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man pages section 5: File Formats

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Updated: Wednesday, February 9, 2022

sqlite_table (5)


sqlite_table - Postfix SQLite configuration


postmap -q "string" sqlite:/etc/postfix/filename

postmap -q - sqlite:/etc/postfix/filename <inputfile


SQLITE_TABLE(5)               File Formats Manual              SQLITE_TABLE(5)

       sqlite_table - Postfix SQLite configuration

       postmap -q "string" sqlite:/etc/postfix/filename

       postmap -q - sqlite:/etc/postfix/filename <inputfile

       The  Postfix  mail system uses optional tables for address rewriting or
       mail routing. These tables are usually in dbm or db format.

       Alternatively, lookup tables can be specified as SQLite databases.   In
       order  to use SQLite lookups, define an SQLite source as a lookup table
       in main.cf, for example:
           alias_maps = sqlite:/etc/sqlite-aliases.cf

       The file /etc/postfix/sqlite-aliases.cf has  the  same  format  as  the
       Postfix main.cf file, and can specify the parameters described below.

       When  using  SQL  to  store  lists such as $mynetworks, $mydestination,
       $relay_domains, $local_recipient_maps, etc., it is important to  under-
       stand that the table must store each list member as a separate key. The
       table lookup verifies the *existence* of the key.  See  "Postfix  lists
       versus tables" in the DATABASE_README document for a discussion.

       Do  NOT create tables that return the full list of domains in $mydesti-
       nation or $relay_domains etc., or IP addresses in $mynetworks.

       DO create tables with each matching item as a key and with an arbitrary
       value.  With  SQL databases it is not uncommon to return the key itself
       or a constant value.

       dbpath The SQLite database file location. Example:
                  dbpath = customer_database

       query  The SQL query template used to search the database, where %s  is
              a substitute for the address Postfix is trying to resolve, e.g.
                  query = SELECT replacement FROM aliases WHERE mailbox = '%s'

              This parameter supports the following '%' expansions:

              %%     This is replaced by a literal '%' character.

              %s     This  is  replaced by the input key.  SQL quoting is used
                     to make sure that the input key does not  add  unexpected

              %u     When the input key is an address of the form user@domain,
                     %u is replaced by  the  SQL  quoted  local  part  of  the
                     address.   Otherwise, %u is replaced by the entire search
                     string.  If the localpart is empty,  the  query  is  sup-
                     pressed and returns no results.

              %d     When the input key is an address of the form user@domain,
                     %d is replaced by the  SQL  quoted  domain  part  of  the
                     address.   Otherwise, the query is suppressed and returns
                     no results.

              %[SUD] The upper-case equivalents of the above expansions behave
                     in  the  query  parameter identically to their lower-case
                     counter-parts.  With  the  result_format  parameter  (see
                     below),  they expand the input key rather than the result

              %[1-9] The patterns %1, %2, ... %9 are replaced  by  the  corre-
                     sponding  most  significant  component of the input key's
                     domain. If the input key is  user@mail.example.com,  then
                     %1 is com, %2 is example and %3 is mail. If the input key
                     is unqualified or does not have enough domain  components
                     to  satisfy all the specified patterns, the query is sup-
                     pressed and returns no results.

              The domain parameter described below limits the  input  keys  to
              addresses  in  matching  domains.  When  the domain parameter is
              non-empty, SQL queries for unqualified addresses or addresses in
              non-matching domains are suppressed and return no results.

              This  parameter is available with Postfix 2.2. In prior releases
              the  SQL  query  was  built  from   the   separate   parameters:
              select_field,  table, where_field and additional_conditions. The
              mapping from the old parameters to the equivalent query is:

                  SELECT [select_field]
                  FROM [table]
                  WHERE [where_field] = '%s'

              The '%s' in the WHERE  clause  expands  to  the  escaped  search
              string.   With  Postfix  2.2 these legacy parameters are used if
              the query parameter is not specified.

              NOTE: DO NOT put quotes around the query parameter.

       result_format (default: %s)
              Format template applied to result attributes. Most commonly used
              to  append  (or prepend) text to the result. This parameter sup-
              ports the following '%' expansions:

              %%     This is replaced by a literal '%' character.

              %s     This is replaced by the value of  the  result  attribute.
                     When result is empty it is skipped.

              %u     When the result attribute value is an address of the form
                     user@domain, %u is replaced by  the  local  part  of  the
                     address.  When  the  result  has an empty localpart it is

              %d     When a result attribute value is an address of  the  form
                     user@domain,  %d  is  replaced  by the domain part of the
                     attribute value. When the result  is  unqualified  it  is

                     The  upper-case  and decimal digit expansions interpolate
                     the parts of the input key rather than the result.  Their
                     behavior  is  identical to that described with query, and
                     in fact because  the  input  key  is  known  in  advance,
                     queries  whose  key  does not contain all the information
                     specified in  the  result  template  are  suppressed  and
                     return no results.

              For example, using "result_format = smtp:[%s]" allows one to use
              a mailHost attribute as the basis of a transport(5) table. After
              applying  the result format, multiple values are concatenated as
              comma  separated  strings.  The  expansion_limit  and  parameter
              explained  below  allows one to restrict the number of values in
              the result, which is especially useful for maps that must return
              at most one value.

              The  default value %s specifies that each result value should be
              used as is.

              This parameter is available with Postfix 2.2 and later.

              NOTE: DO NOT put quotes around the result format!

       domain (default: no domain list)
              This is a list of domain names, paths to files, or dictionaries.
              When   specified,  only  fully  qualified  search  keys  with  a
              *non-empty* localpart and a matching  domain  are  eligible  for
              lookup:  'user'  lookups,  bare  domain  lookups  and  "@domain"
              lookups are not performed. This  can  significantly  reduce  the
              query load on the SQLite server.
                  domain = postfix.org, hash:/etc/postfix/searchdomains

              It  is best not to use SQL to store the domains eligible for SQL

              This parameter is available with Postfix 2.2 and later.

              NOTE: DO NOT define this parameter for local(8) aliases, because
              the input keys are always unqualified.

       expansion_limit (default: 0)
              A  limit  on  the total number of result elements returned (as a
              comma separated list) by a lookup against the map.  A setting of
              zero  disables the limit. Lookups fail with a temporary error if
              the limit is exceeded.  Setting the  limit  to  1  ensures  that
              lookups do not return multiple values.

       For  compatibility  with other Postfix lookup tables, SQLite parameters
       can also be defined in main.cf.  In order to do that, specify as SQLite
       source  a  name  that  doesn't begin with a slash or a dot.  The SQLite
       parameters will then be accessible as the name you've given the  source
       in  its  definition, an underscore, and the name of the parameter.  For
       example, if the map is specified as "sqlite:sqlitename", the  parameter
       "query" would be defined in main.cf as "sqlitename_query".

       This  section  describes  an interface that is deprecated as of Postfix
       2.2. It is replaced by  the  more  general  query  interface  described
       above.   If  the  query  parameter  is  defined,  the legacy parameters
       described here ignored.  Please migrate to the  new  interface  as  the
       legacy interface may be removed in a future release.

       The  following  parameters  can  be  used  to fill in a SELECT template
       statement of the form:

           SELECT [select_field]
           FROM [table]
           WHERE [where_field] = '%s'

       The specifier %s is replaced by the search string, and is escaped so if
       it  contains single quotes or other odd characters, it will not cause a
       parse error, or worse, a security problem.

              The SQL "select" parameter. Example:
                  select_field = forw_addr

       table  The SQL "select .. from" table name. Example:
                  table = mxaliases

              The SQL "select .. where" parameter. Example:
                  where_field = alias

              Additional conditions to the SQL query. Example:
                  additional_conditions = AND status = 'paid'

       See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       |ATTRIBUTE TYPE |       ATTRIBUTE VALUE        |
       |Availability   | service/network/smtp/postfix |
       |Stability      | Volatile                     |

       postmap(1), Postfix lookup table maintenance
       postconf(5), configuration parameters
       ldap_table(5), LDAP lookup tables
       mysql_table(5), MySQL lookup tables
       pgsql_table(5), PostgreSQL lookup tables

       Use "postconf readme_directory" or "postconf html_directory" to  locate
       this information.
       DATABASE_README, Postfix lookup table overview
       SQLITE_README, Postfix SQLITE howto

       The Secure Mailer license must be distributed with this software.

       SQLite support was introduced with Postfix version 2.8.

       Original implementation by:
       Axel Steiner

       Source code for open source software components in Oracle Solaris can
       be found at https://www.oracle.com/downloads/opensource/solaris-source-

       This software was built from source available at
       https://github.com/oracle/solaris-userland.  The original community
       source was downloaded from  https://archive.mgm51.com/mirrors/postfix-

       Further information about this software can be found on the open source
       community website at http://www.postfix.org.