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sudoers.ldap (5)

Name

sudoers.ldap - sudo LDAP configuration

Synopsis

Please see following description for synopsis

Description

SUDOERS.LDAP(5)             BSD File Formats Manual            SUDOERS.LDAP(5)

NAME
     sudoers.ldap -- sudo LDAP configuration

DESCRIPTION
     In addition to the standard sudoers file, sudo may be configured via
     LDAP.  This can be especially useful for synchronizing sudoers in a
     large, distributed environment.

     Using LDAP for sudoers has several benefits:

     o   sudo no longer needs to read sudoers in its entirety.  When LDAP is
         used, there are only two or three LDAP queries per invocation.  This
         makes it especially fast and particularly usable in LDAP environ-
         ments.

     o   sudo no longer exits if there is a typo in sudoers.  It is not possi-
         ble to load LDAP data into the server that does not conform to the
         sudoers schema, so proper syntax is guaranteed.  It is still possible
         to have typos in a user or host name, but this will not prevent sudo
         from running.

     o   It is possible to specify per-entry options that override the global
         default options.  /etc/sudoers only supports default options and lim-
         ited options associated with user/host/commands/aliases.  The syntax
         is complicated and can be difficult for users to understand.  Placing
         the options directly in the entry is more natural.

     o   The visudo program is no longer needed.  visudo provides locking and
         syntax checking of the /etc/sudoers file.  Since LDAP updates are
         atomic, locking is no longer necessary.  Because syntax is checked
         when the data is inserted into LDAP, there is no need for a special-
         ized tool to check syntax.

     Another major difference between LDAP and file-based sudoers is that in
     LDAP, sudo-specific Aliases are not supported.

     For the most part, there is really no need for sudo-specific Aliases.
     Unix groups, non-Unix groups (via the group_plugin) or user netgroups can
     be used in place of User_Aliases and Runas_Aliases.  Host netgroups can
     be used in place of Host_Aliases.  Since groups and netgroups can also be
     stored in LDAP there is no real need for sudo-specific aliases.

     Cmnd_Aliases are not really required either since it is possible to have
     multiple users listed in a sudoRole.  Instead of defining a Cmnd_Alias
     that is referenced by multiple users, one can create a sudoRole that con-
     tains the commands and assign multiple users to it.

   SUDOers LDAP container
     The sudoers configuration is contained in the ou=SUDOers LDAP container.

     Sudo first looks for the cn=defaults entry in the SUDOers container.  If
     found, the multi-valued sudoOption attribute is parsed in the same manner
     as a global Defaults line in /etc/sudoers.  In the following example, the
     SSH_AUTH_SOCK variable will be preserved in the environment for all
     users.

         dn: cn=defaults,ou=SUDOers,dc=example,dc=com
         objectClass: top
         objectClass: sudoRole
         cn: defaults
         description: Default sudoOption's go here
         sudoOption: env_keep+=SSH_AUTH_SOCK

     The equivalent of a sudoer in LDAP is a sudoRole.  It consists of the
     following attributes:

     sudoUser
           A user name, user ID (prefixed with `#'), Unix group name or ID
           (prefixed with `%' or `%#' respectively), user netgroup (prefixed
           with `+'), or non-Unix group name or ID (prefixed with `%:' or
           `%:#' respectively).  User netgroups are matched using the user and
           domain members only; the host member is not used when matching.
           Non-Unix group support is only available when an appropriate
           group_plugin is defined in the global defaults sudoRole object.

     sudoHost
           A host name, IP address, IP network, or host netgroup (prefixed
           with a `+').  The special value ALL will match any host.  Host net-
           groups are matched using the host (both qualified and unqualified)
           and domain members only; the user member is not used when matching.
           If a sudoHost entry is preceded by an exclamation point, `!', and
           the entry matches, the sudoRole in which it resides will be
           ignored.  Negated sudoHost entries are only supported by version
           1.8.18 or higher.

     sudoCommand
           A fully-qualified Unix command name with optional command line
           arguments, potentially including globbing characters (aka wild
           cards).  If a command name is preceded by an exclamation point,
           `!', the user will be prohibited from running that command.

           The built-in command ``sudoedit'' is used to permit a user to run
           sudo with the -e option (or as sudoedit).  It may take command line
           arguments just as a normal command does.  Note that ``sudoedit'' is
           a command built into sudo itself and must be specified in without a
           leading path.

           The special value ALL will match any command.

           If a command name is prefixed with a SHA-2 digest, it will only be
           allowed if the digest matches.  This may be useful in situations
           where the user invoking sudo has write access to the command or its
           parent directory.  The following digest formats are supported:
           sha224, sha256, sha384 and sha512.  The digest name must be fol-
           lowed by a colon (`:') and then the actual digest, in either hex or
           base64 format.  For example, given the following value for sudoCom-
           mand:

               sha224:0GomF8mNN3wlDt1HD9XldjJ3SNgpFdbjO1+NsQ /bin/ls

           The user may only run /bin/ls if its sha224 digest matches the
           specified value.  Command digests are only supported by version
           1.8.7 or higher.

     sudoOption
           Identical in function to the global options described above, but
           specific to the sudoRole in which it resides.

     sudoRunAsUser
           A user name or uid (prefixed with `#') that commands may be run as
           or a Unix group (prefixed with a `%') or user netgroup (prefixed
           with a `+') that contains a list of users that commands may be run
           as.  The special value ALL will match any user.

           The sudoRunAsUser attribute is only available in sudo versions
           1.7.0 and higher.  Older versions of sudo use the sudoRunAs
           attribute instead.

     sudoRunAsGroup
           A Unix group or gid (prefixed with `#') that commands may be run
           as.  The special value ALL will match any group.

           The sudoRunAsGroup attribute is only available in sudo versions
           1.7.0 and higher.

     sudoNotBefore
           A timestamp in the form yyyymmddHHMMSSZ that can be used to provide
           a start date/time for when the sudoRole will be valid.  If multiple
           sudoNotBefore entries are present, the earliest is used.  Note that
           timestamps must be in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), not the
           local timezone.  The minute and seconds portions are optional, but
           some LDAP servers require that they be present (contrary to the
           RFC).

           The sudoNotBefore attribute is only available in sudo versions
           1.7.5 and higher and must be explicitly enabled via the
           SUDOERS_TIMED option in /etc/ldap.conf.

     sudoNotAfter
           A timestamp in the form yyyymmddHHMMSSZ that indicates an expira-
           tion date/time, after which the sudoRole will no longer be valid.
           If multiple sudoNotAfter entries are present, the last one is used.
           Note that timestamps must be in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC),
           not the local timezone.  The minute and seconds portions are
           optional, but some LDAP servers require that they be present (con-
           trary to the RFC).

           The sudoNotAfter attribute is only available in sudo versions 1.7.5
           and higher and must be explicitly enabled via the SUDOERS_TIMED
           option in /etc/ldap.conf.

     sudoOrder
           The sudoRole entries retrieved from the LDAP directory have no
           inherent order.  The sudoOrder attribute is an integer (or floating
           point value for LDAP servers that support it) that is used to sort
           the matching entries.  This allows LDAP-based sudoers entries to
           more closely mimic the behavior of the sudoers file, where the
           order of the entries influences the result.  If multiple entries
           match, the entry with the highest sudoOrder attribute is chosen.
           This corresponds to the ``last match'' behavior of the sudoers
           file.  If the sudoOrder attribute is not present, a value of 0 is
           assumed.

           The sudoOrder attribute is only available in sudo versions 1.7.5
           and higher.

     Each attribute listed above should contain a single value, but there may
     be multiple instances of each attribute type.  A sudoRole must contain at
     least one sudoUser, sudoHost and sudoCommand.

     The following example allows users in group wheel to run any command on
     any host via sudo:

         dn: cn=%wheel,ou=SUDOers,dc=example,dc=com
         objectClass: top
         objectClass: sudoRole
         cn: %wheel
         sudoUser: %wheel
         sudoHost: ALL
         sudoCommand: ALL

   Anatomy of LDAP sudoers lookup
     When looking up a sudoer using LDAP there are only two or three LDAP
     queries per invocation.  The first query is to parse the global options.
     The second is to match against the user's name and the groups that the
     user belongs to.  (The special ALL tag is matched in this query too.)  If
     no match is returned for the user's name and groups, a third query
     returns all entries containing user netgroups and other non-Unix groups
     and checks to see if the user belongs to any of them.

     If timed entries are enabled with the SUDOERS_TIMED configuration direc-
     tive, the LDAP queries include a sub-filter that limits retrieval to
     entries that satisfy the time constraints, if any.

     If the NETGROUP_BASE configuration directive is present (see Configuring
     ldap.conf below), queries are performed to determine the list of net-
     groups the user belongs to before the sudoers query.  This makes it pos-
     sible to include netgroups in the sudoers query string in the same manner
     as Unix groups.  The third query mentioned above is not performed unless
     a group provider plugin is also configured.  The actual LDAP queries per-
     formed by sudo are as follows:

     1.   Match all nisNetgroup records with a nisNetgroupTriple containing
          the user, host and NIS domain.  The query will match
          nisNetgroupTriple entries with either the short or long form of the
          host name or no host name specified in the tuple.  If the NIS domain
          is set, the query will match only match entries that include the
          domain or for which there is no domain present.  If the NIS domain
          is not set, a wildcard is used to match any domain name but be aware
          that the NIS schema used by some LDAP servers may not support wild
          cards for nisNetgroupTriple.

     2.   Repeated queries are performed to find any nested nisNetgroup
          records with a memberNisNetgroup entry that refers to an already-
          matched record.

     For sites with a large number of netgroups, using NETGROUP_BASE can sig-
     nificantly speed up sudo's execution time.

   Differences between LDAP and non-LDAP sudoers
     There are some subtle differences in the way sudoers is handled once in
     LDAP.  Probably the biggest is that according to the RFC, LDAP ordering
     is arbitrary and you cannot expect that Attributes and Entries are
     returned in any specific order.

     The order in which different entries are applied can be controlled using
     the sudoOrder attribute, but there is no way to guarantee the order of
     attributes within a specific entry.  If there are conflicting command
     rules in an entry, the negative takes precedence.  This is called para-
     noid behavior (not necessarily the most specific match).

     Here is an example:

         # /etc/sudoers:
         # Allow all commands except shell
         johnny  ALL=(root) ALL,!/bin/sh
         # Always allows all commands because ALL is matched last
         puddles ALL=(root) !/bin/sh,ALL

         # LDAP equivalent of johnny
         # Allows all commands except shell
         dn: cn=role1,ou=Sudoers,dc=my-domain,dc=com
         objectClass: sudoRole
         objectClass: top
         cn: role1
         sudoUser: johnny
         sudoHost: ALL
         sudoCommand: ALL
         sudoCommand: !/bin/sh

         # LDAP equivalent of puddles
         # Notice that even though ALL comes last, it still behaves like
         # role1 since the LDAP code assumes the more paranoid configuration
         dn: cn=role2,ou=Sudoers,dc=my-domain,dc=com
         objectClass: sudoRole
         objectClass: top
         cn: role2
         sudoUser: puddles
         sudoHost: ALL
         sudoCommand: !/bin/sh
         sudoCommand: ALL

     Another difference is that negations on the Host, User or Runas are cur-
     rently ignored.  For example, the following attributes do not behave the
     way one might expect.

         # does not match all but joe
         # rather, does not match anyone
         sudoUser: !joe

         # does not match all but joe
         # rather, matches everyone including Joe
         sudoUser: ALL
         sudoUser: !joe

         # does not match all but web01
         # rather, matches all hosts including web01
         sudoHost: ALL
         sudoHost: !web01

   Sudoers schema
     In order to use sudo's LDAP support, the sudo schema must be installed on
     your LDAP server.  In addition, be sure to index the sudoUser attribute.

     Three versions of the schema: one for OpenLDAP servers (schema.OpenLDAP),
     one for Netscape-derived servers (schema.iPlanet), and one for Microsoft
     Active Directory (schema.ActiveDirectory) may be found in the sudo dis-
     tribution.

     The schema for sudo in OpenLDAP form is also included in the EXAMPLES
     section.

   Configuring ldap.conf
     Sudo reads the /etc/ldap.conf file for LDAP-specific configuration.  Typ-
     ically, this file is shared between different LDAP-aware clients.  As
     such, most of the settings are not sudo-specific. Note that sudo parses
     /etc/ldap.conf itself and may support options that differ from those
     described in the system's ldap.conf(5) manual.  The path to ldap.conf may
     be overridden via the ldap_conf plugin argument in sudo.conf(5).

     Also note that on systems using the OpenLDAP libraries, default values
     specified in /etc/openldap/ldap.conf or the user's .ldaprc files are not
     used.

     Only those options explicitly listed in /etc/ldap.conf as being supported
     by sudo are honored.  Configuration options are listed below in upper
     case but are parsed in a case-independent manner.

     Lines beginning with a pound sign (`#') are ignored.  Leading white space
     is removed from the beginning of lines.

     BIND_TIMELIMIT seconds
           The BIND_TIMELIMIT parameter specifies the amount of time, in sec-
           onds, to wait while trying to connect to an LDAP server.  If multi-
           ple URIs or HOSTs are specified, this is the amount of time to wait
           before trying the next one in the list.

     BINDDN DN
           The BINDDN parameter specifies the identity, in the form of a Dis-
           tinguished Name (DN), to use when performing LDAP operations.  If
           not specified, LDAP operations are performed with an anonymous
           identity.  By default, most LDAP servers will allow anonymous
           access.

     BINDPW secret
           The BINDPW parameter specifies the password to use when performing
           LDAP operations.  This is typically used in conjunction with the
           BINDDN parameter.  The secret may be a plain text password or a
           base64-encoded string with a ``base64:'' prefix.  For example:

               BINDPW base64:dGVzdA==

           If a plain text password is used, it should be a simple string
           without quotes.  Plain text passwords may not include the comment
           character (`#') and the escaping of special characters with a back-
           slash (`\') is not supported.

     DEREF never/searching/finding/always
           How alias dereferencing is to be performed when searching.  See the
           ldap.conf(5) manual for a full description of this option.

     HOST name[:port] ...
           If no URI is specified (see below), the HOST parameter specifies a
           white space-delimited list of LDAP servers to connect to.  Each
           host may include an optional port separated by a colon (`:').  The
           HOST parameter is deprecated in favor of the URI specification and
           is included for backwards compatibility only.

     KRB5_CCNAME file name
           The path to the Kerberos 5 credential cache to use when authenti-
           cating with the remote server.  This option is only relevant when
           using SASL authentication (see below).

     LDAP_VERSION number
           The version of the LDAP protocol to use when connecting to the
           server.  The default value is protocol version 3.

     NETGROUP_BASE base
           The base DN to use when performing LDAP netgroup queries.  Typi-
           cally this is of the form ou=netgroup,dc=example,dc=com for the
           domain example.com.  Multiple NETGROUP_BASE lines may be specified,
           in which case they are queried in the order specified.

           This option can be used to query a user's netgroups directly via
           LDAP which is usually faster than fetching every sudoRole object
           containing a sudoUser that begins with a `+' prefix.  The NIS
           schema used by some LDAP servers need a modificaton to support
           querying the nisNetgroup object by its nisNetgroupTriple member.
           OpenLDAP's slapd requires the following change to the
           nisNetgroupTriple attribute:

               attributetype ( 1.3.6.1.1.1.1.14 NAME 'nisNetgroupTriple'
                   DESC 'Netgroup triple'
                   EQUALITY caseIgnoreIA5Match
                   SUBSTR caseIgnoreIA5SubstringsMatch
                   SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.26 )

     NETGROUP_SEARCH_FILTER ldap_filter
           An LDAP filter which is used to restrict the set of records
           returned when performing an LDAP netgroup query.  Typically, this
           is of the form attribute=value or
           (&(attribute=value)(attribute2=value2)).  The default search filter
           is: objectClass=nisNetgroup.  If ldap_filter is omitted, no search
           filter will be used.  This option is only when querying netgroups
           directly via LDAP.

     NETWORK_TIMEOUT seconds
           An alias for BIND_TIMELIMIT provided for OpenLDAP compatibility.

     PORT port_number
           If no URI is specified, the PORT parameter specifies the default
           port to connect to on the LDAP server if a HOST parameter does not
           specify the port itself.  If no PORT parameter is used, the default
           is port 389 for LDAP and port 636 for LDAP over TLS (SSL).  The
           PORT parameter is deprecated in favor of the URI specification and
           is included for backwards compatibility only.

     ROOTBINDDN DN
           The ROOTBINDDN parameter specifies the identity, in the form of a
           Distinguished Name (DN), to use when performing privileged LDAP
           operations, such as sudoers queries.  The password corresponding to
           the identity should be stored in the or the path specified by the
           ldap_secret plugin argument in sudo.conf(5), which defaults to
           /etc/ldap.secret.  If no ROOTBINDDN is specified, the BINDDN iden-
           tity is used (if any).

     ROOTUSE_SASL on/true/yes/off/false/no
           Enable ROOTUSE_SASL to enable SASL authentication when connecting
           to an LDAP server from a privileged process, such as sudo.

     SASL_AUTH_ID identity
           The SASL user name to use when connecting to the LDAP server.  By
           default, sudo will use an anonymous connection.  This option is
           only relevant when using SASL authentication.

     SASL_MECH mechanisms
           A white space-delimited list of SASL authentication mechanisms to
           use.  By default, sudo will use GSSAPI authentication.

     SASL_SECPROPS none/properties
           SASL security properties or none for no properties.  See the SASL
           programmer's manual for details.  This option is only relevant when
           using SASL authentication.

     SSL on/true/yes/off/false/no
           If the SSL parameter is set to on, true or yes, TLS (SSL) encryp-
           tion is always used when communicating with the LDAP server.  Typi-
           cally, this involves connecting to the server on port 636 (ldaps).

     SSL start_tls
           If the SSL parameter is set to start_tls, the LDAP server connec-
           tion is initiated normally and TLS encryption is begun before the
           bind credentials are sent.  This has the advantage of not requiring
           a dedicated port for encrypted communications.  This parameter is
           only supported by LDAP servers that honor the start_tls extension,
           such as the OpenLDAP and Tivoli Directory servers.

     SUDOERS_BASE base
           The base DN to use when performing sudo LDAP queries.  Typically
           this is of the form ou=SUDOers,dc=example,dc=com for the domain
           example.com.  Multiple SUDOERS_BASE lines may be specified, in
           which case they are queried in the order specified.

     SUDOERS_DEBUG debug_level
           This sets the debug level for sudo LDAP queries.  Debugging infor-
           mation is printed to the standard error.  A value of 1 results in a
           moderate amount of debugging information.  A value of 2 shows the
           results of the matches themselves.  This parameter should not be
           set in a production environment as the extra information is likely
           to confuse users.

           The SUDOERS_DEBUG parameter is deprecated and will be removed in a
           future release.  The same information is now logged via the sudo
           debugging framework using the ``ldap'' subsystem at priorities diag
           and info for debug_level values 1 and 2 respectively.  See the
           sudo.conf(5) manual for details on how to configure sudo debugging.

     SUDOERS_SEARCH_FILTER ldap_filter
           An LDAP filter which is used to restrict the set of records
           returned when performing a sudo LDAP query.  Typically, this is of
           the form attribute=value or
           (&(attribute=value)(attribute2=value2)).  The default search filter
           is: objectClass=sudoRole.  If ldap_filter is omitted, no search
           filter will be used.

     SUDOERS_TIMED on/true/yes/off/false/no
           Whether or not to evaluate the sudoNotBefore and sudoNotAfter
           attributes that implement time-dependent sudoers entries.

     TIMELIMIT seconds
           The TIMELIMIT parameter specifies the amount of time, in seconds,
           to wait for a response to an LDAP query.

     TIMEOUT seconds
           The TIMEOUT parameter specifies the amount of time, in seconds, to
           wait for a response from the various LDAP APIs.

     TLS_CACERT file name
           An alias for TLS_CACERTFILE for OpenLDAP compatibility.

     TLS_CACERTFILE file name
           The path to a certificate authority bundle which contains the cer-
           tificates for all the Certificate Authorities the client knows to
           be valid, e.g. /etc/ssl/ca-bundle.pem.  This option is only sup-
           ported by the OpenLDAP libraries.  Netscape-derived LDAP libraries
           use the same certificate database for CA and client certificates
           (see TLS_CERT).

     TLS_CACERTDIR directory
           Similar to TLS_CACERTFILE but instead of a file, it is a directory
           containing individual Certificate Authority certificates, e.g.
           /etc/ssl/certs.  The directory specified by TLS_CACERTDIR is
           checked after TLS_CACERTFILE.  This option is only supported by the
           OpenLDAP libraries.

     TLS_CERT file name
           The path to a file containing the client certificate which can be
           used to authenticate the client to the LDAP server.  The certifi-
           cate type depends on the LDAP libraries used.

           OpenLDAP:
                 tls_cert /etc/ssl/client_cert.pem

           Netscape-derived:
                 tls_cert /var/ldap/cert7.db

           Tivoli Directory Server:
                 Unused, the key database specified by TLS_KEY contains both
                 keys and certificates.

                 When using Netscape-derived libraries, this file may also
                 contain Certificate Authority certificates.

     TLS_CHECKPEER on/true/yes/off/false/no
           If enabled, TLS_CHECKPEER will cause the LDAP server's TLS certifi-
           cated to be verified.  If the server's TLS certificate cannot be
           verified (usually because it is signed by an unknown certificate
           authority), sudo will be unable to connect to it.  If TLS_CHECKPEER
           is disabled, no check is made.  Note that disabling the check cre-
           ates an opportunity for man-in-the-middle attacks since the
           server's identity will not be authenticated.  If possible, the CA's
           certificate should be installed locally so it can be verified.
           This option is not supported by the Tivoli Directory Server LDAP
           libraries.

     TLS_KEY file name
           The path to a file containing the private key which matches the
           certificate specified by TLS_CERT.  The private key must not be
           password-protected.  The key type depends on the LDAP libraries
           used.

           OpenLDAP:
                 tls_key /etc/ssl/client_key.pem

           Netscape-derived:
                 tls_key /var/ldap/key3.db

           Tivoli Directory Server:
                 tls_key /usr/ldap/ldapkey.kdb
           When using Tivoli LDAP libraries, this file may also contain Cer-
           tificate Authority and client certificates and may be encrypted.

     TLS_CIPHERS cipher list
           The TLS_CIPHERS parameter allows the administer to restrict which
           encryption algorithms may be used for TLS (SSL) connections.  See
           the OpenLDAP or Tivoli Directory Server manual for a list of valid
           ciphers.  This option is not supported by Netscape-derived
           libraries.

     TLS_KEYPW secret
           The TLS_KEYPW contains the password used to decrypt the key data-
           base on clients using the Tivoli Directory Server LDAP library.
           The secret may be a plain text password or a base64-encoded string
           with a ``base64:'' prefix.  For example:

               TLS_KEYPW base64:dGVzdA==

           If a plain text password is used, it should be a simple string
           without quotes.  Plain text passwords may not include the comment
           character (`#') and the escaping of special characters with a back-
           slash (`\') is not supported.  If this option is used,
           /etc/ldap.conf must not be world-readable to avoid exposing the
           password.  Alternately, a stash file can be used to store the pass-
           word in encrypted form (see below).

           If no TLS_KEYPW is specified, a stash file will be used if it
           exists.  The stash file must have the same path as the file speci-
           fied by TLS_KEY, but use a .sth file extension instead of .kdb,
           e.g. ldapkey.sth.  The default ldapkey.kdb that ships with Tivoli
           Directory Server is encrypted with the password ssl_password.  The
           gsk8capicmd utility can be used to manage the key database and cre-
           ate a stash file.  This option is only supported by the Tivoli LDAP
           libraries.

     TLS_RANDFILE file name
           The TLS_RANDFILE parameter specifies the path to an entropy source
           for systems that lack a random device.  It is generally used in
           conjunction with prngd or egd.  This option is only supported by
           the OpenLDAP libraries.

     URI ldap[s]://[hostname[:port]] ...
           Specifies a white space-delimited list of one or more URIs describ-
           ing the LDAP server(s) to connect to.  The protocol may be either
           ldap ldaps, the latter being for servers that support TLS (SSL)
           encryption.  If no port is specified, the default is port 389 for
           ldap:// or port 636 for ldaps://.  If no hostname is specified,
           sudo will connect to localhost.  Multiple URI lines are treated
           identically to a URI line containing multiple entries.  Only sys-
           tems using the OpenSSL libraries support the mixing of ldap:// and
           ldaps:// URIs.  Both the Netscape-derived and Tivoli LDAP libraries
           used on most commercial versions of Unix are only capable of sup-
           porting one or the other.

     USE_SASL on/true/yes/off/false/no
           Enable USE_SASL for LDAP servers that support SASL authentication.

     ROOTSASL_AUTH_ID identity
           The SASL user name to use when ROOTUSE_SASL is enabled.

     See the ldap.conf entry in the EXAMPLES section.

   Configuring nsswitch.conf
     Unless it is disabled at build time, sudo consults the Name Service
     Switch file, /etc/nsswitch.conf, to specify the sudoers search order.
     Sudo looks for a line beginning with sudoers: and uses this to determine
     the search order.  Note that sudo does not stop searching after the first
     match and later matches take precedence over earlier ones.  The following
     sources are recognized:

         files     read sudoers from /etc/sudoers
         ldap      read sudoers from LDAP

     In addition, the entry [NOTFOUND=return] will short-circuit the search if
     the user was not found in the preceding source.

     To consult LDAP first followed by the local sudoers file (if it exists),
     use:

         sudoers: ldap files

     The local sudoers file can be ignored completely by using:

         sudoers: ldap

     If the /etc/nsswitch.conf file is not present or there is no sudoers
     line, the following default is assumed:

         sudoers: files

     Note that /etc/nsswitch.conf is supported even when the underlying oper-
     ating system does not use an nsswitch.conf file, except on AIX (see
     below).

   Configuring netsvc.conf
     On AIX systems, the /etc/netsvc.conf file is consulted instead of
     /etc/nsswitch.conf.  sudo simply treats netsvc.conf as a variant of
     nsswitch.conf; information in the previous section unrelated to the file
     format itself still applies.

     To consult LDAP first followed by the local sudoers file (if it exists),
     use:

         sudoers = ldap, files

     The local sudoers file can be ignored completely by using:

         sudoers = ldap

     To treat LDAP as authoritative and only use the local sudoers file if the
     user is not present in LDAP, use:

         sudoers = ldap = auth, files

     Note that in the above example, the auth qualifier only affects user
     lookups; both LDAP and sudoers will be queried for Defaults entries.

     If the /etc/netsvc.conf file is not present or there is no sudoers line,
     the following default is assumed:

         sudoers = files

   Integration with sssd
     On systems with the System Security Services Daemon (SSSD) and where sudo
     has been built with SSSD support, it is possible to use SSSD to cache
     LDAP sudoers rules.  To use SSSD as the sudoers source, you should use
     sssd instead of ldap for the sudoers entry in /etc/nsswitch.conf.  Note
     that the /etc/ldap.conf file is not used by the SSSD sudo back end.
     Please see sssd-sudo(5) for more information on configuring sudo to work
     with SSSD.

FILES
     /etc/ldap.conf            LDAP configuration file

     /etc/nsswitch.conf        determines sudoers source order

     /etc/netsvc.conf          determines sudoers source order on AIX

EXAMPLES
   Example ldap.conf
       # Either specify one or more URIs or one or more host:port pairs.
       # If neither is specified sudo will default to localhost, port 389.
       #
       #host          ldapserver
       #host          ldapserver1 ldapserver2:390
       #
       # Default port if host is specified without one, defaults to 389.
       #port          389
       #
       # URI will override the host and port settings.
       uri            ldap://ldapserver
       #uri            ldaps://secureldapserver
       #uri            ldaps://secureldapserver ldap://ldapserver
       #
       # The amount of time, in seconds, to wait while trying to connect to
       # an LDAP server.
       bind_timelimit 30
       #
       # The amount of time, in seconds, to wait while performing an LDAP query.
       timelimit 30
       #
       # Must be set or sudo will ignore LDAP; may be specified multiple times.
       sudoers_base   ou=SUDOers,dc=example,dc=com
       #
       # verbose sudoers matching from ldap
       #sudoers_debug 2
       #
       # Enable support for time-based entries in sudoers.
       #sudoers_timed yes
       #
       # optional proxy credentials
       #binddn        <who to search as>
       #bindpw        <password>
       #rootbinddn    <who to search as, uses /etc/ldap.secret for bindpw>
       #
       # LDAP protocol version, defaults to 3
       #ldap_version 3
       #
       # Define if you want to use an encrypted LDAP connection.
       # Typically, you must also set the port to 636 (ldaps).
       #ssl on
       #
       # Define if you want to use port 389 and switch to
       # encryption before the bind credentials are sent.
       # Only supported by LDAP servers that support the start_tls
       # extension such as OpenLDAP.
       #ssl start_tls
       #
       # Additional TLS options follow that allow tweaking of the
       # SSL/TLS connection.
       #
       #tls_checkpeer yes # verify server SSL certificate
       #tls_checkpeer no  # ignore server SSL certificate
       #
       # If you enable tls_checkpeer, specify either tls_cacertfile
       # or tls_cacertdir.  Only supported when using OpenLDAP.
       #
       #tls_cacertfile /etc/certs/trusted_signers.pem
       #tls_cacertdir  /etc/certs
       #
       # For systems that don't have /dev/random
       # use this along with PRNGD or EGD.pl to seed the
       # random number pool to generate cryptographic session keys.
       # Only supported when using OpenLDAP.
       #
       #tls_randfile /etc/egd-pool
       #
       # You may restrict which ciphers are used.  Consult your SSL
       # documentation for which options go here.
       # Only supported when using OpenLDAP.
       #
       #tls_ciphers <cipher-list>
       #
       # Sudo can provide a client certificate when communicating to
       # the LDAP server.
       # Tips:
       #   * Enable both lines at the same time.
       #   * Do not password protect the key file.
       #   * Ensure the keyfile is only readable by root.
       #
       # For OpenLDAP:
       #tls_cert /etc/certs/client_cert.pem
       #tls_key  /etc/certs/client_key.pem
       #
       # For SunONE or iPlanet LDAP, tls_cert and tls_key may specify either
       # a directory, in which case the files in the directory must have the
       # default names (e.g. cert8.db and key4.db), or the path to the cert
       # and key files themselves.  However, a bug in version 5.0 of the LDAP
       # SDK will prevent specific file names from working.  For this reason
       # it is suggested that tls_cert and tls_key be set to a directory,
       # not a file name.
       #
       # The certificate database specified by tls_cert may contain CA certs
       # and/or the client's cert.  If the client's cert is included, tls_key
       # should be specified as well.
       # For backward compatibility, "sslpath" may be used in place of tls_cert.
       #tls_cert /var/ldap
       #tls_key /var/ldap
       #
       # If using SASL authentication for LDAP (OpenSSL)
       # use_sasl yes
       # sasl_auth_id <SASL user name>
       # rootuse_sasl yes
       # rootsasl_auth_id <SASL user name for root access>
       # sasl_secprops none
       # krb5_ccname /etc/.ldapcache

   Sudo schema for OpenLDAP
     The following schema, in OpenLDAP format, is included with sudo source
     and binary distributions as schema.OpenLDAP.  Simply copy it to the
     schema directory (e.g. /etc/openldap/schema), add the proper include line
     in slapd.conf and restart slapd.

       attributetype ( 1.3.6.1.4.1.15953.9.1.1
          NAME 'sudoUser'
          DESC 'User(s) who may  run sudo'
          EQUALITY caseExactIA5Match
          SUBSTR caseExactIA5SubstringsMatch
          SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.26 )

       attributetype ( 1.3.6.1.4.1.15953.9.1.2
          NAME 'sudoHost'
          DESC 'Host(s) who may run sudo'
          EQUALITY caseExactIA5Match
          SUBSTR caseExactIA5SubstringsMatch
          SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.26 )

       attributetype ( 1.3.6.1.4.1.15953.9.1.3
          NAME 'sudoCommand'
          DESC 'Command(s) to be executed by sudo'
          EQUALITY caseExactIA5Match
          SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.26 )

       attributetype ( 1.3.6.1.4.1.15953.9.1.4
          NAME 'sudoRunAs'
          DESC 'User(s) impersonated by sudo'
          EQUALITY caseExactIA5Match
          SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.26 )

       attributetype ( 1.3.6.1.4.1.15953.9.1.5
          NAME 'sudoOption'
          DESC 'Options(s) followed by sudo'
          EQUALITY caseExactIA5Match
          SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.26 )

       attributetype ( 1.3.6.1.4.1.15953.9.1.6
          NAME 'sudoRunAsUser'
          DESC 'User(s) impersonated by sudo'
          EQUALITY caseExactIA5Match
          SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.26 )

       attributetype ( 1.3.6.1.4.1.15953.9.1.7
          NAME 'sudoRunAsGroup'
          DESC 'Group(s) impersonated by sudo'
          EQUALITY caseExactIA5Match
          SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.26 )

       attributetype ( 1.3.6.1.4.1.15953.9.1.8
          NAME 'sudoNotBefore'
          DESC 'Start of time interval for which the entry is valid'
          EQUALITY generalizedTimeMatch
          ORDERING generalizedTimeOrderingMatch
          SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.24 )

       attributetype ( 1.3.6.1.4.1.15953.9.1.9
          NAME 'sudoNotAfter'
          DESC 'End of time interval for which the entry is valid'
          EQUALITY generalizedTimeMatch
          ORDERING generalizedTimeOrderingMatch
          SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.24 )

       attributeTypes ( 1.3.6.1.4.1.15953.9.1.10
           NAME 'sudoOrder'
           DESC 'an integer to order the sudoRole entries'
           EQUALITY integerMatch
           ORDERING integerOrderingMatch
           SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.27 )

       objectclass ( 1.3.6.1.4.1.15953.9.2.1 NAME 'sudoRole' SUP top STRUCTURAL
          DESC 'Sudoer Entries'
          MUST ( cn )
          MAY ( sudoUser $ sudoHost $ sudoCommand $ sudoRunAs $ sudoRunAsUser $
                sudoRunAsGroup $ sudoOption $ sudoNotBefore $ sudoNotAfter $
                sudoOrder $ description )
          )

     See for descriptions of the following attributes:

     +---------------+------------------+
     |ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE  |
     +---------------+------------------+
     |Availability   | security/sudo    |
     +---------------+------------------+
     |Stability      | Uncommitted      |
     +---------------+------------------+
SEE ALSO
     ldap.conf(5), sssd-sudo(5), sudo.conf(5), sudoers(5)

AUTHORS
     Many people have worked on sudo over the years; this version consists of
     code written primarily by:

           Todd C. Miller

     See the CONTRIBUTORS file in the sudo distribution
     (https://www.sudo.ws/contributors.html) for an exhaustive list of people
     who have contributed to sudo.

CAVEATS
     Note that there are differences in the way that LDAP-based sudoers is
     parsed compared to file-based sudoers.  See the Differences between LDAP
     and non-LDAP sudoers section for more information.

BUGS
     If you feel you have found a bug in sudo, please submit a bug report at
     https://bugzilla.sudo.ws/

SUPPORT
     Limited free support is available via the sudo-users mailing list, see
     https://www.sudo.ws/mailman/listinfo/sudo-users to subscribe or search
     the archives.

DISCLAIMER
     sudo is provided ``AS IS'' and any express or implied warranties, includ-
     ing, but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability and
     fitness for a particular purpose are disclaimed.  See the LICENSE file
     distributed with sudo or https://www.sudo.ws/license.html for complete
     details.



     This software was built from source available at https://github.com/ora-
     cle/solaris-userland.  The original community source was downloaded from
     https://www.sudo.ws/sudo/dist/sudo-1.8.21p2.tar.gz

     Further information about this software can be found on the open source
     community website at https://www.sudo.ws/.

Sudo 1.8.21p2                  January 17, 2017                  Sudo 1.8.21p2