Go to main content

man pages section 7: Standards, Environments, Macros, Character Sets, and Miscellany

Exit Print View

Updated: Thursday, June 13, 2019
 
 

groff_mom (7)

Name

groff_mom - groff `mom' macros, `mom' is a `roff' language, part of `groff'

Synopsis

pdfmom [-Tps [pdfroff options]] [groff options] files ...

groff [-mom] files ...

groff [-m mom] files ...

Description

Miscellaneous Information Manual                                  GROFF_MOM(7)



NAME
       groff_mom  -  groff  `mom'  macros, `mom' is a `roff' language, part of
       `groff'

SYNOPSIS
       pdfmom [-Tps [pdfroff options]] [groff options] files ...

       groff [-mom] files ...

       groff [-m mom] files ...

CALLING MOM
       mom is a macro set for groff, designed primarily  to  format  documents
       for PDF and PostScript output.

       mom  provides  two  categories  of  macros: macros for typesetting, and
       macros for document processing.  The typesetting macros provide  access
       to  groff's typesetting capabilities in ways that are simpler to master
       than groff's primitives.  The document processing macros provide highly
       customizable  markup tags that allow the user to design and output pro-
       fessional-looking documents with a minimum of typesetting intervention.

       Files processed with pdfmom(1) with or without the -Tps option, produce
       PDF documents.  The documents include a PDF outline that appears in the
       `Contents' panel of document viewers, and may contain clickable  inter-
       nal and external links.

       When -Tps is absent, groff's native PDF driver, gropdf, is used to gen-
       erate the output.  When given, the output is still PDF, but  processing
       is passed over to pdfroff, which uses groff's PostScript driver, grops.
       Not all PDF features are available when -Tps is given; its primary  use
       is to allow processing of files with embedded PostScript images.

       Files  processed  with groff -mom (or -m mom) produce PostScript output
       by default.

       mom comes with her own very complete documentation in HTML  format.   A
       separate PDF manual, Producing PDFs with groff and mom, covers full mom
       or PDF usage.

FILES
       om.tmac
              - the main macro file
       mom.tmac
              - a wrapper file that calls om.tmac directly.

       /usr/share/doc/groff-1.22.3/html/mom/toc.html
              - entry point to the HTML documentation

       /usr/share/doc/groff-1.22.3/pdf/mom-pdf.pdf
              - the PDF manual, Producing PDFs with groff and mom

       /usr/share/doc/groff-1.22.3/examples/mom/*.mom
              - example files using mom

DOCUMENTATION IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER
       This part of the man-page contains information just as in groff(7), mom
       macros and mom escape sequences in alphabetical order.

       The  logical  order of mom macros and mom escape sequences is very well
       documented in

       /usr/share/doc/groff-1.22.3/html/mom/toc.html
              - entry point to the HTML documentation

       That document is quite good for beginners, but other  users  should  be
       happy to have some documentation in reference style.

       So we restrict this part to the alphabetical order of macros and escape
       sequences.  But, so far, we took all  documentation  details  from  the
       toc.html  file, just in a more useful alphabetical order.  So this part
       of the man-page is nothing new, but only a logical arrangement.

QUICK REFERENCE
   Quick Reference of Inline Escape Sequences in alphabetical Order
       \*[<colorname>]
              begin using an initialized colour inline

       \*[BCK n]
              move backwards in a line

       \*[BOLDER]
              invoke pseudo bold inline (related to macro .SETBOLDER)

       \*[BOLDERX]
              off pseudo bold inline (related to macro .SETBOLDER)

       \*[BU n]
              move characters pairs closer together inline (related  to  macro
              .KERN)

       \*[COND]
              invoke pseudo condensing inline (related to macro .CONDENSE)

       \*[CONDX]
              off pseudo condensing inline (related to macro .CONDENSE)

       \*[CONDSUP]...\*[CONDSUPX]
              pseudo-condensed superscript

       \*[DOWN n]
              temporarily move downwards in a line

       \*[EN-MARK]
              mark  initial line of a range of line numbers (for use with line
              numbered endnotes)

       \*[EXT]
              invoke pseudo extending inline (related to macro .EXTEND)

       \*[EXTX]
              off pseudo condensing inline (related to macro .EXTEND)

       \*[EXTSUP]...\*[EXTSUPX]
              pseudo extended superscript

       \*[FU n]
              move characters pairs further apart  inline  (related  to  macro
              .KERN)

       \*[FWD n]
              move forward in a line

       \*[LEADER]
              insert leaders at the end of a line

       \*[RULE]
              draw a full measure rule

       \*[SIZE n]
              change the point size inline (related to macro .PT_SIZE)

       \*[SLANT]
              invoke pseudo italic inline (related to macro .SETSLANT)

       \*[SLANTX]
              off pseudo italic inline (related to macro .SETSLANT)

       \*[ST<n>]...\*[ST<n>X]
              string tabs (mark tab positions inline)

       \*[SUP]...\*[SUPX]
              superscript

       \*[TB+]
              inline escape for .TN (Tab Next)

       \*[UL]...\*[ULX]
              invoke underlining inline (fixed width fonts only)

       \*[UP n]
              temporarily move upwards in a line

   Quick Reference of Macros in alphabetical Order
       .AUTOLEAD
              set the linespacing relative to the point size

       .B_MARGIN
              set a bottom margin

       .BR    break a justified line

       .CENTER
              set line-by-line quad centre

       .CONDENSE
              set the amount to pseudo condense

       .EL    break a line without advancing on the page

       .EXTEND
              set the amount to pseudo extend

       .FALLBACK_FONT
              establish a fallback font (for missing fonts)

       .FAM   alias to .FAMILY

       .FAMILY <family>
              set the family type

       .FT    set the font style (roman, italic, etc.)

       .HI [ <measure> ]
              hanging indent

       .HY    automatic hyphenation on/off

       .HY_SET
              set automatic hyphenation parameters

       .IB [ <left measure> <right measure> ]
              indent both

       .IBX [ CLEAR ]
              exit indent both

       .IL [ <measure> ]
              indent left

       .ILX [ CLEAR ]
              exit indent left

       .IQ [ CLEAR ]
              quit any/all indents

       .IR [ <measure> ]
              indent right

       .IRX [ CLEAR ]
              exit indent right

       .JUSTIFY
              justify text to both margins

       .KERN  automatic character pair kerning on/off

       .L_MARGIN
              set a left margin (page offset)

       .LEFT  set line-by-line quad left

       .LL    set a line length

       .LS    set a linespacing (leading)

       .PAGE  set explicit page dimensions and margins

       .PAGEWIDTH
              set a custom page width

       .PAGELENGTH
              set a custom page length

       .PAPER <paper_type>
              set common paper sizes (letter, A4, etc)

       .PT_SIZE
              set the point size

       .QUAD  "justify" text left, centre, or right

       .R_MARGIN
              set a right margin

       .RIGHT set line-by-line quad right

       .SETBOLDER
              set the amount of emboldening

       .SETSLANT
              set the degree of slant

       .SPREAD
              force justify a line

       .SS    set the sentence space size

       .T_MARGIN
              set a top margin

       .TI [ <measure> ]
              temporary left indent

       .WS    set the minimum word space size

DOCUMENTATION OF DETAILS
   Details of Inline Escape Sequences in alphabetical Order
       \*[<colorname>]
              begin using an initialized colour inline

       \*[BCK n]
              move wards in a line

       \*[BOLDER]
       \*[BOLDERX]
              Emboldening on/off

              \*[BOLDER]  begins emboldening type.  \*[BOLDERX] turns the fea-
              ture off.  Both are inline escapes, therefore  they  should  not
              appear  as separate lines, but rather be embedded in text lines,
              like this:
                     Not \*[BOLDER]everything\*[BOLDERX] is as it seems.

              Alternatively, if you wanted  the  whole  line  emboldened,  you
              should do
                     \*[BOLDER]Not everything is as it seems.\*[BOLDERX]
              Once  \*[BOLDER]  is  invoked, it remains in effect until turned
              off.

              Note: If  you're  using  the  document  processing  macros  with
              .PRINTSTYLE TYPEWRITE, mom ignores \*[BOLDER] requests.

       \*[BU n]
              move  characters  pairs closer together inline (related to macro
              .KERN)

       \*[COND]
       \*[CONDX]
              Pseudo-condensing on/off

              \*[COND] begins pseudo-condensing  type.   \*[CONDX]  turns  the
              feature off.  Both are inline escapes, therefore they should not
              appear as separate lines, but rather be embedded in text  lines,
              like this:
                     \*[COND]Not everything is as it seems.\*[CONDX]
              \*[COND] remains in effect until you turn it off with \*[CONDX].

              IMPORTANT:  You must turn \*[COND] off before making any changes
              to the point size of your type, either via the .PT_SIZE macro or
              with the \s inline escape.  If you wish the new point size to be
              pseudo-condensed, simply reinvoke \*[COND] afterwards.  Equally,
              \*[COND]  must  be  turned off before changing the condense per-
              centage with .CONDENSE.

              Note: If  you're  using  the  document  processing  macros  with
              .PRINTSTYLE TYPEWRITE, mom ignores \*[COND] requests.

       \*[CONDSUP]...\*[CONDSUPX]
              pseudo-condensed superscript

       \*[DOWN n]
              temporarily move downwards in a line

       \*[EN-MARK]
              mark  initial line of a range of line numbers (for use with line
              numbered endnotes)

       \*[EXT]
       \*[EXTX]
              Pseudo-extending on/off

              \*[EXT] begins pseudo-extending type.  \*[EXTX] turns  the  fea-
              ture  off.   Both  are inline escapes, therefore they should not
              appear as separate lines, but rather be embedded in text  lines,
              like this:
                     \*[EXT]Not everything is as it seems.\*[EXTX]
              \*[EXT] remains in effect until you turn it off with \*[EXTX].

              IMPORTANT:  You  must turn \*[EXT] off before making any changes
              to the point size of your type, either via the .PT_SIZE macro or
              with the \s inline escape.  If you wish the new point size to be
              pseudo-extended, simply reinvoke \*[EXT]  afterwards.   Equally,
              \*[EXT] must be turned off before changing the extend percentage
              with .EXTEND.

              Note: If you are  using  the  document  processing  macros  with
              .PRINTSTYLE TYPEWRITE, mom ignores \*[EXT] requests.

       \*[EXTSUP]...\*[EXTSUPX]
              pseudo extended superscript

       \*[FU n]
              move  characters  pairs  further  apart inline (related to macro
              .KERN)

       \*[FWD n]
              move forward in a line

       \*[LEADER]
              insert leaders at the end of a line

       \*[RULE]
              draw a full measure rule

       \*[SIZE n]
              change the point size inline (related to macro .PT_SIZE)

       \*[SLANT]
       \*[SLANTX]
              Pseudo italic on/off

              \*[SLANT] begins pseudo-italicizing type.  \*[SLANTX] turns  the
              feature off.  Both are inline escapes, therefore they should not
              appear as separate lines, but rather be embedded in text  lines,
              like this:
                     Not \*[SLANT]everything\*[SLANTX] is as it seems.

              Alternatively,  if  you wanted the whole line pseudo-italicized,
              you'd do
                     \*[SLANT]Not everything is as it seems.\*[SLANTX]

              Once \*[SLANT] is invoked, it remains  in  effect  until  turned
              off.

              Note:  If  you're  using  the  document  processing  macros with
              .PRINTSTYLE TYPEWRITE, mom underlines pseudo-italics by default.
              To    change    this    behaviour,   use   the   special   macro
              .SLANT_MEANS_SLANT.

       \*[ST<number>]...\*[ST<number>X]
              Mark positions of string tabs

              The quad direction must  be  LEFT  or  JUSTIFY  (see  .QUAD  and
              .JUSTIFY) or the no-fill mode set to LEFT in order for these in-
              lines to function properly.  Please see IMPORTANT, below.

              String tabs need to be marked off with inline escapes before be-
              ing  set  up  with  the  .ST  macro.  Any input line may contain
              string tab markers.  <number>, above, means the numeric  identi-
              fier of the tab.

              The following shows a sample input line with string tab markers.
                     \*[ST1]Now is the time\*[ST1X] for all \*[ST2]good men\*ST2X] to come to the aid of the party.

              String  tab 1 begins at the start of the line and ends after the
              word time.  String tab 2 starts at  good  and  ends  after  men.
              Inline  escapes (e.g.  font or point size changes, or horizontal
              movements, including padding) are taken into  account  when  mom
              determines the position and length of string tabs.

              Up to nineteen string tabs may be marked (not necessarily all on
              the same line, of course), and they must be numbered  between  1
              and 19.

              Once  string  tabs have been marked in input lines, they have to
              be set with .ST, after which they may be called, by number, with
              .TAB.

              Note: Lines with string tabs marked off in them are normal input
              lines, i.e. they get printed, just like any input line.  If  you
              want  to  set  up string tabs without the line printing, use the
              .SILENT macro.

              IMPORTANT: Owing to the way  groff  processes  input  lines  and
              turns  them  into  output  lines,  it is not possible for mom to
              guess the correct starting position of string tabs marked off in
              lines that are centered or set flush right.

              Equally,  she  cannot  guess  the starting position if a line is
              fully justified and broken with .SPREAD.

              In other words, in order  to  use  string  tabs,  LEFT  must  be
              active,  or,  if  .QUAD  LEFT or JUSTIFY are active, the line on
              which the string tabs are marked must be  broken  manually  with
              .BR (but not .SPREAD).

              To  circumvent  this behaviour, I recommend using the PAD to set
              up string tabs in centered or flush right lines.  Say, for exam-
              ple,  you  want  to use a string tab to underscore the text of a
              centered line with a rule.  Rather than this,
                     .CENTER
                     \*[ST1]A line of text\*[ST1X]\c
                     .EL
                     .ST 1
                     .TAB 1
                     .PT_SIZE 24
                     .ALD 3p
                     \*[RULE]
                     .RLD 3p
                     .TQ
              you should do:
                     .QUAD CENTER
                     .PAD "#\*[ST1]A line of text\*[ST1X]#"
                     .EL
                     .ST 1
                     .TAB 1
                     .PT_SIZE 24
                     .ALD 3p
                     \*[RULE] \" Note that you can't use \*[UP] or \*[DOWN] with \*[RULE]
                     .RLD 3p
                     .TQ

       \*[SUP]...\*[SUPX]
              superscript

       \*[TB+]
              Inline escape for .TN (Tab Next)

       \*[UL]...\*[ULX]
              invoke underlining inline (fixed width fonts only)

       \*[UP n]
              temporarily move upwards in a line

   Details of Macros in alphabetical Order
       .AUTOLEAD
              set the linespacing relative to the point size

       .B_MARGIN <bottom margin>
              Bottom Margin

              Requires a unit of measure

              .B_MARGIN sets a nominal position at the bottom of the page  be-
              yond which you don't want your type to go.  When the bottom mar-
              gin is reached, mom starts a new  page.   .B_MARGIN  requires  a
              unit of measure.  Decimal fractions are allowed.  To set a nomi-
              nal bottom margin of 3/4 inch, enter
                     .B_MARGIN .75i

              Obviously, if you haven't spaced the type on your pages so  that
              the  last  lines fall perfectly at the bottom margin, the margin
              will vary from page to page.  Usually, but not always, the  last
              line of type that fits on a page before the bottom margin causes
              mom to start a new page.

              Occasionally, owing to a peculiarity in  groff,  an  extra  line
              will  fall below the nominal bottom margin.  If you're using the
              document processing macros, this is unlikely to happen; the doc-
              ument  processing macros are very hard-nosed about aligning bot-
              tom margins.

              Note: The meaning of .B_MARGIN is slightly different when you're
              using the document processing macros.

       .FALLBACK_FONT <fallback font> [ ABORT | WARN ]
              Fallback Font

              In  the event that you pass an invalid argument to .FAMILY (i.e.
              a non-existent family), mom, by default, uses the fallback font,
              Courier  Medium Roman (CR), in order to continue processing your
              file.

              If you'd prefer another fallback font, pass  .FALLBACK_FONT  the
              full  family+font  name of the font you'd like.  For example, if
              you'd rather the fallback font were Times Roman Medium Roman,
                     .FALLBACK_FONT TR
              would do the trick.

              Mom issues a warning whenever a font style set with .FT does not
              exist,  either  because  you  haven't  registered  the  style or
              because the font style does not exist in the current family  set
              with  .FAMILY.  By default, mom then aborts, which allows you to
              correct the problem.

              If you'd prefer that mom not abort on  non-existent  fonts,  but
              rather  continue  processing using a fallback font, you can pass
              .FALLBACK_FONT the argument WARN, either by itself, or  in  con-
              junction with your chosen fallback font.

              Some examples of invoking .FALLBACK_FONT:

              .FALLBACK_FONT WARN
                     mom  will  issue  a  warning whenever you try to access a
                     non-existent font but will continue processing your  file
                     with the default fallback font, Courier Medium Roman.

              .FALLBACK_FONT TR WARN
                     mom  will  issue  a  warning whenever you try to access a
                     non-existent font but will continue processing your  file
                     with  a  fallback font of Times Roman Medium Roman; addi-
                     tionally, TR will be the fallback font whenever  you  try
                     to access a family that does not exist.

              .FALLBACK_FONT TR ABORT
                     mom  will abort whenever you try to access a non-existent
                     font, and will use the fallback font TR whenever you  try
                     to  access  a  family  that does not exist.  If, for some
                     reason,  you  want  to  revert  to  ABORT,   just   enter
                     ".FALLBACK_FONT  ABORT"  and mom will once again abort on
                     font errors.

       .FAM <family>
              Type Family, alias of .FAMILY

       .FAMILY <family>
              Type Family, alias .FAM

              .FAMILY takes one argument: the name of  the  family  you  want.
              Groff  comes with a small set of basic families, each identified
              by a 1-, 2- or 3-letter mnemonic.  The standard families are:
                     A   = Avant Garde
                     BM  = Bookman
                     H   = Helvetica
                     HN  = Helvetica Narrow
                     N   = New Century Schoolbook
                     P   = Palatino
                     T   = Times Roman
                     ZCM = Zapf Chancery

              The argument you pass to .FAMILY  is  the  identifier  at  left,
              above.  For example, if you want Helvetica, enter
                     .FAMILY H

              Note: The font macro (.FT) lets you specify both the type family
              and the desired font with a single macro.  While  this  saves  a
              few  keystrokes,  I  recommend using .FAMILY for family, and .FT
              for font, except where doing so is genuinely inconvenient.  ZCM,
              for example, only exists in one style: Italic (I).

              Therefore,
                     .FT ZCMI
              makes  more  sense  than setting the family to ZCM, then setting
              the font to I.

              Additional note: If you are running a  version  of  groff  lower
              than  1.19.2,  you  must  follow  all .FAMILY requests with a FT
              request, otherwise mom will set all type  up  to  the  next  .FT
              request in the fallback font.

              If  you  are running a version of groff greater than or equal to
              1.19.2, when you invoke the .FAMILY  macro,  mom  remembers  the
              font  style  (Roman,  Italic, etc) currently in use (if the font
              style exists in the new family) and will  continue  to  use  the
              same font style in the new family.  For example:
                     .FAMILY BM \" Bookman family
                     .FT I \" Medium Italic
                     <some text> \" Bookman Medium Italic
                     .FAMILY H \" Helvetica family
                     <more text> \" Helvetica Medium Italic

              However, if the font style does not exist in the new family, mom
              will set all subsequent type in the fallback font  (by  default,
              Courier  Medium Roman) until she encounters a .FT request that's
              valid for the family.

              For example, assuming you don't have the font  Medium  Condensed
              Roman (mom extension CD) in the Helvetica family:
                     .FAMILY UN \" Univers family
                     .FT CD \" Medium Condensed
                     <some text> \" Univers Medium Condensed
                     .FAMILY H \" Helvetica family
                     <more text> \" Courier Medium Roman!

              In  the  above  example,  you  must  follow .FAMILY H with a .FT
              request that's valid for Helvetica.

              Please see the Appendices, Adding fonts to groff,  for  informa-
              tion  on adding fonts and families to groff, as well as to see a
              list of the extensions mom provides to groff's basic R, I, B, BI
              styles.

              Suggestion: When adding families to groff, I recommend following
              the established standard for the naming families and fonts.  For
              example, if you add the Garamond family, name the font files
                     GARAMONDR
                     GARAMONDI
                     GARAMONDB
                     GARAMONDBI
              GARAMOND  then becomes a valid family name you can pass to .FAM-
              ILY.  (You could, of course, shorten GARAMOND to just G, or GD.)
              R,  I,  B, and BI after GARAMOND are the roman, italic, bold and
              bold-italic fonts respectively.

       .FONT R | B | BI | <any other valid font style>
              Alias to .FT

       .FT R | B | BI | <any other valid font style>
              Set font

              By default, groff permits .FT to take one of four possible argu-
              ments specifying the desired font:
                     R = (Medium) Roman
                     I = (Medium) Italic
                     B = Bold (Roman)
                     BI = Bold Italic

              For example, if your family is Helvetica, entering
                     .FT B
              will  give  you  the  Helvetica  bold font.  If your family were
              Palatino, you'd get the Palatino bold font.

              Mom considerably extends the range of arguments you can pass  to
              .FT,  making  it more convenient to add and access fonts of dif-
              fering weights and shapes within the same family.

              Have a look here for a list of the  weight/style  arguments  mom
              allows.   Be  aware,  though, that you must have the fonts, cor-
              rectly installed and named, in order to use the arguments.  (See
              Adding fonts to groff for instructions and information.)  Please
              also read the ADDITIONAL NOTE found in the  description  of  the
              .FAMILY macro.

              How  mom  reacts  to an invalid argument to .FT depends on which
              version of groff you're using.  If your groff version is greater
              than or equal to 1.19.2, mom will issue a warning and, depending
              on how you've set up the fallback font, either continue process-
              ing  using  the fallback font, or abort (allowing you to correct
              the problem).  If your groff version is less  than  1.19.2,  mom
              will  silently  continue  processing,  using either the fallback
              font or the font that was in effect prior  to  the  invalid  .FT
              call.

              .FT  will  also  accept,  as an argument, a full family and font
              name.

              For example,
                     .FT HB
              will set subsequent type in Helvetica Bold.

              However, I strongly recommend keeping family and  font  separate
              except where doing so is genuinely inconvenient.

              For inline control of fonts, see Inline Escapes, font control.

       .HI [ <measure> ]
              Hanging  indent -- the optional argument requires a unit of mea-
              sure.

              A hanging indent looks like this:
                       The thousand injuries of Fortunato I had borne as best I
                         could, but when he ventured upon insult, I vowed
                         revenge.  You who so well know the nature of my soul
                         will not suppose, however, that I gave utterance to a
                         threat, at length I would be avenged...
              The first line of text hangs outside the left margin.

              In order to use hanging indents, you  must  first  have  a  left
              indent  active  (set with either .IL or .IB).  Mom will not hang
              text outside the left margin set with .L_MARGIN or  outside  the
              left margin of a tab.

              The  first  time you invoke .HI, you must give it a measure.  If
              you want the first line of a paragraph to hang by, say, 1  pica,
              do
                     .IL 1P
                     .HI 1P
              Subsequent  invocations  of  .HI  do not require you to supply a
              measure; mom keeps track of the last measure you gave it.

              Generally speaking, you should invoke .HI immediately  prior  to
              the  line  you  want  hung (i.e. without any intervening control
              lines).  And because  hanging  indents  affect  only  one  line,
              there's no need to turn them off.

              IMPORTANT:  Unlike  IL, IR and IB, measures given to .HI are NOT
              additive.  Each time you pass a measure to .HI , the measure  is
              treated  literally.   Recipe:  A  numbered  list  using  hanging
              indents

              Note: mom has macros for setting lists.  This recipe  exists  to
              demonstrate the use of hanging indents only.
                     .PAGE 8.5i 11i 1i 1i 1i 1i
                     .FAMILY  T
                     .FT      R
                     .PT_SIZE 12
                     .LS      14
                     .JUSTIFY
                     .KERN
                     .SS 0
                     .IL \w'\0\0.'
                     .HI \w'\0\0.'
                     1.\0The most important point to be considered is whether the
                     answer to the meaning of Life, the Universe, and Everything
                     really is 42.  We have no-one's word on the subject except
                     Mr. Adams'.
                     .HI
                     2.\0If the answer to the meaning of Life, the Universe,
                     and Everything is indeed 42, what impact does this have on
                     the politics of representation?  42 is, after all not a
                     prime number.  Are we to infer that prime numbers don't
                     deserve equal rights and equal access in the universe?
                     .HI
                     3.\0If 42 is deemed non-exclusionary, how do we present it
                     as the answer and, at the same time, forestall debate on its
                     exclusionary implications?

              First, we invoke a left indent with a measure equal to the width
              of 2 figures spaces plus a period (using the \w inline  escape).
              At  this point, the left indent is active; text afterwards would
              normally be indented.  However, we invoke a  hanging  indent  of
              exactly  the  same  width, which hangs the first line (and first
              line only!) to the left of the indent by the same  distance  (in
              this  case,  that  means  "out to the left margin").  Because we
              begin the first line with a  number,  a  period,  and  a  figure
              space,  the  actual text (The most important point...) starts at
              exactly the same spot as the indented lines that follow.

              Notice that subsequent invocations of .HI don't require  a  mea-
              sure to be given.

              Paste the example above into a file and preview it with
                     pdfmom filename.mom | ps2pdf - filename.pdf
              to see hanging indents in action.

       .IB [ <left measure> <right measure> ]
              Indent both -- the optional argument requires a unit of measure

              .IB allows you to set or invoke a left and a right indent at the
              same time.

              At its first invocation, you must  supply  a  measure  for  both
              indents;  at  subsequent  invocations  when you wish to supply a
              measure, both must be given again.  As with  .IL  and  .IR,  the
              measures are added to the values previously passed to the macro.
              Hence, if you wish to change just one of the  values,  you  must
              give an argument of zero to the other.

              A  word  of  advice:  If  you  need to manipulate left and right
              indents separately, use a combination of .IL and .IR instead  of
              .IB.  You'll save yourself a lot of grief.

              A  minus sign may be prepended to the arguments to subtract from
              their current values.  The \w inline escape may be used to spec-
              ify text-dependent measures, in which case no unit of measure is
              required.  For example,
                     .IB \w'margarine' \w'jello'
              left indents text by the width of the word margarine  and  right
              indents by the width of jello.

              Like  .IL  and  .IR,  .IB  with  no argument indents by its last
              active values.  See the brief explanation  of  how  mom  handles
              indents for more details.

              Note:  Calling  a  tab (with .TAB <n>) automatically cancels any
              active indents.

              Additional note: Invoking .IB automatically turns  off  .IL  and
              .IR.

       .IL [ <measure> ]
              Indent left -- the optional argument requires a unit of measure

              .IL  indents text from the left margin of the page, or if you're
              in a tab, from the left edge of the tab Once IL is on, the  left
              indent  is  applied  uniformly to every subsequent line of text,
              even if you change the line length.

              The first time you invoke .IL, you must give it a measure.  Sub-
              sequent  invocations with a measure add to the previous measure.
              A minus sign may be prepended to the argument to  subtract  from
              the  current measure.  The \w inline escape may be used to spec-
              ify a text-dependent measure, in which case no unit  of  measure
              is required.  For example,
                     .IL \w'margarine'
              indents text by the width of the word margarine.

              With no argument, .IL indents by its last active value.  See the
              brief explanation of how mom handles indents for more details.

              Note: Calling a tab (with .TAB <n>)  automatically  cancels  any
              active indents.

              Additional note: Invoking .IL automatically turns off IB.

       .IQ [ <measure> ]
              IQ -- quit any/all indents

              IMPORTANT  NOTE: The original macro for quitting all indents was
              .IX.  This usage has been deprecated in favour of IQ.  .IX  will
              continue  to  behave  as before, but mom will issue a warning to
              stderr indicating that you should update your documents.

              As a consequence of this change, .ILX, .IRX  and  .IBX  may  now
              also  be invoked as .ILQ, .IRQ and .IBQ.  Both forms are accept-
              able.

              Without an argument, the macros to quit indents  merely  restore
              your  original  margins and line length.  The measures stored in
              the indent macros themselves are saved  so  you  can  call  them
              again without having to supply a measure.

              If  you  pass these macros the optional argument CLEAR, they not
              only restore your original left margin and line length, but also
              clear any values associated with a particular indent style.  The
              next time you need an indent of the same style, you have to sup-
              ply a measure again.

              .IQ CLEAR, as you'd suspect, quits and clears the values for all
              indent styles at once.

       .IR [ <measure> ]
              Indent right -- the optional argument requires a unit of measure

              .IR indents text from the right margin of the page, or if you're
              in a tab, from the end of the tab.

              The first time you invoke .IR, you must give it a measure.  Sub-
              sequent invocations with a measure add to  the  previous  indent
              measure.   A minus sign may be prepended to the argument to sub-
              tract from the current indent measure.  The \w inline escape may
              be  used  to  specify a text-dependent measure, in which case no
              unit of measure is required.  For example,
                     .IR \w'jello'
              indents text by the width of the word jello.

              With no argument, .IR indents by its last active value.  See the
              brief explanation of how mom handles indents for more details.

              Note:  Calling  a  tab (with .TAB <n>) automatically cancels any
              active indents.

              Additional note: Invoking .IR automatically turns off IB.

       .L_MARGIN <left margin>
              Left Margin

              L_MARGIN establishes the distance from  the  left  edge  of  the
              printer  sheet  at which you want your type to start.  It may be
              used any time, and remains in  effect  until  you  enter  a  new
              value.

              Left  indents and tabs are calculated from the value you pass to
              .L_MARGIN, hence it's always a good idea  to  invoke  it  before
              starting   any  serious  typesetting.   A  unit  of  measure  is
              required.  Decimal fractions are allowed.  Therefore, to set the
              left margin at 3 picas (1/2 inch), you'd enter either
                     .L_MARGIN 3P
              or
                     .L_MARGIN .5i

              If you use the macros .PAGE, .PAGEWIDTH or .PAPER without invok-
              ing .L_MARGIN (either before or afterwards),  mom  automatically
              sets .L_MARGIN to 1 inch.

              Note:  .L_MARGIN  behaves in a special way when you're using the
              document processing macros.

       .MCO   Begin multi-column setting.

              .MCO (Multi-Column On) is the macro you use to begin  multi-col-
              umn  setting.   It marks the current baseline as the top of your
              columns, for use later with .MCR.  See the introduction to  col-
              umns for an explanation of multi-columns and some sample input.

              Note:  Do  not confuse .MCO with the .COLUMNS macro in the docu-
              ment processing macros.

       .MCR   Once you've turned multi-columns on (with .MCO),  .MCR,  at  any
              time, returns you to the top of your columns.

       .MCX [ <distance to advance below longest column> ]
              Optional argument requires a unit of measure.

              .MCX  takes you out of any tab you were in (by silently invoking
              .TQ) and advances to the bottom of the longest column.

              Without an argument, .MCX advances 1 linespace below the longest
              column.

              Linespace,  in  this  instance,  is the leading in effect at the
              moment .MCX is invoked.

              If you pass the <distance> argument to .MCX, it advances 1 line-
              space  below  the  longest  column (see above) PLUS the distance
              specified by the argument.  The argument requires a unit of mea-
              sure;  therefore,  to advance an extra 6 points below where .MCX
              would normally place you, you'd enter
                     .MCX 6p

              Note: If you wish to advance a precise distance below the  base-
              line  of  the  longest  column,  use  .MCX with an argument of 0
              (zero; no unit of measure required) in conjunction with the .ALD
              macro, like this:
                     .MCX 0
                     .ALD 24p
              The  above advances to precisely 24 points below the baseline of
              the longest column.

       .NEWPAGE

              Whenever you want to start a new page, use .NEWPAGE,  by  itself
              with  no  argument.   Mom  will finish up processing the current
              page and move you to the top of a new one (subject  to  the  top
              margin set with .T_MARGIN).

       .PAGE <width> [ <length> [ <lm> [ <rm> [ <tm> [ <bm> ] ] ] ] ]

              All arguments require a unit of measure

              IMPORTANT: If you're using the document processing macros, .PAGE
              must come after .START.  Otherwise, it should go at the top of a
              document,  prior  to  any text.  And remember, when you're using
              the document processing macros, top  margin  and  bottom  margin
              mean  something  slightly  different than when you're using just
              the typesetting macros (see Top and bottom margins  in  document
              processing).

              .PAGE  lets you establish paper dimensions and page margins with
              a single macro.  The only required argument is page width.   The
              rest  are  optional, but they must appear in order and you can't
              skip over any.  <lm>, <rm>, <tm> and <bm>  refer  to  the  left,
              right, top and bottom margins respectively.

              Assuming  your  page  dimensions are 11 inches by 17 inches, and
              that's all you want to set, enter
                     .PAGE 11i 17i
              If you want to set the left margin as well, say, at 1 inch, PAGE
              would look like this:
                     .PAGE 11i 17i 1i

              Now  suppose  you also want to set the top margin, say, at 1-1/2
              inches.  <tm> comes after <rm> in the  optional  arguments,  but
              you can't skip over any arguments, therefore to set the top mar-
              gin, you must also give a right margin.  The .PAGE  macro  would
              look like this:
                     .PAGE 11i 17i 1i 1i 1.5i
                                      |   |
                     required right---+   +---top margin
                             margin

              Clearly,  .PAGE  is  best used when you want a convenient way to
              tell mom just the dimensions of your printer  sheet  (width  and
              length),  or when you want to tell her everything about the page
              (dimensions and all the margins), for example
                     .PAGE 8.5i 11i 45p 45p 45p 45p
              This sets up an 81/2 by 11 inch page with margins of  45  points
              (5/8-inch) all around.

              Additionally,  if  you  invoke .PAGE with a top margin argument,
              any macros you invoke after .PAGE will almost certainly move the
              baseline  of  the  first line of text down by one linespace.  To
              compensate, do
                     .RLD 1v
              immediately before entering any text, or, if it's feasible, make
              .PAGE the last macro you invoke prior to entering text.

              Please  read the Important note on page dimensions and papersize
              for information on ensuring groff respects your .PAGE dimensions
              and margins.

       .PAGELENGTH <length of printer sheet>
              tells  mom  how  long your printer sheet is.  It works just like
              .PAGEWIDTH.

              Therefore, to tell mom your printer sheet is 11 inches long, you
              enter
                     .PAGELENGTH 11i
              Please  read the important note on page dimensions and papersize
              for information on ensuring groff respects your PAGELENGTH.

       .PAGEWIDTH <width of printer sheet>

              The argument to .PAGEWIDTH is the width of your printer sheet.

              .PAGEWIDTH requires a unit of measure.   Decimal  fractions  are
              allowed.   Hence,  to  tell  mom  that the width of your printer
              sheet is 81/2 inches, you enter
                     .PAGEWIDTH 8.5i

              Please read the Important note on page dimensions and  papersize
              for information on ensuring groff respects your PAGEWIDTH.

       .PAPER <paper type>
              provides  a  convenient  way to set the page dimensions for some
              common printer sheet sizes.  The argument <paper  type>  can  be
              one  of:  LETTER,  LEGAL,  STATEMENT,  TABLOID,  LEDGER,  FOLIO,
              QUARTO, EXECUTIVE, 10x14, A3, A4, A5, B4, B5.

       .PRINTSTYLE

       .PT_SIZE <size of type in points>
              Point size of type, does not require a unit of measure.

              .PT_SIZE (Point Size) takes one argument: the size  of  type  in
              points.   Unlike  most  other  macros that establish the size or
              measure of something, .PT_SIZE does not require that you  supply
              a  unit  of  measure since it's a near universal convention that
              type size is measured in points.  Therefore, to change the  type
              size to, say, 11 points, enter
                     .PT_SIZE 11
              Point sizes may be fractional (e.g. 10.25 or 12.5).

              You  can  prepend  a  plus  or  a  minus sign to the argument to
              .PT_SIZE, in which case the point size will be changed by + or -
              the  original value.  For example, if the point size is 12 , and
              you want 14 , you can do
                     .PT_SIZE +2
              then later reset it to 12 with
                     .PT_SIZE -2
              The size of type can also be changed inline.

              Note: It is unfortunate that the pic  preprocessor  has  already
              taken the name, PS, and thus mom's macro for setting point sizes
              can't use it.  However, if you aren't using pic, you might  want
              to  alias  .PT_SIZE  as  .PS, since there'd be no conflict.  For
              example
                     .ALIAS PS PT_SIZE
              would allow you to set point sizes with .PS.

       .R_MARGIN <right margin>
              Right Margin

              Requires a unit of measure.

              IMPORTANT:  .R_MARGIN,  if  used,  must   come   after   .PAPER,
              .PAGEWIDTH,  .L_MARGIN,  and/or  .PAGE  (if a right margin isn't
              given to PAGE).  The reason is that  .R_MARGIN  calculates  line
              length from the overall page dimensions and the left margin.

              Obviously,  it can't make the calculation if it doesn't know the
              page width and the left margin.

              .R_MARGIN establishes the amount of space you want  between  the
              end  of  typeset  lines  and  the right hand edge of the printer
              sheet.  In other words, it  sets  the  line  length.   .R_MARGIN
              requires a unit of measure.  Decimal fractions are allowed.

              The  line  length  macro (LL) can be used in place of .R_MARGIN.
              In either case, the last one invoked sets the line length.   The
              choice of which to use is up to you.  In some instances, you may
              find it easier to think of a section of type as having  a  right
              margin.  In others, giving a line length may make more sense.

              For  example,  if  you're setting a page of type you know should
              have 6-pica margins left and right, it makes sense  to  enter  a
              left and right margin, like this:
                     .L_MARGIN 6P
                     .R_MARGIN 6P

              That  way,  you  don't  have to worry about calculating the line
              length.  On the other hand, if you know the line  length  for  a
              patch of type should be 17 picas and 3 points, entering the line
              length with LL is much easier than calculating the right margin,
              e.g.
                     .LL 17P+3p

              If  you use the macros .PAGE, .PAGEWIDTH or PAPER without invok-
              ing .R_MARGIN afterwards, mom automatically sets .R_MARGIN to  1
              inch.   If  you set a line length after these macros (with .LL),
              the line length calculated by .R_MARGIN is, of course,  overrid-
              den.

              Note:  .R_MARGIN  behaves in a special way when you're using the
              document processing macros.

       .ST <tab number> L | R | C | J [ QUAD ]

              After string tabs have been marked off on  an  input  line  (see
              \*[ST]...\*[STX]),  you need to set them by giving them a direc-
              tion and, optionally, the QUAD argument.

              In this respect, .ST is like .TAB_SET except that you don't have
              to  give  .ST  an  indent or a line length (that's already taken
              care of, inline, by \*[ST]...\*[STX]).

              If you want string tab 1 to be left, enter
                     .ST 1 L
              If you want it to be left and filled, enter
                     .ST 1 L QUAD
              If you want it to be justified, enter
                     .ST 1 J

       .TAB <tab number>
              After tabs have been defined (either with .TAB_SET or .ST), .TAB
              moves to whatever tab number you pass it as an argument.

              For example,
                     .TAB 3
              moves you to tab 3.

              Note:  .TAB  breaks  the  line preceding it and advances 1 line-
              space.  Hence,
                     .TAB 1
                     A line of text in tab 1.
                     .TAB 2
                     A line of text in tab 2.
              produces, on output
                     A line of text in tab 1.
                                                  A line of text in tab 2.

              If you want the tabs to line up, use .TN  (Tab  Next)  or,  more
              conveniently, the inline escape \*[TB+]:
                     .TAB 1
                     A line of text in tab 1.\*[TB+]
                     A line of text in tab 2.
              which produces
                     A line of text in tab 1.   A line of text in tab 2.

              If the text in your tabs runs to several lines, and you want the
              first lines of each tab to align, you must use the  multi-column
              macros.

              Additional  note:  Any  indents in effect prior to calling a tab
              are automatically turned off by TAB.  If you were  happily  zip-
              ping  down the page with a left indent of 2 picas turned on, and
              you call a tab whose indent from the left  margin  is  6  picas,
              your  new distance from the left margin will be 6 picas, not I 6
              picas plus the 2 pica indent.

              Tabs are not by nature columnar, which is to  say  that  if  the
              text  inside  a  tab  runs to several lines, calling another tab
              does not automatically move to the baseline of the first line in
              the previous tab.  To demonstrate:
                     TAB 1
                     Carrots
                     Potatoes
                     Broccoli
                     .TAB 2
                     $1.99/5 lbs
                     $0.25/lb
                     $0.99/bunch
              produces, on output
                     Carrots
                     Potatoes
                     Broccoli
                                 $1.99/5 lbs
                                 $0.25/lb
                                 $0.99/bunch

       .TB <tab number>
              Alias to .TAB

       .TI [ <measure> ]
              Temporary  left  indent -- the optional argument requires a unit
              of measure

              A temporary indent is one that applies only to the first line of
              text  that comes after it.  Its chief use is indenting the first
              line of paragraphs.  (Mom's .PP macro, for example, uses a  tem-
              porary indent.)

              The  first  time you invoke .TI, you must give it a measure.  If
              you want to indent the first line of a paragraph by, say, 2 ems,
              do
                     .TI 2m

              Subsequent  invocations  of  .TI  do not require you to supply a
              measure; mom keeps track of the last measure you gave it.

              Because temporary indents are temporary, there's no need to turn
              them off.

              IMPORTANT: Unlike .IL, .IR and IB, measures given to .TI are NOT
              additive.  In the following example,  the  second  ".TI  2P"  is
              exactly 2 picas.
                     .TI 1P
                     The beginning of a paragraph...
                     .TI 2P
                     The beginning of another paragraph...

       .TN    Tab Next

              Inline escape \*[TB+]

              TN  moves  over  to  the  next tab in numeric sequence (tab n+1)
              without advancing on the page.  See the NOTE in the  description
              of the .TAB macro for an example of how TN works.

              In  tabs that aren't given the QUAD argument when they're set up
              with .TAB_SET or ST, you must terminate the line  preceding  .TN
              with  the  \c inline escape.  Conversely, if you did give a QUAD
              argument to .TAB_SET or ST, the \c must not be used.

              If you find remembering whether to put in the \c bothersome, you
              may prefer to use the inline escape alternative to .TN, \*[TB+],
              which works consistently regardless of the fill mode.

              Note: You must put text in the input line immediately after .TN.
              Stacking of .TN's is not allowed.  In other words, you cannot do
                     .TAB 1
                     Some text\c
                     .TN
                     Some more text\c
                     .TN
                     .TN
                     Yet more text
              The above example, assuming tabs numbered from 1 to 4, should be
              entered
                     .TAB 1
                     Some text\c
                     .TN
                     Some more text\c
                     .TN
                     \&\c
                     .TN
                     Yet more text
              \& is a zero-width, non-printing character that groff recognizes
              as  valid input, hence meets the requirement for input text fol-
              lowing .TN.

       .TQ    TQ takes you out of whatever tab you were in, advances  1  line-
              space, and restores the left margin, line length, quad direction
              and fill mode that were in effect prior to invoking any tabs.

       .T_MARGIN <top margin>
              Top margin

              Requires a unit of measure

              .T_MARGIN establishes the distance from the top of  the  printer
              sheet  at which you want your type to start.  It requires a unit
              of measure, and decimal fractions are allowed.   To  set  a  top
              margin of 21/2 centimetres, you'd enter
                     .T_MARGIN 2.5c
              .T_MARGIN  calculates the vertical position of the first line of
              type on a page by treating the top edge of the printer sheet  as
              a baseline.  Therefore,
                     .T_MARGIN 1.5i
              puts  the baseline of the first line of type 11/2 inches beneath
              the top of the page.

              Note: .T_MARGIN means something slightly different  when  you're
              using  the  document processing macros.  See Top and bottom mar-
              gins in document processing for an explanation.

              IMPORTANT: .T_MARGIN does two things:  it  establishes  the  top
              margin  for  pages that come after it and it moves to that posi-
              tion on the current page.  Therefore, .T_MARGIN should  only  be
              used at the top of a file (prior to entering text) or after NEW-
              PAGE, like this:
                     .NEWPAGE
                     .T_MARGIN 6P
                     <text>


ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:


       +---------------+------------------+
       |ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE  |
       +---------------+------------------+
       |Availability   | text/groff       |
       +---------------+------------------+
       |Stability      | Uncommitted      |
       +---------------+------------------+
SEE ALSO
       groff(1), groff_mom(7),

       /usr/share/doc/groff-1.22.3/html/mom/toc.html
              - entry point to the HTML documentation

       <http://www.schaffter.ca/mom/momdoc/toc.html>
              - HTML documentation online

       <http://www.schaffter.ca/mom/>
              - the mom macros homepage

BUGS
       Please  send  bug  reports  to  the  groff-bug   mailing   list   <bug-
       groff@gnu.org> or directly to the authors.

COPYING
       Copyright (C) 2002-2014 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       This file is part of groff, a free software project.

       You  can  redistribute  it  and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU
       General Public License as published by the "Free Software  Foundation",
       either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
       with groff, see the files COPYING and LICENSE in the top  directory  of
       the groff Text source package.

       Or    read    the    manpage    gpl(1).     You    can    also    visit
       <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.

AUTHORS
       mom was written by Peter Schaffter <peter@schaffter.ca> and revised  by
       Werner Lemberg <wl@gnu.org>.

       PDF support was provided by Deri James <deri@chuzzlewit.demon.co.uk>.

       The  alphabetical documentation of macros and escape seqauences in this
       man-page were written by the mom team.



NOTES
       This    software    was    built    from    source     available     at
       https://github.com/oracle/solaris-userland.    The  original  community
       source                was                downloaded                from
       https://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/groff/groff-1.22.3.tar.gz

       Further information about this software can be found on the open source
       community website at https://www.gnu.org/software/groff.



Groff Version 1.22.3            4 November 2014                   GROFF_MOM(7)