allows modules to override the
              default setting.

       syslog facility
              This parameter allows you to specify the syslog facility name to
              use when logging messages from the rsync daemon. You may use any
              standard syslog facility name which is defined on  your  system.
              Common  names  are auth, authpriv, cron, daemon, ftp, kern, lpr,
              mail,  news,  security,  syslog,  user,  uucp,  local0,  local1,
              local2,  local3,  local4, local5, local6 and local7. The default
              is daemon.  This setting has no effect if the "log file" setting
              is  a  non-empty string (either set in the per-modules settings,
              or inherited from the global settings).

       syslog tag
              This parameter allows you to specify the syslog tag to use  when
              logging messages from the rsync daemon. The default is "rsyncd".
              This setting has no effect  if  the  "log  file"  setting  is  a
              non-empty  string  (either  set  in the per-modules settings, or
              inherited from the global settings).

              For example, if you wanted each authenticated user's name to  be
              included in the syslog tag, you could do something like this:

                  syslog tag = rsyncd.%RSYNC_USER_NAME%

       max verbosity
              This  parameter allows you to control the maximum amount of ver-
              bose information that you'll allow the daemon to generate (since
              the information goes into the log file). The default is 1, which
              allows the client to request one level of verbosity.

              This also affects the user's ability to request higher levels of
              --info and --debug logging.  If the max value is 2, then no info
              and/or debug value that is higher than what would be set by  -vv
              will  be  honored by the daemon in its logging.  To see how high
              of a verbosity  level  you  need  to  accept  for  a  particular
              info/debug  level,  refer  to  "rsync  --info=help"  and  "rsync
              --debug=help".  For instance, it takes  max-verbosity  4  to  be
              able to output debug TIME2 and FLIST3.

       lock file
              This  parameter  specifies  the  file to use to support the "max
              connections" parameter. The rsync daemon uses record locking  on
              this  file  to  ensure  that  the  max  connections limit is not
              exceeded for the modules sharing the lock file.  The default  is

       read only
              This parameter determines whether clients will be able to upload
              files or not. If "read only" is true then any attempted  uploads
              will fail. If "read only" is false then uploads will be possible
              if file permissions on the daemon side allow them.  The  default
              is for all modules to be read only.

              Note  that  "auth users" can override this setting on a per-user

       write only
              This parameter determines whether clients will be able to  down-
              load  files  or  not. If "write only" is true then any attempted
              downloads will fail. If "write only"  is  false  then  downloads
              will  be  possible  if file permissions on the daemon side allow
              them.  The default is for this parameter to be disabled.

              Helpful hint: you probably want to  specify  "refuse  options  =
              delete" for a write-only module.

       list   This parameter determines whether this module is listed when the
              client asks for a listing of available modules.  In addition, if
              this is false, the daemon will pretend the module does not exist
              when a client denied by "hosts allow" or "hosts  deny"  attempts
              to  access  it.   Realize  that  if "reverse lookup" is disabled
              globally but enabled  for  the  module,  the  resulting  reverse
              lookup  to  a potentially client-controlled DNS server may still
              reveal to the client  that  it  hit  an  existing  module.   The
              default is for modules to be listable.

       uid    This  parameter  specifies  the  user  name or user ID that file
              transfers to and from that module should take place as when  the
              daemon  was run as root. In combination with the "gid" parameter
              this determines what file permissions are available. The default
              when  run  by a super-user is to switch to the system's "nobody"
              user.  The default for a non-super-user is to not try to  change
              the user.  See also the "gid" parameter.

              The  RSYNC_USER_NAME environment variable may be used to request
              that rsync run as the authorizing user.   For  example,  if  you
              want  a  rsync to run as the same user that was received for the
              rsync authentication, this setup is useful:

                  uid = %RSYNC_USER_NAME%
                  gid = *

       gid    This parameter specifies one or more group names/IDs  that  will
              be  used  when  accessing the module.  The first one will be the
              default group, and any extra ones be set as supplemental groups.
              You  may  also specify a "*" as the first gid in the list, which
              will be replaced by all the normal  groups  for  the  transfer's
              user  (see  "uid").   The default when run by a super-user is to
              switch to your OS's "nobody" (or perhaps "nogroup")  group  with
              no other supplementary groups.  The default for a non-super-user
              is to not change any group attributes (and indeed, your  OS  may
              not  allow  a  non-super-user  to try to change their group set-

       daemon uid
              This parameter specifies a uid under which the daemon will  run.
              The  daemon  usually  runs  as  user root, and when this is left
              unset the user is left unchanged. See also the "uid" parameter.

       daemon gid
              This parameter specifies a gid under which the daemon will  run.
              The  daemon  usually  runs  as group root, and when this is left
              unset, the group is left unchanged. See also the  "gid"  parame-

       fake super
              Setting  "fake  super = yes" for a module causes the daemon side
              to behave as if the --fake-super command-line  option  had  been
              specified.   This  allows  the  full  attributes of a file to be
              stored without having to have the  daemon  actually  running  as

       filter The  daemon  has its own filter chain that determines what files
              it will let the client access.  This chain is not  sent  to  the
              client  and  is  independent  of any filters the client may have
              specified.  Files excluded by  the  daemon  filter  chain  (dae-
              mon-excluded  files)  are  treated as non-existent if the client
              tries to pull them, are skipped with an  error  message  if  the
              client  tries  to  push  them (triggering exit code 23), and are
              never deleted from the module.  You can use  daemon  filters  to
              prevent  clients  from  downloading  or  tampering  with private
              administrative files, such as  files  you  may  add  to  support
              uid/gid name translations.

              The  daemon  filter  chain  is built from the "filter", "include
              from", "include", "exclude from", and "exclude"  parameters,  in
              that  order  of priority.  Anchored patterns are anchored at the
              root of the module.  To prevent access to an entire subtree, for
              example,  "/secret", you must exclude everything in the subtree;
              the easiest way to do this is with a  triple-star  pattern  like

              The  "filter"  parameter  takes a space-separated list of daemon
              filter rules, though it is smart enough to know not to  split  a
              token  at  an internal space in a rule (e.g. "- /foo  - /bar" is
              parsed as two rules).  You may specify one  or  more  merge-file
              rules  using the normal syntax.  Only one "filter" parameter can
              apply to a given module in the config file, so put all the rules
              you  want  in  a  single  parameter.   Note  that  per-directory
              merge-file rules do not provide as  much  protection  as  global
              rules,  but they can be used to make --delete work better during
              a client download operation  if  the  per-dir  merge  files  are
              included  in  the  transfer and the client requests that they be

              This parameter takes a space-separated list  of  daemon  exclude
              patterns.   As with the client --exclude option, patterns can be
              qualified  with  "-  "  or   "+   "   to   explicitly   indicate
              exclude/include.   Only  one  "exclude" parameter can apply to a
              given module.  See the "filter" parameter for a  description  of
              how excluded files affect the daemon.

              Use an "include" to override the effects of the "exclude" param-
              eter.  Only one "include" parameter can apply to a given module.
              See  the  "filter"  parameter  for a description of how excluded
              files affect the daemon.

       exclude from
              This parameter specifies the name of a file on the  daemon  that
              contains  daemon  exclude  patterns,  one  per  line.   Only one
              "exclude from" parameter can apply to a  given  module;  if  you
              have  multiple  exclude-from  files,  you  can specify them as a
              merge file in the "filter" parameter.  See the "filter"  parame-
              ter for a description of how excluded files affect the daemon.

       include from
              Analogue  of  "exclude  from"  for a file of daemon include pat-
              terns.  Only one "include from" parameter can apply to  a  given
              module.   See  the  "filter"  parameter for a description of how
              excluded files affect the daemon.

       incoming chmod
              This parameter allows you to specify a  set  of  comma-separated
              chmod  strings  that will affect the permissions of all incoming
              files (files that are being  received  by  the  daemon).   These
              changes happen after all other permission calculations, and this
              will even override destination-default and/or  existing  permis-
              sions  when  the  client  does  not  specify  --perms.   See the
              description of the --chmod rsync option and the chmod(1) manpage
              for information on the format of this string.

       outgoing chmod
              This  parameter  allows  you to specify a set of comma-separated
              chmod strings that will affect the permissions of  all  outgoing
              files  (files  that  are being sent out from the daemon).  These
              changes happen first, making the sent permissions appear  to  be
              different  than  those  stored  in  the  filesystem itself.  For
              instance, you could  disable  group  write  permissions  on  the
              server  while having it appear to be on to the clients.  See the
              description of the --chmod rsync option and the chmod(1) manpage
              for information on the format of this string.

       auth users
              This  parameter specifies a comma and/or space-separated list of
              authorization rules.  In its simplest form, you list  the  user-
              names  that will be allowed to connect to this module. The user-
              names do not need to exist on the local system.  The  rules  may
              contain  shell  wildcard characters that will be matched against
              the username provided by the client for authentication. If "auth
              users"  is  set  then  the client will be challenged to supply a
              username and password to connect  to  the  module.  A  challenge
              response  authentication protocol is used for this exchange. The
              plain text usernames and passwords are stored in the file speci-
              fied  by  the  "secrets  file" parameter. The default is for all
              users to be able to connect without a password (this  is  called
              "anonymous rsync").

              In  addition  to  username  matching,  you can specify groupname
              matching via a '@' prefix.  When using groupname  matching,  the
              authenticating username must be a real user on the system, or it
              will be assumed to be a member of no groups.  For example, spec-
              ifying  "@rsync" will match the authenticating user if the named
              user is a member of the rsync group.

              Finally, options may  be  specified  after  a  colon  (:).   The
              options allow you to "deny" a user or a group, set the access to
              "ro" (read-only), or set the access to "rw" (read/write).   Set-
              ting  an auth-rule-specific ro/rw setting overrides the module's
              "read only" setting.

              Be sure to put the rules in  the  order  you  want  them  to  be
              matched,  because  the checking stops at the first matching user
              or group, and that is the only auth that is checked.  For  exam-

                auth users = joe:deny @guest:deny admin:rw @rsync:ro susan joe sam

              In  the  above  rule,  user  joe will be denied access no matter
              what.  Any user that is in the  group  "guest"  is  also  denied
              access.   The  user  "admin" gets access in read/write mode, but
              only if the admin user is not  in  group  "guest"  (because  the
              admin  user-matching  rule would never be reached if the user is
              in group "guest").  Any other user who is in group "rsync"  will
              get  read-only  access.   Finally, users susan, joe, and sam get
              the ro/rw setting of the module, but only  if  the  user  didn't
              match an earlier group-matching rule.

              If  you need to specify a user or group name with a space in it,
              start your list with a comma to indicate that  the  list  should
              only  be split on commas (though leading and trailing whitespace
              will also be removed, and empty entries are just ignored).   For

                auth users = , joe:deny, @Some Group:deny, admin:rw, @RO Group:ro

              See  the  description  of  the secrets file for how you can have
              per-user passwords as well  as  per-group  passwords.   It  also
              explains  how  a user can authenticate using their user password
              or (when applicable) a group password, depending on what rule is
              being authenticated.

              See also the section entitled "USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A
              REMOTE SHELL CONNECTION" in rsync(1) for information on how han-
              dle   an   rsyncd.conf-level  username  that  differs  from  the
              remote-shell-level username when using a remote shell to connect
              to an rsync daemon.

       secrets file
              This  parameter  specifies  the name of a file that contains the
              username:password  and/or  @groupname:password  pairs  used  for
              authenticating  this  module. This file is only consulted if the
              "auth users" parameter is specified.  The file is line-based and
              contains  one  name:password pair per line.  Any line has a hash
              (#) as the very first character on the line is considered a com-
              ment  and  is skipped.  The passwords can contain any characters
              but be warned that many operating systems limit  the  length  of
              passwords  that  can be typed at the client end, so you may find
              that passwords longer than 8 characters don't work.

              The use of group-specific lines are only relevant when the  mod-
              ule  is  being  authorized  using  a matching "@groupname" rule.
              When that happens, the user can be authorized via  either  their
              "username:password"  line  or the "@groupname:password" line for
              the group that triggered the authentication.

              It is up to you what  kind  of  password  entries  you  want  to
              include,  either users, groups, or both.  The use of group rules
              in "auth users" does not require that you specify a group  pass-
              word if you do not want to use shared passwords.

              There  is  no default for the "secrets file" parameter, you must
              choose a name (such as /etc/rsyncd.secrets).  The file must nor-
              mally  not  be  readable by "other"; see "strict modes".  If the
              file is not found or is rejected, no logins for  a  "user  auth"
              module will be possible.

       strict modes
              This  parameter determines whether or not the permissions on the
              secrets file will be checked.  If "strict modes" is  true,  then
              the  secrets file must not be readable by any user ID other than
              the one that the rsync daemon  is  running  under.   If  "strict
              modes"  is  false,  the  check is not performed.  The default is
              true.  This parameter was added to accommodate rsync running  on
              the Windows operating system.

       hosts allow
              This  parameter  allows  you  to specify a list of comma- and/or
              whitespace-separated patterns that are matched  against  a  con-
              necting  client's  hostname and IP address.  If none of the pat-
              terns match, then the connection is rejected.

              Each pattern can be in one of five forms:

              o      a dotted decimal IPv4 address of the form a.b.c.d, or  an
                     IPv6  address  of the form a:b:c::d:e:f. In this case the
                     incoming machine's IP address must match exactly.

              o      an address/mask in the form ipaddr/n where ipaddr is  the
                     IP  address  and  n is the number of one bits in the net-
                     mask.  All IP addresses which match the masked IP address
                     will be allowed in.

              o      an  address/mask in the form ipaddr/maskaddr where ipaddr
                     is the IP address and maskaddr is the netmask  in  dotted
                     decimal  notation  for  IPv4,  or  similar for IPv6, e.g.
                     ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:: instead of /64.  All  IP  addresses
                     which match the masked IP address will be allowed in.

              o      a  hostname  pattern  using wildcards. If the hostname of
                     the connecting IP (as determined  by  a  reverse  lookup)
                     matches the wildcarded name (using the same rules as nor-
                     mal unix filename matching), the client  is  allowed  in.
                     This  only  works  if  "reverse  lookup"  is enabled (the

              o      a hostname. A  plain  hostname  is  matched  against  the
                     reverse  DNS of the connecting IP (if "reverse lookup" is
                     enabled), and/or the IP of the given hostname is  matched
                     against   the  connecting  IP  (if  "forward  lookup"  is
                     enabled, as it is by default).  Any match will be allowed

              Note  IPv6  link-local addresses can have a scope in the address


              You can also combine "hosts allow" with a separate "hosts  deny"
              parameter.  If  both  parameters  are  specified then the "hosts
              allow" parameter is checked first and a  match  results  in  the
              client being able to connect. The "hosts deny" parameter is then
              checked and a match means that the host is rejected. If the host
              does not match either the "hosts allow" or the "hosts deny" pat-
              terns then it is allowed to connect.

              The default is no "hosts allow" parameter, which means all hosts
              can connect.

       hosts deny
              This  parameter  allows  you  to specify a list of comma- and/or
              whitespace-separated patterns that are matched  against  a  con-
              necting  clients hostname and IP address. If the pattern matches
              then the connection is rejected. See the "hosts allow" parameter
              for more information.

              The  default is no "hosts deny" parameter, which means all hosts
              can connect.

       reverse lookup
              Controls whether the daemon performs a  reverse  lookup  on  the
              client's IP address to determine its hostname, which is used for
              "hosts allow"/"hosts deny" checks and the "%h" log escape.  This
              is  enabled  by  default, but you may wish to disable it to save
              time if you know the lookup will not return a useful result,  in
              which case the daemon will use the name "UNDETERMINED" instead.

              If  this  parameter is enabled globally (even by default), rsync
              performs the lookup as soon as a client connects,  so  disabling
              it  for  a module will not avoid the lookup.  Thus, you probably
              want to disable it globally and then enable it for modules  that
              need the information.

       forward lookup
              Controls  whether  the  daemon  performs a forward lookup on any
              hostname specified in an hosts allow/deny setting.   By  default
              this  is  enabled, allowing the use of an explicit hostname that
              would not be returned by reverse DNS of the connecting IP.

       ignore errors
              This parameter tells rsyncd to ignore I/O errors on  the  daemon
              when  deciding  whether to run the delete phase of the transfer.
              Normally rsync skips the --delete step if any  I/O  errors  have
              occurred in order to prevent disastrous deletion due to a tempo-
              rary resource shortage or other I/O error. In  some  cases  this
              test is counter productive so you can use this parameter to turn
              off this behavior.

       ignore nonreadable
              This tells the rsync daemon to completely ignore files that  are
              not  readable  by  the  user. This is useful for public archives
              that may have some non-readable files among the directories, and
              the sysadmin doesn't want those files to be seen at all.

       transfer logging
              This parameter enables per-file logging of downloads and uploads
              in a format somewhat similar to that used by ftp  daemons.   The
              daemon  always logs the transfer at the end, so if a transfer is
              aborted, no mention will be made in the log file.

              If you want to customize the log lines,  see  the  "log  format"

       log format
              This parameter allows you to specify the format used for logging
              file transfers when transfer logging is enabled.  The format  is
              a   text  string  containing  embedded  single-character  escape
              sequences prefixed with a percent (%)  character.   An  optional
              numeric  field  width  may also be specified between the percent
              and the escape letter (e.g. "%-50n %8l %07p").  In addition, one
              or more apostrophes may be specified prior to a numerical escape
              to indicate  that  the  numerical  value  should  be  made  more
              human-readable.   The 3 supported levels are the same as for the
              --human-readable command-line option, though the default is  for
              human-readability  to  be  off.  Each added apostrophe increases
              the level (e.g. "%''l %'b %f").

              The default log format is "%o %h [%a] %m (%u) %f %l", and a  "%t
              [%p]  "  is always prefixed when using the "log file" parameter.
              (A perl script that will summarize this default  log  format  is
              included  in the rsync source code distribution in the "support"
              subdirectory: rsyncstats.)

              The single-character escapes that are understood are as follows:

              o      %a the remote IP address (only available for a daemon)

              o      %b the number of bytes actually transferred

              o      %B the permission bits of the file (e.g. rwxrwxrwt)

              o      %c the total size of the block checksums received for the
                     basis file (only when sending)

              o      %C  the  full-file  checksum if it is known for the file.
                     For older  rsync  protocols/versions,  the  checksum  was
                     salted,  and  is thus not a useful value (and is not dis-
                     played when that is the case). For the checksum to output
                     for   a  file,  either  the  --checksum  option  must  be
                     in-effect or the file must have been transferred  without
                     a  salted  checksum being used. See the --checksum-choice
                     option for a way to choose the algorithm.

              o      %f the filename (long form on sender; no trailing "/")

              o      %G the gid of the file (decimal) or "DEFAULT"

              o      %h the remote host name (only available for a daemon)

              o      %i an itemized list of what is being updated

              o      %l the length of the file in bytes

              o      %L the string " -> SYMLINK", " => HARDLINK", or "" (where
                     SYMLINK or HARDLINK is a filename)

              o      %m the module name

              o      %M the last-modified time of the file

              o      %n the filename (short form; trailing "/" on dir)

              o      %o the operation, which is "send", "recv", or "del." (the
                     latter includes the trailing period)

              o      %p the process ID of this rsync session

              o      %P the module path

              o      %t the current date time

              o      %u the authenticated username or an empty string

              o      %U the uid of the file (decimal)

              For a list of what the characters mean that are output by  "%i",
              see the --itemize-changes option in the rsync manpage.

              Note  that  some  of the logged output changes when talking with
              older rsync versions.  For instance,  deleted  files  were  only
              output as verbose messages prior to rsync 2.6.4.

              This parameter allows you to override the clients choice for I/O
              timeout for this module. Using this  parameter  you  can  ensure
              that  rsync  won't wait on a dead client forever. The timeout is
              specified in seconds. A value of zero means no  timeout  and  is
              the  default.  A  good choice for anonymous rsync daemons may be
              600 (giving a 10 minute timeout).

       refuse options
              This parameter allows you to specify a space-separated  list  of
              rsync  command  line  options that will be refused by your rsync
              daemon.  You may specify the full option  name,  its  one-letter
              abbreviation,  or  a  wild-card  string  that  matches  multiple
              options.  For example, this would refuse --checksum (-c) and all
              the various delete options:

                  refuse options = c delete

              The  reason  the  above  refuses  all delete options is that the
              options imply --delete, and implied  options  are  refused  just
              like  explicit  options.   As  an additional safety feature, the
              refusal of "delete" also refuses  remove-source-files  when  the
              daemon is the sender; if you want the latter without the former,
              instead refuse "delete-*" -- that refuses all the  delete  modes
              without affecting --remove-source-files.

              When  an  option  is refused, the daemon prints an error message
              and exits.  To prevent all compression when serving  files,  you
              can  use  "dont  compress  =  *"  (see below) instead of "refuse
              options = compress" to avoid returning an error to a client that
              requests compression.

       dont compress
              This  parameter allows you to select filenames based on wildcard
              patterns that should not be compressed when pulling  files  from
              the  daemon (no analogous parameter exists to govern the pushing
              of files to a daemon).  Compression is expensive in terms of CPU
              usage,  so  it is usually good to not try to compress files that
              won't compress well, such as already compressed files.

              The "dont compress" parameter takes a  space-separated  list  of
              case-insensitive wildcard patterns. Any source filename matching
              one of the patterns will not be compressed during transfer.

              See the --skip-compress parameter in the  rsync(1)  manpage  for
              the  list  of  file suffixes that are not compressed by default.
              Specifying a value for the "dont compress" parameter changes the
              default when the daemon is the sender.

       pre-xfer exec, post-xfer exec
              You  may  specify  a  command  to be run before and/or after the
              transfer.  If the pre-xfer exec command fails, the  transfer  is
              aborted  before it begins.  Any output from the script on stdout
              (up to several KB) will be displayed to the user when  aborting,
              but  is NOT displayed if the script returns success.  Any output
              from the script on stderr goes to the daemon's stderr, which  is
              typically discarded (though see --no-detatch option for a way to
              see the stderr output, which can assist with debugging).

              The following environment variables will be set, though some are
              specific to the pre-xfer or the post-xfer environment:

              o      RSYNC_MODULE_NAME: The name of the module being accessed.

              o      RSYNC_MODULE_PATH: The path configured for the module.

              o      RSYNC_HOST_ADDR: The accessing host's IP address.

              o      RSYNC_HOST_NAME: The accessing host's name.

              o      RSYNC_USER_NAME:  The  accessing user's name (empty if no

              o      RSYNC_PID: A unique number for this transfer.

              o      RSYNC_REQUEST: (pre-xfer only) The module/path info spec-
                     ified by the user.  Note that the user can specify multi-
                     ple source files, so the request can  be  something  like
                     "mod/path1 mod/path2", etc.

              o      RSYNC_ARG#: (pre-xfer only) The pre-request arguments are
                     set  in  these  numbered  values.  RSYNC_ARG0  is  always
                     "rsyncd",  followed  by  the  options  that  were used in
                     RSYNC_ARG1, and so on.  There will  be  a  value  of  "."
                     indicating  that  the  options are done and the path args
                     are beginning -- these  contain  similar  information  to
                     RSYNC_REQUEST,  but  with values separated and the module
                     name stripped off.

              o      RSYNC_EXIT_STATUS: (post-xfer  only)  the  server  side's
                     exit value.  This will be 0 for a successful run, a posi-
                     tive value for an error that the server generated,  or  a
                     -1  if rsync failed to exit properly.  Note that an error
                     that occurs on the client side  does  not  currently  get
                     sent  to  the  server side, so this is not the final exit
                     status for the whole transfer.

              o      RSYNC_RAW_STATUS: (post-xfer only)  the  raw  exit  value
                     from waitpid() .

              Even  though  the  commands  can be associated with a particular
              module, they are run using the  permissions  of  the  user  that
              started  the  daemon  (not the module's uid/gid setting) without
              any chroot restrictions.

       There are currently two config directives available that allow a config
       file  to incorporate the contents of other files:  &include and &merge.
       Both allow a reference to either a file or a directory.  They differ in
       how segregated the file's contents are considered to be.

       The &include directive treats each file as more distinct, with each one
       inheriting the defaults of the  parent  file,  starting  the  parameter
       parsing as globals/defaults, and leaving the defaults unchanged for the
       parsing of the rest of the parent file.

       The &merge directive, on the other hand, treats the file's contents  as
       if  it  were simply inserted in place of the directive, and thus it can
       set parameters in a module started in  another  file,  can  affect  the
       defaults for other files, etc.

       When  an  &include  or  &merge directive refers to a directory, it will
       read in all the *.conf or *.inc files (respectively) that are contained
       inside  that directory (without any recursive scanning), with the files
       sorted into alpha order.  So, if you have a directory named  "rsyncd.d"
       with  the  files "foo.conf", "bar.conf", and "baz.conf" inside it, this

           &include /path/rsyncd.d

       would be the same as this set of directives:

           &include /path/rsyncd.d/bar.conf
           &include /path/rsyncd.d/baz.conf
           &include /path/rsyncd.d/foo.conf

       except that it adjusts as files are added and removed from  the  direc-

       The  advantage  of the &include directive is that you can define one or
       more modules in a  separate  file  without  worrying  about  unintended
       side-effects between the self-contained module files.

       The advantage of the &merge directive is that you can load config snip-
       pets that can be included into multiple module definitions, and you can
       also  set  global  values  that  will  affect connections (such as motd
       file), or globals that will affect other include files.

       For example, this is a useful /etc/rsyncd.conf file:

           port = 873
           log file = /var/log/rsync.log
           pid file = /var/lock/rsync.lock

           &merge /etc/rsyncd.d
           &include /etc/rsyncd.d

       This would merge any /etc/rsyncd.d/*.inc files (for global values  that
       should stay in effect), and then include any /etc/rsyncd.d/*.conf files
       (defining modules without any global-value cross-talk).

       The authentication protocol used in rsync is a 128 bit MD4 based  chal-
       lenge  response system. This is fairly weak protection, though (with at
       least one brute-force hash-finding algorithm publicly available), so if
       you  want  really  top-quality  security, then I recommend that you run
       rsync over ssh.  (Yes, a future version of rsync will switch over to  a
       stronger hashing method.)

       Also note that the rsync daemon protocol does not currently provide any
       encryption of the data that is transferred over  the  connection.  Only
       authentication  is  provided.  Use  ssh  as  the  transport if you want

       Future versions of rsync may support SSL for better authentication  and
       encryption, but that is still being investigated.

       A  simple  rsyncd.conf file that allow anonymous rsync to a ftp area at
       /home/ftp would be:

               path = /home/ftp
               comment = ftp export area

       A more sophisticated example would be:

       uid = nobody
       gid = nobody
       use chroot = yes
       max connections = 4
       syslog facility = local5
       pid file = /var/run/rsyncd.pid

               path = /var/ftp/./pub
               comment = whole ftp area (approx 6.1 GB)

               path = /var/ftp/./pub/samba
               comment = Samba ftp area (approx 300 MB)

               path = /var/ftp/./pub/rsync
               comment = rsync ftp area (approx 6 MB)

               path = /public_html/samba
               comment = Samba WWW pages (approx 240 MB)

               path = /data/cvs
               comment = CVS repository (requires authentication)
               auth users = tridge, susan
               secrets file = /etc/rsyncd.secrets

       The /etc/rsyncd.secrets file would look something like this:


       /etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf

       See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       |Availability   | network/rsync    |
       |Stability      | Volatile         |

       Please report  bugs!  The  rsync  bug  tracking  system  is  online  at

       This man page is current for version 3.1.3 of rsync.

       rsync  is  distributed  under  the GNU General Public License.  See the
       file COPYING for details.

       The primary ftp site for rsync is ftp://rsync.samba.org/pub/rsync.

       A WEB site is available at http://rsync.samba.org/

       We would be delighted to hear from you if you like this program.

       This program uses the zlib compression  library  written  by  Jean-loup
       Gailly and Mark Adler.

       Thanks  to Warren Stanley for his original idea and patch for the rsync
       daemon. Thanks to Karsten Thygesen for his many suggestions  and  docu-

       rsync  was  written by Andrew Tridgell and Paul Mackerras.  Many people
       have later contributed to it.

       Mailing  lists  for  support   and   development   are   available   at

       This     software     was    built    from    source    available    at
       https://github.com/oracle/solaris-userland.   The  original   community
       source                was                downloaded                from

       Further information about this software can be found on the open source
       community website at http://rsync.samba.org/.

                                  28 Jan 2018                   rsyncd.conf(5)