Go to main content

man pages section 7: Standards, Environments, Macros, Character Sets, and Miscellany

Exit Print View

Updated: Thursday, June 13, 2019
 
 

groff_hdtbl (7)

Name

groff_hdtbl - groff `hdtbl' macros for generation of tables

Synopsis

Please see following description for synopsis

Description

Miscellaneous Information Manual                                GROFF_HDTBL(7)



NAME
       groff_hdtbl - groff `hdtbl' macros for generation of tables

DESCRIPTION
       The  hdtbl  macros consist of four base and three optional macros, con-
       trolled by about twenty arguments.  The syntax is simple and similar to
       the HTML table model and nearly as flexible: You can write sequences of
       tokens (macro calls with their arguments and content  data),  separated
       by  blanks  and  beginning with a macro call, into the same line to get
       compact and cleanly arrranged input.  An advantage of hdtbl is that the
       tables  are constructed without calling a preprocessor; this means that
       groff's full macro capabilities are available.  On the other hand,  ta-
       ble  processing  with  hdtbl  is much slower than using the tbl(1) pre-
       processor.  A further advantage is that the HTML-like syntax  of  hdtbl
       will be easily converted to HTML; this is not implemented yet.

USAGE
       In  this and the next section, we present examples to help users under-
       stand the basic workflow of hdtbl.  First of all,  you  must  load  the
       hdtbl.tmac  file.  As with nearly all other groff macro packages, there
       are two possibilities to do so: Either add the line

              .mso hdtbl.tmac

       to your roff file before using any macros of the hdtbl package, or  add
       the option

              -m hdtbl

       to  the  command line of groff (before the document file which contains
       hdtbl macros).  Then you can include on or more tables  in  your  docu-
       ment,  where  each one must be started and ended with the .TBL and .ETB
       macros, respectively.

       In this man page, we approximate the result of each example in the  tty
       format to be as generic as possible since hdtbl currently only supports
       the PS and PDF output devices.

       The simplest well-formed table consists of just  single  calls  to  the
       four  base  table macros in the right order.  Here we construct a table
       with only one cell.

              .TBL
              .TR
              .TD
              contents of the table cell
              .ETB

       A tty representation is

              +------------------------------------------------------+
              | contents-of-the-table-cell                           |
              +------------------------------------------------------+

       Equivalent to the above is the following notation.

              .TBL .TR .TD "contents of the table cell" .ETB

       By default, the formatted table is inserted into the  surrounding  text
       at  the  place  of  its definition.  If the vertical space isn't suffi-
       cient, it is placed at the top of the next page.  Tables  can  also  be
       stored for later insertion.

       Using `row-number*column-number' as the data for the table cells, a ta-
       ble with two rows and two columns can be written as

              .TBL cols=2
              .  TR .TD 1*1 .TD 1*2
              .  TR .TD 2*1 .TD 2*2
              .ETB

       A tty representation is

              +--------------------------+---------------------------+
              | 1*1                      | 1*2                       |
              +--------------------------+---------------------------+
              | 2*1                      | 2*2                       |
              +--------------------------+---------------------------+

       Here we see a difference to HTML tables: The number of columns must  be
       explicitly specified using the `cols=m' argument (or indirectly via the
       `width' argument, see below).

       The contents of a table cell is arbitrary; for example, it can  be  an-
       other  table,  without restriction to the nesting depth.  A given table
       layout can be either constructed with suitably nested  tables  or  with
       proper  arguments  to .TD and .TH, controlling column and row spanning.
       Note, however, that this table

              .TBL
              .  TR
              .    TD
              .      nop 1*1 1*2
              .  TR
              .    TD
              .      TBL cols=2 border=
              .        TR
              .          TD
              .            nop 2*1
              .          TD
              .            nop 2*2
              .      ETB
              .ETB

       and this table

              .TBL cols=2
              .  TR
              .    TD colspan=2
              .      nop 1*1 1*2
              .  TR
              .    TD
              .      nop 2*1
              .    TD
              .      nop 2*2
              .ETB

       are similar but not identical (the use of .nop is  purely  cosmetic  to
       get proper indentation).

       The first table looks like

              +------------------------------------------------------+
              | 1*1 1*2                                              |
              +------------------------------------------------------+
              |                                                      |
              | 2*1                         2*2                      |
              |                                                      |
              +------------------------------------------------------+

       and the second one like

              +------------------------------------------------------+
              | 1*1 1*2                                              |
              +---------------------------+--------------------------+
              | 2*1                       | 2*2                      |
              +---------------------------+--------------------------+

       Here the latter table in a more compact form.

              .TBL cols=2 .TR ".TD colspan=2" 1*1 1*2
              .            TR .TD 2*1 .TD 2*2 .ETB

       If  a macro has one or more arguments (see below), and it is not start-
       ing a line, everything belonging to this macro including the macro  it-
       self must be enclosed in double quotes.

MACROS AND ARGUMENTS
       The  order  of macro calls and other tokens follows the HTML model.  In
       the following list, valid predecessors  and  successors  of  all  hdtbl
       macros are given, together with the possible arguments.

       Macro arguments are separated by blanks.  The order of arguments is ar-
       bitrary; they are of the form

              key=value

       or

              key='value1 [value2 [...]]'

       with the only exception of the optional argument  of  the  macro  .ETB,
       which is the string `hold'.  Another possible form is

              "key=value1 [value2 [...]]"

       However,  this  is limited to the case where the macro is the first one
       in the line and not already enclosed in double quotes.

       Argument values specified below as c are colors predefined by groff  or
       colors  defined  by the user with the .defcolor request.  Argument val-
       ues d are decimal numbers with or without decimal point.  Argument val-
       ues m are natural numbers.  Argument values n are numerical values with
       the usual groff scaling indicators.  Some of the arguments are specific
       to one or two macros, but most of them can be specified with .TBL, .TR,
       .TD, and .TH.  These common arguments are explained in the next subsec-
       tion.

       Most  of the argument default values can be changed by the user by set-
       ting corresponding default registers or strings, as listed below.

       .TBL [args]
              Begin a new table.

              predecessor: .TD, .TH, .ETB, cell contents
              successor: .CPTN, .TR
              arguments:
                     border=[n]
                            Thickness   of   the   surrounding   box   border.
                            `border='  (no  value) means neither a surrounding
                            box border nor any horizontal or vertical  separa-
                            tor  lines  between  the  table  rows  and  cells.
                            `border=0' suppresses the surrounding box  border,
                            but still allows separator lines between cells and
                            rows.
                            Default: `border=.1n' (register `t*b').
                     bc=c   Border color.
                            Default: `bc=red4' (string `t*bc').
                     cols=m Number of table columns.  This argument is  neces-
                            sary  if  more than one column is in the table and
                            no `width' arguments are present.
                            Default: `cols=1' (register `t*cols').
                     cpd=n  Cell padding, i.e., the extra  space  between  the
                            cell space border and the cell contents.
                            Default: `cpd=.5n' (register `t*cpd').
                     csp=n  Cell  spacing,  i.e.,  the extra space between the
                            table border or vertical or horizontal  lines  be-
                            tween cells and the cellspace.
                            Default: `csp=.5n' (register `t*csp').
                     tal=l|c|r
                            Horizontal alignment of the table, if it is small-
                            er than the line width.  `tal=l': left  alignment.
                            `tal=c':   centered   alignment.   `tal=r':  right
                            alignment.
                            Default: `tal=l' (register `t*tal').
                     width='w1 [w2 [...]]'
                            Widths of table cells.  w1,  w2,  ...  are  either
                            numbers  of  type  n  or  natural numbers with the
                            pseudo-scaling indicator  `%',  with  the  meaning
                            "percent  of  the  actual  line  length (or column
                            length for inner tables, respectively)".  If there
                            are less width values than table columns, the last
                            width value is used for the remaining cells.   The
                            argument

                                   width='1.5i 10%'

                            for  example  indicates  that  the first column is
                            1.5 inches wide; the remaining columns  take  1/10
                            of the column length each.
                            Default:  The  table  width  equals the outer line
                            length or column length; the  columns  have  equal
                            widths.
                     height=n
                            Height  of  the table.  If the table with its con-
                            tents is lower than n, the last row  is  stretched
                            to this value.

       .CPTN [args]
              Text of caption.

              The (optionally numbered) table caption.  .CPTN is optional.

              predecessor: .TBL
              successor: .TR
              arguments:
                     val=t|b
                            Vertical alignment of the table caption.  `val=t':
                            The caption is placed above the  table.   `val=b':
                            The caption is placed below the table.
                            Default: `val=t' (string `t*cptn').

       .TR [args]
              Begin a new table row.

              predecessor: .TBL, .CPTN, .TD, .TH, .ETB, cell contents
              successor: .TD, .TH
              arguments:
                     height=n
                            The  height  of  the row.  If a cell in the row is
                            higher than n this value is ignored; otherwise the
                            row height is stretched to n.

       .TD [args [cell contents]]
              Begin a table data cell.
       .TH [args [cell contents]]
              Begin a table header cell.

              Arguments  and cell contents can be mixed.  The macro .TH is not
              really necessary and differs from .TD only in three default set-
              tings,  similar  to the <TH> and <TD> HTML tags: The contents of
              .TH is horizontally and vertically centered and typeset in bold-
              face.

              predecessor: .TR, .TD, .TH, .ETB, cell contents
              successor: .TD, .TH, .TR, .ETB, cell contents
              arguments:
                     colspan=m
                            The width of this cell is the sum of the widths of
                            the m cells above and below this row.
                     rowspan=m
                            The height of this cell is the sum of the  heights
                            of the m cells left and right of this column.

                            Remark: Overlapping of column and row spanning, as
                            in the following table fragment  (the  overlapping
                            happens  in the second cell in the second row), is
                            invalid and causes incorrect results.

                                   .TR .TD 1*1 ".TD 1*2 rowspan=2" .TD 1*3
                                   .TR ".TD 2*1 colspan=2"         .TD 2*3

                     A working example for headers and cells with colspan is

                            .TBL cols=3
                            .  TR ".TH colspan=2" header1+2 .TH header3
                            .  TR .TD 1*1 .TD 1*2 .TD 1*3
                            .  TR .TD 2*1 ".TD colspan=2" 2*2+3
                            .ETB

                     This looks like

                            +------------------------------+---------------+
                            |          header1+2           |    header3    |
                            +--------------+---------------+---------------+
                            | 1*1          | 1*2           | 1*3           |
                            +--------------+---------------+---------------+
                            | 2*1          | 2*2+3                         |
                            +--------------+-------------------------------+

                     A working example with rowspan is

                            .TBL cols=3
                            .  TR
                            .  TD 1*1
                            .  TD rowspan=2 1+2*2
                            .  TD 1*3
                            .
                            .  TR
                            .  TD 2*1
                            .  TD 2*3
                            .ETB

                     which looks like

                            +--------------+---------------+---------------+
                            | 1*1          | 1+2*2         | 1*3           |
                            +--------------+               +---------------+
                            | 2*1          |               | 2*3           |
                            +--------------+---------------+---------------+

       .ETB [hold]
              End of the table.

              This macro finishes a table.  It causes one of the following ac-
              tions.

              o  If  the  argument `hold' is given, the table is held until it
                 is freed by calling the macro .t*free, which in  turn  prints
                 the  table  immediately, either at the current position or at
                 the top of the next page if its height is larger than the re-
                 maining space on the page.

              o  Otherwise, if the table is higher than the remaining space on
                 the page, it is printed at the top of the next page.

              o  If none of the two  above  constraints  hold,  the  table  is
                 printed immediately at the place of its definition.

              predecessor: .TD, .TH, .ETB, cell contents
              successor: .TBL, .TR, .TD, .TH, .ETB, cell contents
              arguments:
                     hold   Prevent  the  table from being printed until it is
                            freed by calling the macro .t*free.  This argument
                            is ignored for inner (nested) tables.

       .t*free [n]
              Free  the  next  held table or n held tables.  Call this utility
              macro to print tables which are held by using the  `hold'  argu-
              ment of the .ETB macro.

   Arguments common to .TBL, .TR, .TD, and .TH
       The  arguments described in this section can be specified with the .TBL
       and .TR macros, but they are eventually passed on to the  table  cells.
       If  omitted, the defaults take place, which the user can change by set-
       ting the corresponding default registers or strings, as documented  be-
       low.   Setting  an  argument with the .TBL macro has the same effect as
       setting it for all rows in the table.  Setting an argument with  a  .TR
       macro has the same effect as setting it for all the .TH or .TD macro in
       this row.

       bgc=[c]
              The background color of the table cells.  This includes the area
              specified with the `csp' argument.  The argument `bgc=' (no val-
              ue) suppresses a background color;  this  makes  the  background
              transparent.
              Default: `bgc=bisque' (string `t*bgc').
       fgc=c  The foreground color of the cell contents.
              Default: `fgc=red4' (string `t*fgc').
       ff=name
              The  font  family  for the table.  name is one of the groff font
              families, for example A for the AvantGarde fonts or HN for  Hel-
              vetica-Narrow.
              Default: The font family found before the table (string `t*ff').
       fst=style
              The  font style for the table.  One of R, I, B, or BI for roman,
              bold, italic, or bold italic, respectively.  As with roff's  .ft
              request the `fst' argument can be used to specify the font fami-
              ly and font style together, for example  `fst=HNBI'  instead  of
              `ff=HN' and `fst=BI'.
              Default:  The  font  style in use right before the table (string
              `t*fst').
       fsz='d1 [d2]'
              A decimal or fractional factor d1, by which the point  size  for
              the table is changed, and d2, by which the vertical line spacing
              is changed.  If d2 is omitted, value d1 is taken for both.
              Default: `fsz='1.0 1.0'' (string `t*fsz').
       hal=l|c|b|r
              Horizontal  alignment  of  the  cell  contents  in  the   table.
              `hal=l': left alignment.  `hal=c': centered alignment.  `hal=b':
              both (left and right) alignment.  `hal=r': right alignment.
              Default: `hal=b' (string `t*hal').
       val=t|m|b
              Vertical alignment of the cell contents in the table  for  cells
              lower than the current row.  `val=t': alignment below the top of
              the cell.   `val=m':  alignment  in  the  middle  of  the  cell.
              `val=b': alignment above the cell bottom.
              Default: `val=t' (string `t*val').
       hl=[s|d]
              Horizontal  line between the rows.  If specified with .TD or .TH
              this is a separator line to the cell below.  `hl='  (no  value):
              no  separator line.  `hl=s': a single separator line between the
              rows.  `hl=d': a double separator line.

              The thickness of the separator lines is the half of  the  border
              thickness,  but  at  least 0.1 inches.  The distance between the
              double lines is equal to the line thickness.

              Remark: Together with `border=0' for proper formatting the value
              of  `csp' must be at least .05 inches for single separator lines
              and .15 inches for double separator lines.
              Default: `hl=s' (string `t*hl').
       vl=[s|d]
              Vertical separator line between the cells.   If  specified  with
              .TD  or  .TH  this is a separator line to the cell on the right.
              `vl=s': a single separator line between the  cells.   `vl=d':  a
              double separator line.  `vl=' (no value): no vertical cell sepa-
              rator lines.  For more information see the documentation of  the
              `hl' argument above.
              Default: `vl=s' (string `t*vl').

HDTBL CUSTOMIZATION
       Before creating the first table, you should configure default values to
       minimize the markup needed in each table.  The following  example  sets
       up defaults suitable for typical papers:

              .ds t*bgc white\" background color
              .ds t*fgc black\" foreground color
              .ds t*bc black\"  border color
              .nr t*cpd 0.1n\"  cell padding

       The  file  examples/common.roff  provides  another example setup in the
       ``minimal Page setup'' section.

       A table which does not fit on a partially filled page is printed  auto-
       matically  on the top of the next page if you append the little utility
       macro t*hm to the page header macro of your document's main macro pack-
       age.  For example, say

              .am pg@top
              .  t*hm
              ..

       if you use the ms macro package.

       The  macro  t*EM  checks  for  held or kept tables, and for missing ETB
       macros (table not closed).  You can append this macro  to  the  ``end''
       macro of your document's main macro package.  For example:

              .am pg@end-text
              .  t*EM
              ..

       If you use the ms macro package.

BUGS AND SUGGESTIONS
       Please send your commments to the groff mailing list <groff@gnu.org> or
       directly to the author.

COPYING
       Copyright (C) 2005-2014 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       This file is part of groff, the groff.

       Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify  this  document
       under  the  terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or
       any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;  with  the
       Invariant  Sections  being this .ig-section and AUTHORS, with no Front-
       Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover Texts.

       A copy of the Free Documentation License is included as a  file  called
       FDL in the main directory of the groff source package.

AUTHORS
       This      document     was     written     by     Joachim     Walsdorff
       <Joachim.Walsdorff@urz.uni-heidelberg.de>.



ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:


       +---------------+------------------+
       |ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE  |
       +---------------+------------------+
       |Availability   | text/groff       |
       +---------------+------------------+
       |Stability      | Uncommitted      |
       +---------------+------------------+
NOTES
       This    software    was    built    from    source     available     at
       https://github.com/oracle/solaris-userland.    The  original  community
       source                was                downloaded                from
       https://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/groff/groff-1.22.3.tar.gz

       Further information about this software can be found on the open source
       community website at https://www.gnu.org/software/groff.



Groff Version 1.22.3            4 November 2014                 GROFF_HDTBL(7)