Go to main content

man pages section 7: Standards, Environments, Macros, Character Sets, and Miscellany

Exit Print View

Updated: Wednesday, August 8, 2018
 
 

teclarc (7)

Name

teclarc - User interface provided by the tecla library.

Synopsis

Please see following description for synopsis

Description

Standards, Environments, and Macros                                   tecla(7)



NAME
       tecla, teclarc - User interface provided by the tecla library.

DESCRIPTION
       This  man  page  describes  the  command-line editing features that are
       available to users of programs that read keyboard input via  the  tecla
       library.  Users  of  the  tcsh shell will find the default key bindings
       very familiar. Users of the bash shell will also find it  quite  famil-
       iar,  but with a few minor differences, most notably in how forward and
       backward searches through the list  of  historical  commands  are  per-
       formed.  There  are  two  major  editing modes, one with emacs-like key
       bindings and another with vi-like key bindings. By default  emacs  mode
       is enabled, but vi(1) mode can alternatively be selected via the user's
       configuration file. This file can also be used to change  the  bindings
       of individual keys to suit the user's preferences. By default, tab com-
       pletion is provided. If the application  hasn't  reconfigured  this  to
       complete  other  types  of  symbols, then tab completion completes file
       names.

   Key Sequence Notation
       In the rest of this man page,  and  also  in  all  tecla  configuration
       files, key sequences are expressed as follows.

       ^A or C-a    This is a 'CONTROL-A', entered by pressing the CONTROL key
                    at the same time as the 'A' key.


       \E or M-     In key sequences, both of these notations can  be  entered
                    either by pressing the ESCAPE key, then the following key,
                    or by pressing the META key at the same time as  the  fol-
                    lowing  key. Thus the key sequence M-p can be typed in two
                    ways, by pressing the ESCAPE  key,  followed  by  pressing
                    'P', or by pressing the META key at the same time as 'P'.


       up           This refers to the up-arrow key.


       down         This refers to the down-arrow key.


       left         This refers to the left-arrow key.


       right        This refers to the right-arrow key.


       a            This is just a normal 'A' key.


   The Tecla Configuration File
       By  default, tecla looks for a file called .teclarc in your home direc-
       tory (ie. ~/.teclarc). If it finds this file, it reads it, interpreting
       each  line  as  defining  a new key binding or an editing configuration
       option. Since the emacs key-bindings are installed by default,  if  you
       want to use the non-default vi editing mode, the most important item to
       go in this file is the following line:

         edit-mode vi



       This will re-configure the default bindings for vi-mode.  The  complete
       set of arguments that this command accepts are:

       vi       Install key bindings like those of the vi editor.


       emacs    Install  key  bindings like those of the emacs editor. This is
                the default.


       none     Use just the native line editing facilities  provided  by  the
                terminal driver.



       To  prevent the terminal bell from being rung, such as when an unrecog-
       nized control-sequence is typed, place the following line in  the  con-
       figuration file:

         nobeep



       An  example of a key binding line in the configuration file is the fol-
       lowing.

         bind M-[2~ insert-mode



       On many keyboards, the above key sequence is generated when one presses
       the  insert  key,  so with this key binding, one can toggle between the
       emacs-mode insert and overwrite modes by hitting  one  key.  One  could
       also  do  it by typing out the above sequence of characters one by one.
       As explained above, the M- part of this sequence can be typed either by
       pressing  the  ESCAPE  key before the following key, or by pressing the
       META key at the same time as the following key. Thus if you had set the
       above  key binding, and the insert key on your keyboard didn't generate
       the above key sequence, you could still type it in either of  the  fol-
       lowing 2 ways.

           1.     Hit  the  ESCAPE  key momentarily, then press '[', then '2',
                  then finally '~'.

           2.     Press the META key at the same time as pressing the '[' key,
                  then press '2', then '~'.


       If  you set a key binding for a key sequence that is already bound to a
       function, the new binding overrides the old one. If in the new  binding
       you  omit the name of the new function to bind to the key sequence, the
       original binding becomes undefined.


       Starting with versions of libtecla later than 1.3.3 it is now  possible
       to bind key sequences that begin with a printable character. Previously
       key sequences were required to start with a CONTROL or META character.


       Note that the special keywords "up", "down", "left", and "right"  refer
       to  the  arrow keys, and are thus not treated as key sequences. So, for
       example, to rebind the up and down arrow keys to use the history search
       mechanism  instead of the simple history recall method, you could place
       the following in your configuration file:

         bind up history-search-backwards
         bind down history-search-backwards



       To unbind an existing binding, you can do this with the bind command by
       omitting to name any action to rebind the key sequence to. For example,
       by not specifying an action function, the following command unbinds the
       default beginning-of-line action from the ^A key sequence:

         bind ^A



       If  you  create a ~/.teclarc configuration file, but it appears to have
       no effect on the program, check the documentation of the program to see
       if the author chose a different name for this file.

   Filename and Tilde Completion
       With  the  default key bindings, pressing the TAB key (aka. ^I) results
       in tecla attempting to complete the incomplete file name that  precedes
       the  cursor.  Tecla searches backwards from the cursor, looking for the
       start of the file name, stopping when it hits either  a  space  or  the
       start of the line. If more than one file has the specified prefix, then
       tecla completes the file name up to the point at  which  the  ambiguous
       matches start to differ, then lists the possible matches.


       In  addition  to literally written file names, tecla can complete files
       that start with ~/ and ~user/  expressions  and  that  contain  $envvar
       expressions.  In particular, if you hit TAB within an incomplete ~user,
       expression, tecla will attempt to complete the  username,  listing  any
       ambiguous matches.


       The  completion  binding  is  implemented using the cpl_complete_word()
       function, which is also available separately to users of this  library.
       See the cpl_complete_word(3TECLA) man page for more details.

   Filename Expansion
       With  the default key bindings, pressing ^X* causes tecla to expand the
       file name that precedes the cursor, replacing ~/ and ~user/ expressions
       with  the corresponding home directories, and replacing $envvar expres-
       sions with the value of the specified  environment  variable,  then  if
       there are any wildcards, replacing the so far expanded file name with a
       space-separated list of the files which match the wild cards.


       The expansion binding is implemented using the  ef_expand_file()  func-
       tion. See the ef_expand_file(3TECLA) man page for more details.

   Recalling Previously Typed Lines
       Every  time that a new line is entered by the user, it is appended to a
       list of historical input lines maintained within the  GetLine  resource
       object.  You  can  traverse up and down this list using the up and down
       arrow keys. Alternatively, you can do the same  with  the  ^P,  and  ^N
       keys,  and  in  vi  command  mode you can alternatively use the k and j
       characters. Thus pressing up-arrow once,  replaces  the  current  input
       line  with  the  previously  entered  line.  Pressing  up-arrow  again,
       replaces this with the line that was entered before  it,  etc..  Having
       gone  back  one  or more lines into the history list, one can return to
       newer lines by pressing down-arrow one or more times. If  you  do  this
       sufficient  times,  you  will return to the original line that you were
       entering when you first hit up-arrow.


       Note that in vi mode, all of the history recall  functions  switch  the
       library into command mode.


       In  emacs  mode the M-p and M-n keys work just like the ^P and ^N keys,
       except that they skip all but those historical lines  which  share  the
       prefix  that precedes the cursor. In vi command mode the upper case 'K'
       and 'J' characters do the same thing, except that the string that  they
       search for includes the character under the cursor as well as what pre-
       cedes it.


       Thus for example, suppose that you were in emacs mode, and you had just
       entered the following list of commands in the order shown:

         ls ~/tecla/
         cd ~/tecla
         ls -l getline.c
         emacs ~/tecla/getline.c



       If you next typed:

         ls



       and then hit M-p, then rather than returning the previously typed emacs
       line, which doesn't start with "ls", tecla would recall the "ls -l get-
       line.c" line. Pressing M-p again would recall the "ls ~/tecla/" line.


       Note that if the string that you are searching for, contains any of the
       special characters, *, ?, or '[', then it is interpreted as  a  pattern
       to be matched. Thus, continuing with the above example, after typing in
       the list of commands shown, if you then typed:

         *tecla*



       and hit M-p, then the "emacs ~/tecla/getline.c" line would be  recalled
       first,  since  it  contains the word tecla somewhere in the line, Simi-
       larly, hitting M-p again, would recall the "ls ~/tecla/" line, and hit-
       ting it once more would recall the "ls ~/tecla/" line. The pattern syn-
       tax is the same as that described  for  file  name  expansion,  in  the
       ef_expand_file(3TECLA).

   History Files
       Authors  of programs that use the tecla library have the option of sav-
       ing historical command-lines in a file before exiting, and subsequently
       reading  them  back in from this file when the program is next started.
       There is no standard name for this file, since it makes sense for  each
       application  to use its own history file, so that commands from differ-
       ent applications don't get mixed up.

   International Character Sets
       Since libtecla version 1.4.0, tecla has been 8-bit  clean.  This  means
       that  all  8-bit  characters  that  are printable in the user's current
       locale are now displayed verbatim and included in  the  returned  input
       line.  Assuming that the calling program correctly contains a call like
       the following,

         setlocale(LC_CTYPE, "");



       then the current locale is determined by the first of  the  environment
       variables  LC_CTYPE, LC_ALL, and LANG, that is found to contain a valid
       locale name. If none of these variables are  defined,  or  the  program
       neglects to call setlocale, then the default C locale is used, which is
       US 7-bit ASCII. On most unix-like platforms, you  can  get  a  list  of
       valid locales by typing the command:

         locale -a



       at the shell prompt.

   Meta Keys and Locales
       Beware that in most locales other than the default C locale, META char-
       acters become printable, and they are  then  no  longer  considered  to
       match  M-c  style key bindings. This allows international characters to
       be entered with the compose key without  unexpectedly  triggering  META
       key bindings. You can still invoke META bindings, since there are actu-
       ally two ways to do this. For example  the  binding  M-c  can  also  be
       invoked  by  pressing  the  ESCAPE key momentarily, then pressing the c
       key, and this will work regardless of  locale.  Moreover,  many  modern
       terminal  emulators, such as gnome's gnome-terminal's and KDE's konsole
       terminals, already generate escape pairs like this  when  you  use  the
       META  key,  rather than a real meta character, and other emulators usu-
       ally have a way to request this behavior, so you can  continue  to  use
       the META key on most systems.


       For example, although xterm terminal emulators generate real 8-bit meta
       characters by default when you use the META key, they can be configured
       to  output  the equivalent escape pair by setting their EightBitInput X
       resource to False. You can either do this by placing a  line  like  the
       following in your ~/.Xdefaults file,

         XTerm*EightBitInput: False



       or  by  starting an xterm with an -xrm '*EightBitInput: False' command-
       line argument. In recent versions of xterm you can toggle this  feature
       on and off with the 'Meta Sends Escape' option in the menu that is dis-
       played when you press the left mouse button and the CONTROL key  within
       an  xterm  window. In CDE, dtterms can be similarly coerced to generate
       escape pairs in place of meta characters, by setting the Dtterm*KshMode
       resource to True.

   Entering International Characters
       If  you  don't  have a keyboard that generates all of the international
       characters that you need, there is usually  a  compose  key  that  will
       allow  you  to  enter  special  characters, or a way to create one. For
       example, under X windows on unix-like systems, if your keyboard doesn't
       have  a  compose  key,  you can designate a redundant key to serve this
       purpose with the xmodmap command. For example,  on  many  PC  keyboards
       there  is  a  microsoft-windows  key,  which is otherwise useless under
       Linux. On a laptop, for example, the  xev  program  might  report  that
       pressing  this  key generates keycode 115. To turn this key into a COM-
       POSE  key, do the following:

         xmodmap -e 'keycode 115 = Multi_key'



       Type this key followed by a " character to enter an 'I' with  a  umlaut
       over it.

   The Available Key Binding Functions
       The  following is a list of the editing functions provided by the tecla
       library. The names in the leftmost column of the list can  be  used  in
       configuration  files  to specify which function a given key or combina-
       tion of keys should invoke. They are also used in the next two sections
       to list the default key bindings in emacs and vi modes.

       user-interrupt                Send   a  SIGINT  signal  to  the  parent
                                     process.


       suspend                       Suspend the parent process.


       stop-output                   Pause terminal output.


       start-output                  Resume paused terminal output.


       literal-next                  Arrange for  the  next  character  to  be
                                     treated   as  a  normal  character.  This
                                     allows control characters to be entered.


       cursor-right                  Move the cursor one character right.


       cursor-left                   Move the cursor one character left.


       insert-mode                   Toggle between insert mode and  overwrite
                                     mode.


       beginning-of-line             Move  the  cursor to the beginning of the
                                     line.


       end-of-line                   Move the cursor to the end of the line.


       delete-line                   Delete the contents of the current line.


       kill-line                     Delete everything that follows  the  cur-
                                     sor.


       backward-kill-line            Delete  all characters between the cursor
                                     and the start of the line.


       forward-word                  Move to the end of the word which follows
                                     the cursor.


       forward-to-word               Move  the cursor to the start of the word
                                     that follows the cursor.


       backward-word                 Move to the start of the word which  pre-
                                     cedes the cursor.


       goto-column                   Move  the cursor to the 1-relative column
                                     in the line specified  by  any  preceding
                                     digit-argument  sequences  (see  Entering
                                     Repeat Counts below).


       find-parenthesis              If the cursor is currently over a  paren-
                                     thesis character, move it to the matching
                                     parenthesis  character.  If  not  over  a
                                     parenthesis  character  move right to the
                                     next close parenthesis.


       forward-delete-char           Delete the character under the cursor.


       backward-delete-char          Delete the character which  precedes  the
                                     cursor.


       list-or-eof                   This  is intended for binding to ^D. When
                                     invoked when the  cursor  is  within  the
                                     line it displays all possible completions
                                     then redisplays the line unchanged.  When
                                     invoked on an empty line, it signals end-
                                     of-input   (EOF)   to   the   caller   of
                                     gl_get_line().


       del-char-or-list-or-eof       This  is intended for binding to ^D. When
                                     invoked when the  cursor  is  within  the
                                     line it invokes forward-delete-char. When
                                     invoked at the end of the  line  it  dis-
                                     plays   all   possible  completions  then
                                     redisplays  the  line   unchanged.   When
                                     invoked on an empty line, it signals end-
                                     of-input   (EOF)   to   the   caller   of
                                     gl_get_line().


       forward-delete-word           Delete the word which follows the cursor.


       backward-delete-word          Delete  the  word which precedes the cur-
                                     sor.


       upcase-word                   Convert all of the characters of the word
                                     which follows the cursor, to upper case.


       downcase-word                 Convert all of the characters of the word
                                     which follows the cursor, to lower case.


       capitalize-word               Capitalize the  word  which  follows  the
                                     cursor.


       change-case                   If the next character is upper case, tog-
                                     gle it to lower case and vice versa.


       redisplay                     Redisplay the line.


       clear-screen                  Clear the terminal,  then  redisplay  the
                                     current line.


       transpose-chars               Swap  the character under the cursor with
                                     the character just before the cursor.


       set-mark                      Set a mark at the position of the cursor.


       exchange-point-and-mark       Move the cursor to the last mark that was
                                     set,  and move the mark to where the cur-
                                     sor used to be.


       kill-region                   Delete the characters  that  lie  between
                                     the  last mark that was set, and the cur-
                                     sor.


       copy-region-as-kill           Copy the text between the  mark  and  the
                                     cursor  to the cut buffer, without delet-
                                     ing the original text.


       yank                          Insert the text that  was  last  deleted,
                                     just  before  the current position of the
                                     cursor.


       append-yank                   Paste the current  contents  of  the  cut
                                     buffer, after the cursor.


       up-history                    Recall  the  next  oldest  line  that was
                                     entered. Note that in  vi  mode  you  are
                                     left in command mode.


       down-history                  Recall the next most recent line that was
                                     entered. If no history recall session  is
                                     currently  active,  the  next line from a
                                     previous recall session is recalled. Note
                                     that  in  vi mode you are left in command
                                     mode.


       history-search-backward       Recall the next oldest line who's  prefix
                                     matches  the  string which currently pre-
                                     cedes the cursor (in vi command-mode  the
                                     character   under   the  cursor  is  also
                                     included in the search string). Note that
                                     in vi mode you are left in command mode.


       history-search-forward        Recall  the next newest line who's prefix
                                     matches the string which  currently  pre-
                                     cedes  the cursor (in vi command-mode the
                                     character  under  the  cursor   is   also
                                     included in the search string). Note that
                                     in vi mode you are left in command mode.


       history-re-search-backward    Recall the next oldest line who's  prefix
                                     matches  that  established  by  the  last
                                     invocation of either  history-search-for-
                                     ward or history-search-backward.


       history-re-search-forward     Recall  the next newest line who's prefix
                                     matches  that  established  by  the  last
                                     invocation  of either history-search-for-
                                     ward or history-search-backward.


       complete-word                 Attempt to complete the  incomplete  word
                                     which  precedes  the  cursor.  Unless the
                                     host program has customized word  comple-
                                     tion,  file name completion is attempted.
                                     In vi command mode  the  character  under
                                     the  cursor  is also included in the word
                                     being completed, and you are left  in  vi
                                     insert mode.


       expand-filename               Within  the  command  line,  expand  wild
                                     cards,  tilde  expressions   and   dollar
                                     expressions  in the file name which imme-
                                     diately precedes the cursor. In  vi  com-
                                     mand  mode the character under the cursor
                                     is also included in the file  name  being
                                     expanded,  and  you are left in vi insert
                                     mode.


       list-glob                     List any file names which match the wild-
                                     card, tilde and dollar expressions in the
                                     file name which immediately precedes  the
                                     cursor,   then   redraw  the  input  line
                                     unchanged.


       list-history                  Display the contents of the history  list
                                     for  the  current  history  group.  If  a
                                     repeat count of > 1  is  specified,  only
                                     that  many  of  the most recent lines are
                                     displayed. See the Entering Repeat Counts
                                     section.


       read-from-file                Temporarily  switch to reading input from
                                     the file who's name precedes the cursor.


       read-init-files               Re-read teclarc configuration files.


       beginning-of-history          Move to the oldest line  in  the  history
                                     list.  Note  that in vi mode you are left
                                     in command mode.


       end-of-history                Move to the newest line  in  the  history
                                     list (ie. the current line). Note that in
                                     vi mode this leaves you in command mode.


       digit-argument                Enter a repeat count  for  the  next  key
                                     binding  function.  For  details, see the
                                     Entering Repeat Counts section.


       newline                       Terminate and return the current contents
                                     of  the  line,  after appending a newline
                                     character. The newline character is  nor-
                                     mally '\n', but will be the first charac-
                                     ter of the key sequence that invoked  the
                                     newline  action,  if this happens to be a
                                     printable character. If  the  action  was
                                     invoked  by the '\n' newline character or
                                     the '\r' carriage return  character,  the
                                     line is appended to the history buffer.


       repeat-history                Return  the  line  that  is being edited,
                                     then arrange for  the  next  most  recent
                                     entry   in   the  history  buffer  to  be
                                     recalled  when  tecla  is  next   called.
                                     Repeatedly  invoking  this  action causes
                                     successive historical input lines  to  be
                                     re-executed.  Note  that  this  action is
                                     equivalent to  the  'Operate'  action  in
                                     ksh.


       ring-bell                     Ring  the  terminal bell, unless the bell
                                     has been silenced via the nobeep configu-
                                     ration  option  (see The Tecla Configura-
                                     tion File section).


       forward-copy-char             Copy the next character into the cut buf-
                                     fer  (NB.  use repeat counts to copy more
                                     than one).


       backward-copy-char            Copy the previous character into the  cut
                                     buffer.


       forward-copy-word             Copy the next word into the cut buffer.


       backward-copy-word            Copy  the previous word into the cut buf-
                                     fer.


       forward-find-char             Move the cursor to the next occurrence of
                                     the next character that you type.


       backward-find-char            Move the cursor to the last occurrence of
                                     the next character that you type.


       forward-to-char               Move the cursor  to  the  character  just
                                     before  the  next  occurrence of the next
                                     character that the user types.


       backward-to-char              Move the cursor  to  the  character  just
                                     after the last occurrence before the cur-
                                     sor of the next character that  the  user
                                     types.


       repeat-find-char              Repeat  the last backward-find-char, for-
                                     ward-find-char, backward-to-char or  for-
                                     ward-to-char.


       invert-refind-char            Repeat  the last backward-find-char, for-
                                     ward-find-char, backward-to-char, or for-
                                     ward-to-char in the opposite direction.


       delete-to-column              Delete  the characters from the cursor up
                                     to the column that is  specified  by  the
                                     repeat count.


       delete-to-parenthesis         Delete  the characters from the cursor up
                                     to and including the  matching  parenthe-
                                     sis, or next close parenthesis.


       forward-delete-find           Delete  the characters from the cursor up
                                     to and including the following occurrence
                                     of the next character typed.


       backward-delete-find          Delete  the characters from the cursor up
                                     to and including the preceding occurrence
                                     of the next character typed.


       forward-delete-to             Delete  the characters from the cursor up
                                     to,  but  not  including,  the  following
                                     occurrence of the next character typed.


       backward-delete-to            Delete  the characters from the cursor up
                                     to,  but  not  including,  the  preceding
                                     occurrence of the next character typed.


       delete-refind                 Repeat    the   last   *-delete-find   or
                                     *-delete-to action.


       delete-invert-refind          Repeat   the   last   *-delete-find    or
                                     *-delete-to   action,   in  the  opposite
                                     direction.


       copy-to-column                Copy the characters from the cursor up to
                                     the  column  that  is  specified  by  the
                                     repeat count, into the cut buffer.


       copy-to-parenthesis           Copy the characters from the cursor up to
                                     and  including  the matching parenthesis,
                                     or next close parenthesis, into  the  cut
                                     buffer.


       forward-copy-find             Copy the characters from the cursor up to
                                     and including the following occurrence of
                                     the  next  character  typed, into the cut
                                     buffer.


       backward-copy-find            Copy the characters from the cursor up to
                                     and including the preceding occurrence of
                                     the next character typed,  into  the  cut
                                     buffer.


       forward-copy-to               Copy  the  characters  from the cursor up
                                     to,  but  not  including,  the  following
                                     occurrence  of  the next character typed,
                                     into the cut buffer.


       backward-copy-to              Copy the characters from  the  cursor  up
                                     to,  but  not  including,  the  preceding
                                     occurrence of the next  character  typed,
                                     into the cut buffer.


       copy-refind                   Repeat  the last *-copy-find or *-copy-to
                                     action.


       copy-invert-refind            Repeat the last *-copy-find or  *-copy-to
                                     action, in the opposite direction.


       vi-mode                       Switch to vi mode from emacs mode.


       emacs-mode                    Switch to emacs mode from vi mode.


       vi-insert                     From  vi  command  mode, switch to insert
                                     mode.


       vi-overwrite                  From vi command mode, switch to overwrite
                                     mode.


       vi-insert-at-bol              From  vi command mode, move the cursor to
                                     the start  of  the  line  and  switch  to
                                     insert mode.


       vi-append-at-eol              From  vi command mode, move the cursor to
                                     the end of the line and switch to  append
                                     mode.


       vi-append                     From vi command mode, move the cursor one
                                     position  right,  and  switch  to  insert
                                     mode.


       vi-replace-char               From vi command mode, replace the charac-
                                     ter under the cursor with the next  char-
                                     acter entered.


       vi-forward-change-char        From  vi  command  mode,  delete the next
                                     character then enter insert mode.


       vi-backward-change-char       From vi command mode, delete the  preced-
                                     ing character then enter insert mode.


       vi-forward-change-word        From  vi  command  mode,  delete the next
                                     word then enter insert mode.


       vi-backward-change-word       From vi command mode, delete the  preced-
                                     ing word then enter insert mode.


       vi-change-rest-of-line        From  vi  command  mode,  delete from the
                                     cursor to the end of the line, then enter
                                     insert mode.


       vi-change-line                From  vi command mode, delete the current
                                     line, then enter insert mode.


       vi-change-to-bol              From vi command mode, delete all  charac-
                                     ters between the cursor and the beginning
                                     of the line, then enter insert mode.


       vi-change-to-column           From vi command mode, delete the  charac-
                                     ters  from  the  cursor  up to the column
                                     that is specified by  the  repeat  count,
                                     then enter insert mode.


       vi-change-to-parenthesis      Delete  the characters from the cursor up
                                     to and including the  matching  parenthe-
                                     sis,  or  next  close  parenthesis,  then
                                     enter vi insert mode.


       vi-forward-change-find        From vi command mode, delete the  charac-
                                     ters  from the cursor up to and including
                                     the  following  occurrence  of  the  next
                                     character typed, then enter insert mode.


       vi-backward-change-find       From  vi command mode, delete the charac-
                                     ters from the cursor up to and  including
                                     the  preceding  occurrence  of  the  next
                                     character typed, then enter insert mode.


       vi-forward-change-to          From vi command mode, delete the  charac-
                                     ters  from  the  cursor  up  to,  but not
                                     including, the  following  occurrence  of
                                     the  next  character  typed,  then  enter
                                     insert mode.


       vi-backward-change-to         From vi command mode, delete the  charac-
                                     ters  from  the  cursor  up  to,  but not
                                     including, the  preceding  occurrence  of
                                     the  next  character  typed,  then  enter
                                     insert mode.


       vi-change-refind              Repeat  the  last   vi-*-change-find   or
                                     vi-*-change-to action.


       vi-change-invert-refind       Repeat   the   last  vi-*-change-find  or
                                     vi-*-change-to action,  in  the  opposite
                                     direction.


       vi-undo                       In  vi mode, undo the last editing opera-
                                     tion.


       vi-repeat-change              In vi command mode, repeat the last  com-
                                     mand that modified the line.


   Default Key Bindings In emacs Mode
       The  following  default  key  bindings,  which can be overridden by the
       tecla configuration file, are designed to mimic most of the bindings of
       the unix tcsh shell shell, when it is in emacs editing mode.


       This is the default editing mode of the tecla library.


       Under  UNIX  the terminal driver sets a number of special keys for cer-
       tain functions. The tecla library attempts to use the same key bindings
       to  maintain  consistency.  The key sequences shown for the following 6
       bindings are thus just examples of what they will probably be  set  to.
       If  you  have  used  the  stty  command  to change these keys, then the
       default bindings should match.

       ^C              user-interrupt


       ^<\literal>     abort


       ^Z              suspend


       ^Q              start-output


       ^S              stop-output


       ^V              literal-next



       The cursor keys are referred to by name, as follows. This is  necessary
       because  different  types of terminals generate different key sequences
       when their cursor keys are pressed.

       right    cursor-right


       left     cursor-left


       up       up-history


       down     down-history



       The remaining bindings don't depend on the terminal settings.

       ^F                   cursor-right


       ^B                   cursor-left


       M-i                  insert-mode


       ^A                   beginning-of-line


       ^E                   end-of-line


       ^U                   delete-line


       ^K                   kill-line


       M-f                  forward-word


       M-b                  backward-word


       ^D                   del-char-or-list-or-eof


       ^H                   backward-delete-char


       ^?                   backward-delete-char


       M-d                  forward-delete-word


       M-^H                 backward-delete-word


       M-^?                 backward-delete-word


       M-u                  upcase-word


       M-l                  downcase-word


       M-c                  capitalize-word


       ^R                   redisplay


       ^L                   clear-screen


       ^T                   transpose-chars


       ^@                   set-mark


       ^X^X                 exchange-point-and-mark


       ^W                   kill-region


       M-w                  copy-region-as-kill


       ^Y                   yank


       ^P                   up-history


       ^N                   down-history


       M-p                  history-search-backward


       M-n                  history-search-forward


       ^I                   complete-word


       ^X*                  expand-filename


       ^X^F                 read-from-file


       ^X^R                 read-init-files


       ^Xg                  list-glob


       ^Xh                  list-history


       M-<                  beginning-of-history


       M->                  end-of-history


       \n                   newline


       \r                   newline


       M-o                  repeat-history


       M-^V                 vi-mode


       M-0, M-1, ... M-9    digit-argument (see below)



       Note that ^I is what the TAB key generates, and that ^@ can  be  gener-
       ated not only by pressing the CONTROL key and the @ key simultaneously,
       but also by pressing the CONTROL key and the  space  bar  at  the  same
       time.

   Default Key Bindings in vi Mode
       The  following  default key bindings are designed to mimic the vi style
       of editing as closely as possible. This means  that  very  few  editing
       functions  are  provided  in  the initial character input mode, editing
       functions instead being provided by the vi command mode. The vi command
       mode is entered whenever the ESCAPE character is pressed, or whenever a
       key sequence that starts with a meta character is entered. In  addition
       to  mimicing  vi,  libtecla provides bindings for tab completion, wild-
       card expansion of file names, and historical line recall.


       To learn how to tell the tecla library to use vi mode  instead  of  the
       default  emacs editing mode, see the earlier section entitled The Tecla
       Configuration File.


       Under UNIX the terminal driver sets a number of special keys  for  cer-
       tain functions. The tecla library attempts to use the same key bindings
       to maintain consistency, binding them both in input mode and in command
       mode.  The  key  sequences  shown for the following 6 bindings are thus
       just examples of what they will probably be set to. If  you  have  used
       the stty command to change these keys, then the default bindings should
       match.

       ^C               user-interrupt


       ^\               abort


       ^Z               suspend


       ^Q               start-output


       ^S               stop-output


       ^V               literal-next


       M-^C             user-interrupt


       M-^\literal>     abort


       M-^Z             suspend


       M-^Q             start-output


       M-^S             stop-output



       Note that above, most of the bindings are defined twice, once as a  raw
       control  code  like  ^C and then a second time as a META character like
       M-^C. The former is the binding for vi input mode, whereas  the  latter
       is  the  binding  for  vi  command  mode.  Once in command mode all key
       sequences that the user types that they don't explicitly start with  an
       ESCAPE or a META key, have their first key secretly converted to a META
       character before the key sequence is looked up in the key  binding  ta-
       ble.  Thus, once in command mode, when you type the letter i, for exam-
       ple, the tecla library actually looks up the binding for M-i.


       The cursor keys are referred to by name, as follows. This is  necessary
       because  different  types of terminals generate different key sequences
       when their cursor keys are pressed.

       right    cursor-right


       left     cursor-left


       up       up-history


       down     down-history



       The cursor keys normally generate a key sequence  that  start  with  an
       ESCAPE character, so beware that using the arrow keys will put you into
       command mode (if you aren't already in command mode).


       The following are the terminal-independent key bindings  for  vi  input
       mode.

       ^D      list-or-eof


       ^G      list-glob


       ^H      backward-delete-char


       ^I      complete-word


       \r      newline


       \n      newline


       ^L      clear-screen


       ^N      down-history


       ^P      up-history


       ^R      redisplay


       ^U      backward-kill-line


       ^W      backward-delete-word


       ^X*     expand-filename


       ^X^F    read-from-file


       ^X^R    read-init-files


       ^?      backward-delete-char



       The following are the key bindings that are defined in vi command mode,
       this being specified by them all starting with  a  META  character.  As
       mentioned  above,  once  in  command mode the initial meta character is
       optional. For example, you might enter command mode by  typing  ESCAPE,
       and  then press 'H' twice to move the cursor two positions to the left.
       Both 'H' characters get quietly converted to M-h before being  compared
       to  the  key  binding table, the first one because ESCAPE followed by a
       character is always converted to the equivalent META character, and the
       second because command mode was already active.

       M-\                  cursor-right (META-space)


       M-$                  end-of-line


       M-*                  expand-filename


       M-+                  down-history


       M--                  up-history


       M-<                  beginning-of-history


       M->                  end-of-history


       M-^                  beginning-of-line


       M-                   repeat-find-char


       M-,                  invert-refind-char


       M-|                  goto-column


       M-~                  change-case


       M-.                  vi-repeat-change


       M-%                  find-parenthesis


       M-a                  vi-append


       M-A                  vi-append-at-eol


       M-b                  backward-word


       M-B                  backward-word


       M-C                  vi-change-rest-of-line


       M-cb                 vi-backward-change-word


       M-cB                 vi-backward-change-word


       M-cc                 vi-change-line


       M-ce                 vi-forward-change-word


       M-cE                 vi-forward-change-word


       M-cw                 vi-forward-change-word


       M-cW                 vi-forward-change-word


       M-cF                 vi-backward-change-find


       M-cf                 vi-forward-change-find


       M-cT                 vi-backward-change-to


       M-ct                 vi-forward-change-to


       M-c;                 vi-change-refind


       M-c,                 vi-change-invert-refind


       M-ch                 vi-backward-change-char


       M-c^H                vi-backward-change-char


       M-c^?                vi-backward-change-char


       M-cl                 vi-forward-change-char


       M-c\                 vi-forward-change-char (META-c-space)


       M-c^                 vi-change-to-bol


       M-c0                 vi-change-to-bol


       M-c$                 vi-change-rest-of-line


       M-c|                 vi-change-to-column


       M-c%                 vi-change-to-parenthesis


       M-dh                 backward-delete-char


       M-d^H                backward-delete-char


       M-d^?                backward-delete-char


       M-dl                 forward-delete-char


       M-d                  forward-delete-char (META-d-space)


       M-dd                 delete-line


       M-db                 backward-delete-word


       M-dB                 backward-delete-word


       M-de                 forward-delete-word


       M-dE                 forward-delete-word


       M-dw                 forward-delete-word


       M-dW                 forward-delete-word


       M-dF                 backward-delete-find


       M-df                 forward-delete-find


       M-dT                 backward-delete-to


       M-dt                 forward-delete-to


       M-d;                 delete-refind


       M-d,                 delete-invert-refind


       M-d^                 backward-kill-line


       M-d0                 backward-kill-line


       M-d$                 kill-line


       M-D                  kill-line


       M-d|                 delete-to-column


       M-d%                 delete-to-parenthesis


       M-e                  forward-word


       M-E                  forward-word


       M-f                  forward-find-char


       M-F                  backward-find-char


       M--                  up-history


       M-h                  cursor-left


       M-H                  beginning-of-history


       M-i                  vi-insert


       M-I                  vi-insert-at-bol


       M-j                  down-history


       M-J                  history-search-forward


       M-k                  up-history


       M-K                  history-search-backward


       M-l                  cursor-right


       M-L                  end-of-history


       M-n                  history-re-search-forward


       M-N                  history-re-search-backward


       M-p                  append-yank


       M-P                  yank


       M-r                  vi-replace-char


       M-R                  vi-overwrite


       M-s                  vi-forward-change-char


       M-S                  vi-change-line


       M-t                  forward-to-char


       M-T                  backward-to-char


       M-u                  vi-undo


       M-w                  forward-to-word


       M-W                  forward-to-word


       M-x                  forward-delete-char


       M-X                  backward-delete-char


       M-yh                 backward-copy-char


       M-y^H                backward-copy-char


       M-y^?                backward-copy-char


       M-yl                 forward-copy-char


       M-y\                 forward-copy-char (META-y-space)


       M-ye                 forward-copy-word


       M-yE                 forward-copy-word


       M-yw                 forward-copy-word


       M-yW                 forward-copy-word


       M-yb                 backward-copy-word


       M-yB                 backward-copy-word


       M-yf                 forward-copy-find


       M-yF                 backward-copy-find


       M-yt                 forward-copy-to


       M-yT                 backward-copy-to


       M-y;                 copy-refind


       M-y,                 copy-invert-refind


       M-y^                 copy-to-bol


       M-y0                 copy-to-bol


       M-y$                 copy-rest-of-line


       M-yy                 copy-line


       M-Y                  copy-line


       M-y|                 copy-to-column


       M-y%                 copy-to-parenthesis


       M-^E                 emacs-mode


       M-^H                 cursor-left


       M-^?                 cursor-left


       M-^L                 clear-screen


       M-^N                 down-history


       M-^P                 up-history


       M-^R                 redisplay


       M-^D                 list-or-eof


       M-^I                 complete-word


       M-\r                 newline


       M-\n                 newline


       M-^X^R               read-init-files


       M-^Xh                list-history


       M-0, M-1, ... M-9    digit-argument (see below)



       Note that ^I is what the TAB key generates.

   Entering Repeat Counts
       Many  of  the  key  binding  functions  described  previously,  take an
       optional count, typed in before the target key sequence. This is inter-
       preted  as  a repeat count by most bindings. A notable exception is the
       goto-column binding, which interprets the count as a column number.


       By default you can specify this count argument by pressing the META key
       while  typing  in  the numeric count. This relies on the digit-argument
       action being bound to 'META-0', 'META-1' etc. Once  any  one  of  these
       bindings  has  been  activated, you can optionally take your finger off
       the META key to type in the rest of the  number,  since  every  numeric
       digit  thereafter  is  treated as part of the number, unless it is pre-
       ceded by the literal-next binding. As soon as a non-digit,  or  literal
       digit  key  is pressed the repeat count is terminated and either causes
       the just typed character to be added to the line that  many  times,  or
       causes the next key binding function to be given that argument.


       For example, in emacs mode, typing:

         M-12a



       causes the letter 'a' to be added to the line 12 times, whereas

         M-4M-c



       Capitalizes the next 4 words.


       In  vi  command  mode  the  meta modifier is automatically added to all
       characters typed in, so to enter  a  count  in  vi  command-mode,  just
       involves typing in the number, just as it does in the vi editor itself.
       So for example, in vi command mode, typing:

         4w2x



       moves the cursor four words to the right, then deletes two characters.


       You can also bind digit-argument to other key sequences. If  these  end
       in  a  numeric  digit,  that  digit gets appended to the current repeat
       count. If it doesn't end in a numeric digit,  a  new  repeat  count  is
       started  with  a  value  of zero, and can be completed by typing in the
       number, after letting go of the key which triggered the  digit-argument
       action.

FILES
       /usr/lib/libtecla.so       The tecla library


       /usr/include/libtecla.h    The tecla header file


       ~/.teclarc                 The personal tecla customization file


ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:




       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |      ATTRIBUTE TYPE         |      ATTRIBUTE VALUE        |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Availability                 |library/libtecla             |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Interface Stability          |Committed                    |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+

SEE ALSO
       vi(1),        cpl_complete_word(3TECLA),        ef_expand_file(3TECLA),
       gl_get_line(3TECLA),        gl_io_mode(3TECLA),         libtecla(3LIB),
       pca_lookup_file(3TECLA), attributes(7)



Solaris 11.4                      31 Mar 2017                         tecla(7)