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man pages section 7: Standards, Environments, Macros, Character Sets, and Miscellany

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Updated: Wednesday, July 27, 2022

groff_char (7)


groff_char - groff glyph names


Please see following description for synopsis


Miscellaneous Information Manual                                 GROFF_CHAR(7)

       groff_char - groff glyph names

       This  manual  page lists the standard groff glyph names and the default
       input mapping, latin1.  The glyphs  in  this  document  look  different
       depending  on  which  output  device was chosen (with option -T for the
       man(1) program or the roff formatter).  Glyphs not  available  for  the
       device  that is being used to print or view this manual page are marked
       with `(N/A)'; the device currently used is `ascii'.

       In the actual version, groff provides only 8-bit characters for  direct
       input and named entities for further glyphs.  On ASCII platforms, input
       character codes in the range 0 to 127  (decimal)  represent  the  usual
       7-bit ASCII characters, while codes between 127 and 255 are interpreted
       as the corresponding characters in the latin1 (ISO-8859-1) code set  by
       default.   This mapping is contained in the file latin1.tmac and can be
       changed by loading a different input encoding.  Note that some  of  the
       input  characters are reserved by groff, either for internal use or for
       special input purposes.  On EBCDIC platforms, only code page cp1047  is
       supported  (which  contains  the  same  characters as latin1; the input
       encoding file is called cp1047.tmac).  Again, some input characters are
       reserved for internal and special purposes.

       All  roff  systems provide the concept of named glyphs.  In traditional
       roff systems, only names of length 2 were used, while groff  also  pro-
       vides  support  for  longer  names.  It is strongly suggested that only
       named glyphs are used for all character representations outside of  the
       printable 7-bit ASCII range.

       Some  of the predefined groff escape sequences (with names of length 1)
       also produce single glyphs; these exist for historical reasons  or  are
       printable versions of syntactical characters.  They include `\\', `\'',
       `\`', `\-', `\.', and `\e'; see groff(7).

       In groff, all of these different types of characters and glyphs can  be
       tested positively with the `.if c' conditional.

       In  this  section,  the  glyphs in groff are specified in tabular form.
       The meaning of the columns is as follows.

       Output shows how the glyph is printed for the current device;  although
              this  can  have  quite  a  different  shape on other devices, it
              always represents the same glyph.

       Input  specifies how the glyph is input either directly by a key on the
              keyboard, or by a groff escape sequence.

       Code   applies  to  glyphs  which can be input with a single character,
              and gives the ISO latin1 decimal code of that  input  character.
              Note  that  this  code  is  equivalent to the lowest 256 Unicode
              characters, including 7-bit ASCII in the range 0 to 127.

              gives the usual PostScript name of the glyph.

              is the glyph name used in composite glyph names.  The  names  in
              the Unicode column look like u0021 or u0041_0300.  In groff, the
              corresponding Unicode characters can be constructed by adding  a
              backslash and a pair of square brackets, for example \[u0021] or

   7-bit Character Codes 32-126
       These are the basic glyphs having 7-bit  ASCII  code  values  assigned.
       They  are  identical to the printable characters of the character stan-
       dards ISO-8859-1 (latin1) and Unicode (range Basic Latin).   The  glyph
       names used in composite glyph names are `u0020' up to `u007E'.

       Note  that input characters in the range 0-31 and character 127 are not
       printable characters.  Most of them are invalid  input  characters  for
       groff anyway, and the valid ones have special meaning.  For EBCDIC, the
       printable characters are in the range 66-255.

       48-57  Decimal digits 0 to 9 (print as themselves).

       65-90  Upper case letters A-Z (print as themselves).

       97-122 Lower case letters a-z (print as themselves).

       Most of the remaining characters not in the just described ranges print
       as themselves; the only exceptions are the following characters:

       `      the ISO latin1 `Grave Accent' (code 96) prints as `, a left sin-
              gle quotation mark; the original character can be obtained  with

       '      the  ISO latin1 `Apostrophe' (code 39) prints as ', a right sin-
              gle quotation mark; the original character can be obtained  with

       -      the  ISO  latin1  `Hyphen,  Minus  Sign'  (code 45)  prints as a
              hyphen; a minus sign can be obtained with `\-'.

       ~      the ISO latin1 `Tilde' (code 126)  is  reduced  in  size  to  be
              usable  as  a  diacritic;  a  larger  glyph can be obtained with

       ^      the ISO latin1 `Circumflex Accent' (code 94) is reduced in  size
              to be usable as a diacritic; a larger glyph can be obtained with

       Output   Input   Code   PostScript     Unicode   Notes
       !        !       33     exclam         u0021     exclamation mark (bang)
       "        "       34     quotedbl       u0022     double quote
       #        #       35     numbersign     u0023     number sign
       $        $       36     dollar         u0024     currency dollar sign
       %        %       37     percent        u0025     percent
       &        &       38     ampersand      u0026     ampersand
       '        '       39     quoteright     u0027     right quote
       (        (       40     parenleft      u0028     parentheses left
       )        )       41     parenright     u0029     parentheses right
       *        *       42     asterisk       u002A     asterisk
       +        +       43     plus           u002B     plus
       ,        ,       44     comma          u002C     comma
       -        -       45     hyphen         u2010     hyphen
       .        .       46     period         u002E     period, dot
       /        /       47     slash          u002F     slash
       :        :       58     colon          u003A     colon
       ;        ;       59     semicolon      u003B     semicolon
       <        <       60     less           u003C     less than
       =        =       61     equal          u003D     equal
       >        >       62     greater        u003E     greater than
       ?        ?       63     question       u003F     question mark
       @        @       64     at             u0040     at

       [        [       91     bracketleft    u005B     square bracket left
       \        \       92     backslash      u005C     backslash
       ]        ]       93     bracketright   u005D     square bracket right
       ^        ^       94     circumflex     u005E     circumflex accent
       _        _       95     underscore     u005F     underscore
       `        `       96     quoteleft      u0060     quote left
       {        {       123    braceleft      u007B     curly brace left
       |        |       124    bar            u007C     bar
       }        }       125    braceright     u007D     curly brace right
       ~        ~       126    tilde          u007E     tilde accent

   8-bit Character Codes 160 to 255
       They are interpreted as printable characters according  to  the  latin1
       (ISO-8859-1)  code  set,  being  identical to the Unicode range Latin-1

       Input characters in range 128-159 (on non-EBCDIC hosts) are not  print-
       able characters.

       160    the ISO latin1 no-break space is mapped to `\~', the stretchable
              space character.

       173    the soft hyphen control character.  groff never uses this  char-
              acter  for  output  (thus it is omitted in the table below); the
              input character 173 is mapped onto `\%'.

       The remaining ranges (161-172, 174-255) are printable  characters  that
       print  as themselves.  Although they can be specified directly with the
       keyboard on systems with a latin1 code page, it is better to use  their
       glyph names; see next section.

       Output   Input   Code   PostScript       Unicode      Notes
                        161    exclamdown       u00A1        inverted exclamation mark
                        162    cent             u00A2        currency unit
                        163    sterling         u00A3        pound sterling
                        164    currency         u00A4        generic currency symbol
                        165    yen              u00A5        Japanese currency symbol
                        166    brokenbar        u00A6        broken bar
                        167    section          u00A7        section sign
                        168    dieresis         u00A8        dieresis (umlaut)
                        169    copyright        u00A9        copyright symbol
                        170    ordfeminine      u00AA        feminine ordinal (Spanish)
                        171    guillemotleft    u00AB        left guillemet [sic]
                        172    logicalnot       u00AC        logical not
                        174    registered       u00AE        registered mark symbol
                        175    macron           u00AF        overbar accent
                        176    degree           u00B0        degree sign
                        177    plusminus        u00B1        plus-minus sign
                        178    twosuperior      u00B2        superscript 2
                        179    threesuperior    u00B3        superscript 3
                        180    acute            u00B4        acute accent
                        181    mu               u00B5        micro sign
                        182    paragraph        u00B6        end of paragraphs marker
                        183    periodcentered   u00B7        centered period
                        184    cedilla          u00B8        cedilla accent
                        185    onesuperior      u00B9        superscript 1
                        186    ordmasculine     u00BA        masculine ordinal (Spanish)
                        187    guillemotright   u00BB        right guillemet [sic]
                        188    onequarter       u00BC        1/4 symbol
                        189    onehalf          u00BD        1/2 symbol
                        190    threequarters    u00BE        3/4 symbol
                        191    questiondown     u00BF        inverted question mark
                        192    Agrave           u0041_0300   A grave
                        193    Aacute           u0041_0301   A acute

                        194    Acircumflex      u0041_0302   A circumflex
                        195    Atilde           u0041_0303   A tilde
                        196    Adieresis        u0041_0308   A dieresis (umlaut)
                        197    Aring            u0041_030A   A ring
                        198    AE               u00C6        A+E combined
                        199    Ccedilla         u0043_0327   C cedilla
                        200    Egrave           u0045_0300   E grave
                        201    Eacute           u0045_0301   E acute
                        202    Ecircumflex      u0045_0302   E circumflex
                        203    Edieresis        u0045_0308   E dieresis (umlaut)
                        204    Igrave           u0049_0300   I grave
                        205    Iacute           u0049_0301   I acute
                        206    Icircumflex      u0049_0302   I circumflex
                        207    Idieresis        u0049_0308   I dieresis
                        208    Eth              u00D0        E th
                        209    Ntilde           u004E_0303   N tilde
                        210    Ograve           u004F_0300   O grave
                        211    Oacute           u004F_0301   O acute
                        212    Ocircumflex      u004F_0302   O circumflex
                        213    Otilde           u004F_0303   O tilde
                        214    Odieresis        u004F_0308   O dieresis (umlaut)
                        215    multiply         u00D7        multiply
                        216    Oslash           u00D8        O slash
                        217    Ugrave           u0055_0300   U grave
                        218    Uacute           u0055_0301   U acute
                        219    Ucircumflex      u0055_0302   U circumflex
                        220    Udieresis        u0055_0308   U dieresis (umlaut)
                        221    Yacute           u0059_0301   Y acute
                        222    Thorn            u00DE        Thorn
                        223    germandbls       u00DF        German double s (sharp s)
                        224    agrave           u0061_0300   a grave
                        225    aacute           u0061_0301   a acute
                        226    acircumflex      u0061_0302   a circumflex
                        227    atilde           u0061_0303   a tilde
                        228    adieresis        u0061_0308   a dieresis (umlaut)
                        229    aring            u0061_030A   a ring
                        230    ae               u00E6        a+e combined
                        231    ccedilla         u0063_0327   c cedilla
                        232    egrave           u0065_0300   e grave
                        233    eacute           u0065_0301   e acute
                        234    ecircumflex      u0065_0302   e circumflex
                        235    edieresis        u0065_0308   e dieresis (umlaut)
                        236    igrave           u0069_0300   i grave
                        237    iacute           u0069_0301   i acute
                        238    icircumflex      u0069_0302   i circumflex
                        239    idieresis        u0069_0308   i dieresis (umlaut)
                        240    eth              u00F0        e th
                        241    ntilde           u006E_0303   n tilde
                        242    ograve           u006F_0300   o grave
                        243    oacute           u006F_0301   o acute
                        244    ocircumflex      u006F_0302   o circumflex
                        245    otilde           u006F_0303   o tilde
                        246    odieresis        u006F_0308   o dieresis (umlaut)
                        247    divide           u00F7        divide
                        248    oslash           u00F8        o slash
                        249    ugrave           u0075_0300   u grave
                        250    uacute           u0075_0301   u acute
                        251    ucircumflex      u0075_0302   u circumflex
                        252    udieresis        u0075_0308   u dieresis (umlaut)
                        253    yacute           u0079_0301   y acute
                        254    thorn            u00FE        thorn
                        255    ydieresis        u0079_0308   y dieresis (umlaut)

   Named Glyphs
       Glyph  names  can  be  embedded  into the document text by using escape
       sequences.  groff(7) describes how these escape sequences look.   Glyph
       names  can  consist  of  quite  arbitrary  characters from the ASCII or
       latin1 code set, not only alphanumeric characters.  Here some examples:

       \(ch   A glyph having the 2-character name ch.

              A glyph having the name char_name (having length 1, 2, 3,  ...).
              Note  that `c' is not the same as `\[c]' (c a single character):
              The latter is internally mapped to glyph name `\c'.  By default,
              groff  defines  a  single  glyph name starting with a backslash,
              namely `\-', which can be either accessed as `\-' or `\[-]'.

       \[base_glyph composite_1 composite_2 ...]
              A composite glyph; see below for a more detailed description.

       In groff, each 8-bit input character can also referred to by  the  con-
       struct  `\[charn]' where n is the decimal code of the character, a num-
       ber between 0 and 255 without leading zeros  (those  entities  are  not
       glyph  names).   They  are  normally mapped onto glyphs using the .trin

       Another special  convention  is  the  handling  of  glyphs  with  names
       directly  derived from a Unicode code point; this is shown in the `Uni-
       code' column of the table below.  In general, all glyphs not  having  a
       name  as listed in this manual page can be accessed with the `\[uXXXX]'
       construct; please go to section `Using Symbols' in the groff info  man-
       ual for more details.

       Moreover,  new  glyph  names  can  be created by the .char request; see

       In the following, a plus sign in the `Notes' column indicates that this
       particular  glyph  name appears in the PS version of the original troff
       documentation, CSTR 54.

       Entries marked with  `***'  denote  glyphs  for  mathematical  purposes
       (mainly used for DVI output).  Normally, such glyphs have metrics which
       make them unusable in normal text.

       Output   Input   PostScript   Unicode   Notes
                \[-D]   Eth          u00D0     uppercase eth
                \[Sd]   eth          u00F0     lowercase eth
                \[TP]   Thorn        u00DE     uppercase thorn
                \[Tp]   thorn        u00FE     lowercase thorn
                \[ss]   germandbls   u00DF     German double s (sharp s)

       Ligatures and Other Latin Glyphs

       Output   Input   PostScript   Unicode           Notes
       ff       \[ff]   ff           u0066_0066        ff ligature +
       fi       \[fi]   fi           u0066_0069        fi ligature +
       fl       \[fl]   fl           u0066_006C        fl ligature +
       ffi      \[Fi]   ffi          u0066_0066_0069   ffi ligature +
       ffl      \[Fl]   ffl          u0066_0066_006C   ffl ligature +
                \[/L]   Lslash       u0141             L slash (Polish)
                \[/l]   lslash       u0142             l slash (Polish)
                \[/O]   Oslash       u00D8             O slash (Scandinavian)
                \[/o]   oslash       u00F8             o slash (Scandinavian)
       AE       \[AE]   AE           u00C6             A+E combined
       ae       \[ae]   ae           u00E6             a+e combined
       OE       \[OE]   OE           u0152             O+E combined
       oe       \[oe]   oe           u0153             o+e combined
       IJ       \[IJ]   IJ           u0132             I+J combined (Dutch)

       ij       \[ij]   ij           u0133             i+j combined(Dutch)
       i        \[.i]   dotlessi     u0131             i without a dot (Turkish)
                \[.j]   dotlessj     u0237             j without a dot

       Accented Characters

       Output   Input   PostScript    Unicode      Notes
                \['A]   Aacute        u0041_0301   A acute
                \['C]   Cacute        u0043_0301   C acute
                \['E]   Eacute        u0045_0301   E acute
                \['I]   Iacute        u0049_0301   I acute
                \['O]   Oacute        u004F_0301   O acute
                \['U]   Uacute        u0055_0301   U acute
                \['Y]   Yacute        u0059_0301   Y acute
                \['a]   aacute        u0061_0301   a acute
                \['c]   cacute        u0063_0301   c acute
                \['e]   eacute        u0065_0301   e acute
                \['i]   iacute        u0069_0301   i acute
                \['o]   oacute        u006F_0301   o acute
                \['u]   uacute        u0075_0301   u acute
                \['y]   yacute        u0079_0301   y acute
                \[:A]   Adieresis     u0041_0308   A dieresis (umlaut)
                \[:E]   Edieresis     u0045_0308   E dieresis (umlaut)
                \[:I]   Idieresis     u0049_0308   I dieresis (umlaut)
                \[:O]   Odieresis     u004F_0308   O dieresis (umlaut)
                \[:U]   Udieresis     u0055_0308   U dieresis (umlaut)
                \[:Y]   Ydieresis     u0059_0308   Y dieresis (umlaut)
                \[:a]   adieresis     u0061_0308   a dieresis (umlaut)
                \[:e]   edieresis     u0065_0308   e dieresis (umlaut)
                \[:i]   idieresis     u0069_0308   i dieresis (umlaut)
                \[:o]   odieresis     u006F_0308   o dieresis (umlaut)
                \[:u]   udieresis     u0075_0308   u dieresis (umlaut)
                \[:y]   ydieresis     u0079_0308   y dieresis (umlaut)
                \[^A]   Acircumflex   u0041_0302   A circumflex
                \[^E]   Ecircumflex   u0045_0302   E circumflex
                \[^I]   Icircumflex   u0049_0302   I circumflex
                \[^O]   Ocircumflex   u004F_0302   O circumflex
                \[^U]   Ucircumflex   u0055_0302   U circumflex
                \[^a]   acircumflex   u0061_0302   a circumflex
                \[^e]   ecircumflex   u0065_0302   e circumflex
                \[^i]   icircumflex   u0069_0302   i circumflex
                \[^o]   ocircumflex   u006F_0302   o circumflex
                \[^u]   ucircumflex   u0075_0302   u circumflex
                \[`A]   Agrave        u0041_0300   A grave
                \[`E]   Egrave        u0045_0300   E grave
                \[`I]   Igrave        u0049_0300   I grave
                \[`O]   Ograve        u004F_0300   O grave
                \[`U]   Ugrave        u0055_0300   U grave
                \[`a]   agrave        u0061_0300   a grave
                \[`e]   egrave        u0065_0300   e grave
                \[`i]   igrave        u0069_0300   i grave
                \[`o]   ograve        u006F_0300   o grave
                \[`u]   ugrave        u0075_0300   u grave
                \[~A]   Atilde        u0041_0303   A tilde
                \[~N]   Ntilde        u004E_0303   N tilde
                \[~O]   Otilde        u004F_0303   O tilde
                \[~a]   atilde        u0061_0303   a tilde
                \[~n]   ntilde        u006E_0303   n tilde
                \[~o]   otilde        u006F_0303   o tilde
                \[vS]   Scaron        u0053_030C   S caron
                \[vs]   scaron        u0073_030C   s caron
                \[vZ]   Zcaron        u005A_030C   Z caron
                \[vz]   zcaron        u007A_030C   z caron
                \[,C]   Ccedilla      u0043_0327   C cedilla

                \[,c]   ccedilla      u0063_0327   c cedilla
                \[oA]   Aring         u0041_030A   A ring
                \[oa]   aring         u0061_030A   a ring


       The composite request is used to map most of the accents to non-spacing
       glyph names; the values given in parentheses are the original (spacing)

       Output   Input   PostScript     Unicode         Notes
                \[a"]   hungarumlaut   u030B (u02DD)   Hungarian umlaut
                \[a-]   macron         u0304 (u00AF)   overbar accent
                \[a.]   dotaccent      u0307 (u02D9)   dot accent
       ^        \[a^]   circumflex     u0302 (u005E)   circumflex accent
       '        \[aa]   acute          u0301 (u00B4)   acute accent
       `        \[ga]   grave          u0300 (u0060)   grave accent
                \[ab]   breve          u0306 (u02D8)   breve accent
                \[ac]   cedilla        u0327 (u00B8)   cedilla accent
                \[ad]   dieresis       u0308 (u00A8)   umlaut accent
                \[ah]   caron          u030C (u02C7)   caron accent
                \[ao]   ring           u030A (u02DA)   small circle, ring accent
       ~        \[a~]   tilde          u0303 (u007E)   tilde accent
                \[ho]   ogonek         u0328 (u02DB)   hook accent
       ^        \[ha]   asciicircum    u005E           high circumflex, ASCII
                                                       character, in mathematics
                                                       the power sign
       ~        \[ti]   asciitilde     u007E           tilde in vertical middle,
                                                       ASCII, in Unix-like the
                                                       home directory


       Output   Input   PostScript       Unicode   Notes
                \[Bq]   quotedblbase     u201E     low double comma quote
       ,        \[bq]   quotesinglbase   u201A     low single comma quote
       "        \[lq]   quotedblleft     u201C     left double quote
       "        \[rq]   quotedblright    u201D     right double quote
       `        \[oq]   quoteleft        u2018     single open (left) quote
       '        \[cq]   quoteright       u2019     single closing (right) quote
       '        \[aq]   quotesingle      u0027     apostrophe quote (ASCII 39)
       "        \[dq]   quotedbl         u0022     double quote (ASCII 34)
                \[Fo]   guillemotleft    u00AB     left guillemet [sic]
                \[Fc]   guillemotright   u00BB     right guillemet [sic]
       <        \[fo]   guilsinglleft    u2039     single left-pointing angle
                                                   quotation mark
       >        \[fc]   guilsinglright   u203A     single right-pointing angle
                                                   quotation mark


       Output   Input   PostScript     Unicode   Notes
                \[r!]   exclamdown     u00A1     inverted exclamation mark
                \[r?]   questiondown   u00BF     inverted question mark
       --       \[em]   emdash         u2014     em-dash symbol
       -        \[en]   endash         u2013     en-dash symbol
       -        \[hy]   hyphen         u2010     hyphen symbol


       The extensible bracket pieces are font-invariant glyphs.  In  classical
       troff  only  one  glyph  was  available  to vertically extend brackets,
       braces, and parentheses: `bv'.  We map it rather arbitrarily to u23AA.

       Note that not all devices contain extensible bracket pieces  which  can
       be  piled  up  with `\b' due to the restrictions of the escape's piling
       algorithm.  A general solution to build brackets out of pieces  is  the
       following macro:

              .\" Make a pile centered vertically 0.5em
              .\" above the baseline.
              .\" The first argument is placed at the top.
              .\" The pile is returned in string `pile'
              .de pile-make
              .  nr pile-wd 0
              .  nr pile-ht 0
              .  ds pile-args
              .  nr pile-# \n[.$]
              .  while \n[pile-#] \{\
              .    nr pile-wd (\n[pile-wd] >? \w'\$[\n[pile-#]]')
              .    nr pile-ht +(\n[rst] - \n[rsb])
              .    as pile-args \v'\n[rsb]u'\"
              .    as pile-args \Z'\$[\n[pile-#]]'\"
              .    as pile-args \v'-\n[rst]u'\"
              .    nr pile-# -1
              .  \}
              .  ds pile \v'(-0.5m + (\n[pile-ht]u / 2u))'\"
              .  as pile \*[pile-args]\"
              .  as pile \v'((\n[pile-ht]u / 2u) + 0.5m)'\"
              .  as pile \h'\n[pile-wd]u'\"

       Another  complication  is  the  fact  that  some glyphs which represent
       bracket pieces in original troff can be  used  for  other  mathematical
       symbols also, for example `lf' and `rf' which provide the `floor' oper-
       ator.  Other devices (most notably for DVI  output)  don't  unify  such
       glyphs.  For this reason, the four glyphs `lf', `rf', lc', and `rc' are
       not unified with similarly looking  bracket  pieces.   In  groff,  only
       glyphs  with  long  names  are  guaranteed to pile up correctly for all
       devices (provided those glyphs exist).

       Output   Input               PostScript       Unicode   Notes
       [        \[lB]               bracketleft      u005B     left square
       ]        \[rB]               bracketright     u005D     right square
       {        \[lC]               braceleft        u007B     left curly
       }        \[rC]               braceright       u007D     right curly
       <        \[la]               angleleft        u27E8     left angle
       >        \[ra]               angleright       u27E9     right angle

       |        \[bv]               braceex          u23AA     curly brace
                                                               vertical exten-
                \[braceex]          braceex          u23AA     curly brace
                                                               vertical exten-

                \[bracketlefttp]    bracketlefttp    u23A1     left square
                                                               bracket top
                \[bracketleftbt]    bracketleftbt    u23A3     left square
                                                               bracket bottom
                \[bracketleftex]    bracketleftex    u23A2     left square
                                                               bracket exten-
                \[bracketrighttp]   bracketrighttp   u23A4     right square
                                                               bracket top
                \[bracketrightbt]   bracketrightbt   u23A6     right square
                                                               bracket bottom
                \[bracketrightex]   bracketrightex   u23A5     right square
                                                               bracket exten-

                \[lt]               bracelefttp      u23A7     left curly
                                                               brace top
                \[bracelefttp]      bracelefttp      u23A7     left curly
                                                               brace top
                \[lk]               braceleftmid     u23A8     left curly
                                                               brace middle
                \[braceleftmid]     braceleftmid     u23A8     left curly
                                                               brace middle
                \[lb]               braceleftbt      u23A9     left curly
                                                               brace bottom
                \[braceleftbt]      braceleftbt      u23A9     left curly
                                                               brace bottom
                \[braceleftex]      braceleftex      u23AA     left curly
                                                               brace extension
                \[rt]               bracerighttp     u23AB     right curly
                                                               brace top
                \[bracerighttp]     bracerighttp     u23AB     right curly
                                                               brace top
                \[rk]               bracerightmid    u23AC     right curly
                                                               brace middle
                \[bracerightmid]    bracerightmid    u23AC     right curly
                                                               brace middle
                \[rb]               bracerightbt     u23AD     right curly
                                                               brace bottom
                \[bracerightbt]     bracerightbt     u23AD     right curly
                                                               brace bottom
                \[bracerightex]     bracerightex     u23AA     right curly
                                                               brace extension
                \[parenlefttp]      parenlefttp      u239B     left parenthe-
                                                               sis top
                \[parenleftbt]      parenleftbt      u239D     left parenthe-
                                                               sis bottom
                \[parenleftex]      parenleftex      u239C     left parenthe-
                                                               sis extension
                \[parenrighttp]     parenrighttp     u239E     right parenthe-
                                                               sis top
                \[parenrightbt]     parenrightbt     u23A0     right parenthe-
                                                               sis bottoom
                \[parenrightex]     parenrightex     u239F     right parenthe-
                                                               sis extension


       Output   Input   PostScript      Unicode   Notes
       <-       \[<-]   arrowleft       u2190     horizontal arrow left
       ->       \[->]   arrowright      u2192     horizontal arrow right
       <->      \[<>]   arrowboth       u2194     horizontal arrow in both
                \[da]   arrowdown       u2193     vertical arrow down

                \[ua]   arrowup         u2191     vertical arrow up
                \[va]   arrowupdn       u2195     vertical arrow in both direc-
       <=       \[lA]   arrowdblleft    u21D0     horizontal double arrow left
       =>       \[rA]   arrowdblright   u21D2     horizontal double arrow right
       <=>      \[hA]   arrowdblboth    u21D4     horizontal double arrow in
                                                  both directions
                \[dA]   arrowdbldown    u21D3     vertical double arrow down
                \[uA]   arrowdblup      u21D1     vertical double arrow up
                \[vA]   uni21D5         u21D5     vertical double arrow in both
       -        \[an]   arrowhorizex    u23AF     horizontal arrow extension


       The font-invariant glyphs `br', `ul', and `rn' form corners;  they  can
       be used to build boxes.  Note that both the PostScript and the Unicode-
       derived names of these three glyphs are just rough approximations.

       `rn' also serves in classical troff as the horizontal extension of  the
       square root sign.

       `ru' is a font-invariant glyph, namely a rule of length 0.5m.

       Output   Input   PostScript   Unicode   Notes
       |        \[ba]   bar          u007C     bar
       |        \[br]   SF110000     u2502     box rule
       _        \[ul]   underscore   u005F     underscore
                \[rn]   overline     u203E     overline
       _        \[ru]   ---          ---       baseline rule
                \[bb]   brokenbar    u00A6     broken bar
       /        \[sl]   slash        u002F     slash, solidus
       \        \[rs]   backslash    u005C     reverse slash, reverse solidus

       Use `\[radicalex]', not `\[overline]', for continuation of square root.

       Text markers

       Output   Input   PostScript       Unicode   Notes
       O        \[ci]   circle           u25CB     circle
       o        \[bu]   bullet           u2022     bullet
                \[dd]   daggerdbl        u2021     double dagger sign
                \[dg]   dagger           u2020     dagger
                \[lz]   lozenge          u25CA     lozenge, diamond, pound key
       []       \[sq]   uni25A1          u25A1     white square
                \[ps]   paragraph        u00B6     end of paragraphs marker
                \[sc]   section          u00A7     section sign
       <=       \[lh]   uni261C          u261C     hand pointing left
       =>       \[rh]   a14              u261E     hand pointing right
       @        \[at]   at               u0040     at
       #        \[sh]   numbersign       u0023     number sign
                \[CR]   carriagereturn   u21B5     carriage return
                \[OK]   a19              u2713     check mark, tick

       Legal Symbols

       Output   Input   PostScript   Unicode   Notes
       (C)      \[co]   copyright    u00A9     copyright sign
       (R)      \[rg]   registered   u00AE     registered mark
                \[tm]   trademark    u2122     trademark symbol
                \[bs]   ---          ---       AT&T Bell Labs logo +

       The Bell Labs logo is not supported in groff.

       Currency symbols

       Output   Input   PostScript   Unicode   Notes
       $        \[Do]   dollar       u0024     dollar
                \[ct]   cent         u00A2     cent
       EUR      \[eu]   ---          u20AC     official Euro symbol
       EUR      \[Eu]   Euro         u20AC     font-specific Euro glyph variant
                \[Ye]   yen          u00A5     Japanese Yen
                \[Po]   sterling     u00A3     pound sterling (British)
                \[Cs]   currency     u00A4     Scandinavian currency sign
                \[Fn]   florin       u0192     Dutch currency sign


       Output   Input   PostScript     Unicode   Notes
                \[de]   degree         u00B0     degree
                \[%0]   perthousand    u2030     per thousand, per mille sign
       '        \[fm]   minute         u2032     arc minute sign
                \[sd]   second         u2033     acr second sign
                \[mc]   mu             u00B5     mu, micro sign
                \[Of]   ordfeminine    u00AA     feminine ordinal (Spanish)
                \[Om]   ordmasculine   u00BA     masculine ordinal (Spanish)

       Logical Symbols

       Output   Input    PostScript    Unicode   Notes
                \[AN]    logicaland    u2227     logical and
                \[OR]    logicalor     u2228     logical or
                \[no]    logicalnot    u00AC     logical not
                \[tno]   logicalnot    u00AC     text variant of `no'
                \[te]    existential   u2203     there exists
                \[fa]    universal     u2200     for all
                \[st]    suchthat      u220B     sucht that
                \[3d]    therefore     u2234     therefore
                \[tf]    therefore     u2234     therefore
       |        \[or]    bar           u007C     bitwise OR operator (as used
                                                 in C)

       Mathematical Symbols

       Output   Input          PostScript       Unicode      Notes
       1/2      \[12]          onehalf          u00BD        1/2 symbol
       1/4      \[14]          onequarter       u00BC        1/4 symbol
       3/4      \[34]          threequarters    u00BE        3/4 symbol
       1/8      \[18]          oneeighth        u215B        1/8 symbol
       3/8      \[38]          threeeighths     u215C        3/8 symbol
       5/8      \[58]          fiveeighths      u215D        5/8 symbol
       7/8      \[78]          seveneighths     u215E        7/8 symbol
                \[S1]          onesuperior      u00B9        superscript 1
                \[S2]          twosuperior      u00B2        superscript 2
                \[S3]          threesuperior    u00B3        superscript 3

       +        \[pl]          plus             u002B        plus in special font
       -        \[mi]          minus            u2212        minus in special font
       -+       \[-+]          uni2213          u2213        minus-plus
       +-       \[+-]          plusminus        u00B1        plus-minus
       +-       \[t+-]         plusminus        u00B1        text variant of \[+-]
                \[pc]          periodcentered   u00B7        period centered
                \[md]          dotmath          u22C5        multiplication dot
       x        \[mu]          multiply         u00D7        multiply sign

       x        \[tmu]         multiply         u00D7        text variant of \[mu]
                \[c*]          circlemultiply   u2297        multiply sign in circle
                \[c+]          circleplus       u2295        plus sign in circle
                \[di]          divide           u00F7        division sign
                \[tdi]         divide           u00F7        text variant of \[di]
       /        \[f/]          fraction         u2044        bar for fractions
       *        \[**]          asteriskmath     u2217        mathematical asterisk

       <=       \[<=]          lessequal        u2264        less or equal
       >=       \[>=]          greaterequal     u2265        greater or equal
       <<       \[<<]          uni226A          u226A        much less
       >>       \[>>]          uni226B          u226B        much greater
       =        \[eq]          equal            u003D        equals in special font
       !=       \[!=]          notequal         u003D_0338   not equal
       ==       \[==]          equivalence      u2261        equivalent
       !==      \[ne]          uni2262          u2261_0338   not equivalent
                \[=~]          congruent        u2245        congruent, approx.
                \[|=]          uni2243          u2243        asymptot. equal to
       ~        \[ap]          similar          u223C        similar
                \[~~]          approxequal      u2248        almost equal to
       ~=       \[~=]          approxequal      u2248        almost equal to
                \[pt]          proportional     u221D        proportional

                \[es]          emptyset         u2205        empty set
                \[mo]          element          u2208        element of a set
                \[nm]          notelement       u2208_0338   not element of set
                \[sb]          propersubset     u2282        proper subset
                \[nb]          notsubset        u2282_0338   not supset
                \[sp]          propersuperset   u2283        proper superset
                \[nc]          uni2285          u2283_0338   not superset
                \[ib]          reflexsubset     u2286        subset or equal
                \[ip]          reflexsuperset   u2287        superset or equal
                \[ca]          intersection     u2229        intersection, cap
                \[cu]          union            u222A        union, cup

                \[/_]          angle            u2220        angle
                \[pp]          perpendicular    u22A5        perpendicular
                \[is]          integral         u222B        integral
                \[integral]    integral         u222B        integral
                \[sum]         summation        u2211        summation
                \[product]     product          u220F        product
                \[coproduct]   uni2210          u2210        coproduct
                \[gr]          gradient         u2207        gradient
                \[sr]          radical          u221A        square root
                \[sqrt]        radical          u221A        square root
                \[radicalex]   radicalex        ---          square root continua-
                \[sqrtex]      radicalex        ---          square root continua-

                \[lc]          uni2308          u2308        left ceiling
                \[rc]          uni2309          u2309        right ceiling
                \[lf]          uni230A          u230A        left floor
                \[rf]          uni230B          u230B        right floor

                \[if]          infinity         u221E        infinity
                \[Ah]          aleph            u2135        aleph
                \[Im]          Ifraktur         u2111        Gothic I, imaginary
                \[Re]          Rfraktur         u211C        Gothic R, real
                \[wp]          weierstrass      u2118        Weierstrass p
                \[pd]          partialdiff      u2202        partial differentiation
                \[-h]          uni210F          u210F        Planck constant / 2pi

                \[hbar]        uni210F          u210F        Planck constant / 2pi

       Greek glyphs

       These  glyphs  are intended for technical use, not for real Greek; nor-
       mally, the uppercase letters have upright shape, and the lowercase ones
       are slanted.  There is a problem with the mapping of letter phi to Uni-
       code.  Prior to Unicode version 3.0,  the  difference  between  U+03C6,
       GREEK  SMALL  LETTER PHI, and U+03D5, GREEK PHI SYMBOL, was not clearly
       described; only the glyph shapes in the Unicode book could be used as a
       reference.   Starting  with Unicode 3.0, the reference glyphs have been
       exchanged and described verbally also: In mathematical context,  U+03D5
       is the stroked variant and U+03C6 the curly glyph.  Unfortunately, most
       font vendors didn't update their fonts to this (incompatible) change in
       Unicode.   At  the time of this writing (January 2006), it is not clear
       yet whether the Adobe Glyph Names `phi'  and  `phi1'  also  change  its
       meaning if used for mathematics, thus compatibility problems are likely
       to happen - being conservative, groff currently assumes that `phi' in a
       PostScript symbol font is the stroked version.

       In groff, symbol `\[*f]' always denotes the stroked version of phi, and
       `\[+f]' the curly variant.

       Output   Input   PostScript   Unicode   Notes
       A        \[*A]   Alpha        u0391     Alpha
       B        \[*B]   Beta         u0392     Beta
                \[*G]   Gamma        u0393     Gamma
                \[*D]   Delta        u0394     Delta
       E        \[*E]   Epsilon      u0395     Epsilon
       Z        \[*Z]   Zeta         u0396     Zeta
       H        \[*Y]   Eta          u0397     Eta
                \[*H]   Theta        u0398     Theta
       I        \[*I]   Iota         u0399     Iota
       K        \[*K]   Kappa        u039A     Kappa
                \[*L]   Lambda       u039B     Lamda
       M        \[*M]   Mu           u039C     Mu
       N        \[*N]   Nu           u039D     Nu
                \[*C]   Xi           u039E     Xi
       O        \[*O]   Omicron      u039F     Omicron
                \[*P]   Pi           u03A0     Pi
       P        \[*R]   Rho          u03A1     Rho
                \[*S]   Sigma        u03A3     Sigma
       T        \[*T]   Tau          u03A4     Tau
       Y        \[*U]   Upsilon      u03A5     Upsilon
                \[*F]   Phi          u03A6     Phi
       X        \[*X]   Chi          u03A7     Chi
                \[*Q]   Psi          u03A8     Psi
                \[*W]   Omega        u03A9     Omega
                \[*a]   alpha        u03B1     alpha
                \[*b]   beta         u03B2     beta
                \[*g]   gamma        u03B3     gamma
                \[*d]   delta        u03B4     delta
                \[*e]   epsilon      u03B5     epsilon
                \[*z]   zeta         u03B6     zeta
                \[*y]   eta          u03B7     eta
                \[*h]   theta        u03B8     theta
                \[*i]   iota         u03B9     iota
                \[*k]   kappa        u03BA     kappa
                \[*l]   lambda       u03BB     lambda
                \[*m]   mu           u03BC     mu
                \[*n]   nu           u03BD     nu
                \[*c]   xi           u03BE     xi
       o        \[*o]   omicron      u03BF     omicron

                \[*p]   pi           u03C0     pi
                \[*r]   rho          u03C1     rho
                \[ts]   sigma1       u03C2     terminal sigma
                \[*s]   sigma        u03C3     sigma
                \[*t]   tau          u03C4     tau
                \[*u]   upsilon      u03C5     upsilon
                \[*f]   phi          u03D5     phi oked glyph)
                \[*x]   chi          u03C7     chi
                \[*q]   psi          u03C8     psi
                \[*w]   omega        u03C9     omega
                \[+h]   theta1       u03D1     variant theta
                \[+f]   phi1         u03C6     variant phi (curly shape)
                \[+p]   omega1       u03D6     variant pi, looking like omega
                \[+e]   uni03F5      u03F5     variant epsilon

       Card symbols

       Output   Input      PostScript   Unicode   Notes
                \[CL]      club         u2663     black club suit
                \[SP]      spade        u2660     black spade suit
                \[HE]      heart        u2665     black heart suit
                \[u2661]   uni2661      u2661     white heart suit
                \[DI]      diamond      u2666     black diamond suit
                \[u2662]   uni2662      u2662     white diamond suit

       See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       |Availability   | text/groff       |
       |Stability      | Uncommitted      |

              the GNU roff formatter

              a short reference of the groff formatting language

       An extension to the troff character set for Europe, E.G.  Keizer,  K.J.
       Simonsen, J. Akkerhuis; EUUG Newsletter, Volume 9, No. 2, Summer 1989

       The Unicode Standard <http://www.unicode.org>

       Copyright (C) 1989-2014 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       This  file  is  part  of  groff  (GNU  roff),  which is a free software

       You can redistribute it and/or modify it under the  terms  of  the  GNU
       General  Public  License  as published by the Free Software Foundation,
       either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
       with       this       program.        If       not,       see      GPL2

       This document was written by James Clark  <jjc@jclark.com>  with  addi-
       tions   by   Werner  Lemberg  <wl@gnu.org>  and  Bernd  Warken  <groff-
       bernd.warken-72@web.de>.  This document was revised to use real  tables
       by Eric S. Raymond <esr@thyrsus.com>.

       Source  code  for open source software components in Oracle Solaris can
       be found at https://www.oracle.com/downloads/opensource/solaris-source-

       This     software     was    built    from    source    available    at
       https://github.com/oracle/solaris-userland.   The  original   community
       source                was                downloaded                from

       Further information about this software can be found on the open source
       community website at https://www.gnu.org/software/groff.

1.22.3                          4 November 2014                  GROFF_CHAR(7)