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man pages section 7: Standards, Environments, Macros, Character Sets, and Miscellany

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Updated: Thursday, June 13, 2019
 
 

groff_man (7)

Name

groff_man - groff man macros to support generation of man pages

Synopsis

groff -man [options ...] [files ...]
groff -m man [options ...] [files ...]

Description

Miscellaneous Information Manual                                  GROFF_MAN(7)



NAME
       groff_man - groff man macros to support generation of man pages

SYNOPSIS
       groff -man [options ...] [files ...]
       groff -m man [options ...] [files ...]

DESCRIPTION
       The  man  macros  used to generate man pages with groff were written by
       James Clark.  This document provides a brief summary of the use of each
       macro in that package.

OPTIONS
       The  man  macros  understand  the following command line options (which
       define various registers).

       -rcR=1 This option (the default if in nroff  mode)  creates  a  single,
              very long page instead of multiple pages.  Say -rcR=0 to disable
              it.

       -rC1   If more than one manual page is given on the command line,  num-
              ber the pages continuously, rather than starting each at 1.

       -rD1   Double-sided  printing.  Footers for even and odd pages are for-
              matted differently.

       -rFT=dist
              Set distance of the footer relative to the bottom of the page if
              negative  or  relative  to  the top if positive.  The default is
              -0.5i.

       -rHY=flags
              Set hyphenation flags.  Possible values are 1 to hyphenate with-
              out  restrictions,  2  to not hyphenate the last word on a page,
              4 to not hyphenate the last two characters of a word, and  8  to
              not  hyphenate the first two characters of a word.  These values
              are additive; the default is 14.

       -rIN=width
              Set body text indentation to  width.   The  default  is  7n  for
              nroff,  7.2n  for troff.  For nroff, this value should always be
              an integer multiple of unit `n' to get consistent indentation.

       -rLL=line-length
              Set line length.  If this option is not given, the  line  length
              is  set to respect any value set by a prior `.ll' request (which
              must be in effect when the `.TH' macro is invoked), if this dif-
              fers  from  the built-in default for the formatter; otherwise it
              defaults to 78n in nroff mode and 6.5i in troff mode.

              Note that the use of a `.ll'  request  to  initialize  the  line
              length  is  supported  for backward compatibility with some ver-
              sions of the man program; direct initialization of the `LL' reg-
              ister  should  always be preferred to the use of such a request.
              In particular, note that a `.ll 65n' request does  not  preserve
              the  normal nroff default line length, (the man default initial-
              ization to 78n prevails), whereas, the `-rLL=65n' option, or  an
              equivalent  `.nr LL 65n'  request  preceding the use of the `TH'
              macro, does set a line length of 65n.

       -rLT=title-length
              Set title length.  If this option is not given, the title length
              defaults to the line length.

       -rPnnn Enumeration of pages start with nnn rather than with 1.

       -rSxx  Base  document  font size is xx points (xx can be 10, 11, or 12)
              rather than 10 points.

       -rSN=width
              Set sub-subheading indentation to width.  The default is 3n.

       -rXnnn After page nnn, number pages as  nnna,  nnnb,  nnnc,  etc.   For
              example,  the option `-rX2' produces the following page numbers:
              1, 2, 2a, 2b, 2c, etc.

USAGE
       This section describes the available macros for manual pages.  For fur-
       ther  customization,  put  additional macros and requests into the file
       man.local, which is loaded immediately after the man package.

       .EX
       .EE    Example/End Example.  After .EX, filling  is  disabled  and  the
              font  is  set  to constant-width.  This is useful for formatting
              code, command, and configuration-file examples.   The  EE  macro
              restores filling and restores the previous font.

              These  macros are defined on many (but not all) legacy Unix sys-
              tems running classic troff.  To be certain  your  page  will  be
              portable  to  those  systems,  copy  their  definitions from the
              an-ext.tmac file of a groff installation.

       .HP [nnn]
              Set up a paragraph with hanging left indentation.  The  indenta-
              tion  is  set  to  nnn if that argument is supplied (the default
              unit is `n' if omitted), otherwise it is  set  to  the  previous
              indentation  value  specified  with  .TP, .IP, or .HP (or to the
              default value if none of them have been used  yet).   Font  size
              and  face  are reset to its default values.  The following para-
              graph illustrates the effect of this macro with hanging indenta-
              tion  set  to  4 (enclosed by .RS and .RE to set the left margin
              temporarily to the current indentation):

              This is a paragraph following an invocation of the HP macro.  As
                  you can see, it produces a paragraph where all lines but the
                  first are indented.

              Use of this presentation-level macro is deprecated.  While it is
              universally  portable to legacy Unix systems, a hanging indenta-
              tion cannot be expressed naturally under HTML,  and  many  HTML-
              based manual viewers simply interpret it as a starter for a nor-
              mal paragraph.  Thus, any information or distinction  you  tried
              to express with the indentation may be lost.

       .IP [designator] [nnn]
              Set  up an indented paragraph, using designator as a tag to mark
              its beginning.  The indentation is set to nnn if  that  argument
              is  supplied  (the default unit is `n' if omitted), otherwise it
              is set to the previous indentation  value  specified  with  .TP,
              .IP,  or  .HP (or to the default value if none of them have been
              used yet).  Font size and face of the  paragraph  (but  not  the
              designator) are reset to its default values.

              To start an indented paragraph with a particular indentation but
              without a designator, use `""' (two doublequotes) as the  second
              argument.

              For  example, the following paragraphs were all set up with bul-
              lets as the designator, using `.IP \(bu 4'.  The whole block has
              been  enclosed with .RS and .RE to set the left margin temporar-
              ily to the current indentation value.

              o   IP is one of the three macros used in  the  man  package  to
                  format lists.

              o   HP  is another.  This macro produces a paragraph with a left
                  hanging indentation.

              o   TP is another.  This macro produces an unindented label fol-
                  lowed by an indented paragraph.

       .LP
       .PP
       .P     These  macros  are  mutual  aliases.   Any of them causes a line
              break at the current position,  followed  by  a  vertical  space
              downwards  by  the  amount  specified by the PD macro.  The font
              size and shape are reset to the  default  value  (normally  10pt
              Roman).  Finally, the current left margin and the indentation is
              reset to the default values.

       .RE [nnn]
              This macro moves the left margin back to  level  nnn,  restoring
              the previous left margin.  If no argument is given, it moves one
              level back.  The first level (i.e., no call to .RS yet) has num-
              ber 1, and each call to .RS increases the level by 1.

       .RS [nnn]
              This  macro  moves the left margin to the right by the value nnn
              if specified (default unit is `n'); otherwise it is set  to  the
              previous  indentation  value specified with .TP, .IP, or .HP (or
              to the default value if none of them have been used  yet).   The
              indentation value is then set to the default.

              Calls to the RS macro can be nested.

       .SH [text for a heading]
              Set  up  an unnumbered section heading sticking out to the left.
              Prints out all the text following .SH up to the end of the  line
              (or  the  text in the next input line if there is no argument to
              .SH) in bold face (or the font specified by the string HF),  one
              size larger than the base document size.  Additionally, the left
              margin and the indentation for the following text  is  reset  to
              the default values.

       .SS [text for a heading]
              Set  up a secondary, unnumbered section heading.  Prints out all
              the text following .SS up to the end of the line (or the text in
              the next input line if there is no argument to .SS) in bold face
              (or the font specified by the string HF), at the  same  size  as
              the  base  document size.  Additionally, the left margin and the
              indentation for the following text is reset to the default  val-
              ues.

       .TH title section [extra1] [extra2] [extra3]
              Set  the  title of the man page to title and the section to sec-
              tion, which must take on a value between 1  and  8.   The  value
              section may also have a string appended, e.g. `.pm', to indicate
              a specific subsection of the man pages.  Both title and  section
              are  positioned  at  the left and right in the header line (with
              section in parentheses immediately appended to title.  extra1 is
              positioned  in  the  middle of the footer line.  extra2 is posi-
              tioned at the left in the footer line (or at the  left  on  even
              pages  and at the right on odd pages if double-sided printing is
              active).  extra3 is centered in the header line.

              For HTML output, headers and footers are completely suppressed.

              Additionally, this macro starts a new page; the new line  number
              is  1 again (except if the `-rC1' option is given on the command
              line) -- this feature is intended only for  formatting  multiple
              man pages; a single man page should contain exactly one TH macro
              at the beginning of the file.

       .TP [nnn]
              Set up an indented paragraph with label.  The indentation is set
              to  nnn if that argument is supplied (the default unit is `n' if
              omitted), otherwise it is set to the previous indentation  value
              specified with .TP, .IP, or .HP (or to the default value if none
              of them have been used yet).

              The first input line of text following this macro is interpreted
              as a string to be printed flush-left, as it is appropriate for a
              label.  It is not interpreted as part of a paragraph,  so  there
              is  no attempt to fill the first line with text from the follow-
              ing input lines.  Nevertheless, if the label is not as  wide  as
              the  indentation  the  paragraph  starts  at  the same line (but
              indented), continuing on the following lines.  If the  label  is
              wider than the indentation the descriptive part of the paragraph
              begins on the line following the label, entirely indented.  Note
              that  neither  font shape nor font size of the label is set to a
              default value; on the other hand,  the  rest  of  the  text  has
              default font settings.

              The TP macro is the macro used for the explanations you are just
              reading.

       .TQ    The TQ macro sets up header continuation for a TP  macro.   With
              it,  you  can  stack up any number of labels (such as in a glos-
              sary, or list of commands) before beginning the  indented  para-
              graph.  For an example, look up the documentation of the LP, PP,
              and P macros.

              This macro is not defined on legacy Unix systems running classic
              troff.   To  be certain your page will be portable to those sys-
              tems, copy its definition from the an-ext.tmac file of  a  groff
              installation.

       To  summarize,  the following macros cause a line break with the inser-
       tion of vertical space (which amount can be changed with the PD macro):
       SH,  SS, TP, TQ, LP (PP, P), IP, and HP.  The macros RS, RE, EX, and EE
       also cause a break but no insertion of vertical space.

MACROS TO SET FONTS
       The standard font is Roman; the default text size is 10 point.

       .B [text]
              Causes text to appear in bold face.  If no text  is  present  on
              the  line  where  the macro is called the text of the next input
              line appears in bold face.

       .BI text
              Causes text on the same line to appear alternately in bold  face
              and  italic.   The  text  must  be on the same line as the macro
              call.  Thus

                     .BI this "word and" that

              would cause `this' and `that' to  appear  in  bold  face,  while
              `word and' appears in italics.

       .BR text
              Causes  text on the same line to appear alternately in bold face
              and roman.  The text must be on the same line as the macro call.

       .I [text]
              Causes text to appear in italic.  If no text is present  on  the
              line  where  the macro is called the text of the next input line
              appears in italic.

       .IB text
              Causes text to appear alternately in italic and bold face.   The
              text must be on the same line as the macro call.

       .IR text
              Causes text on the same line to appear alternately in italic and
              roman.  The text must be on the same line as the macro call.

       .RB text
              Causes text on the same line to appear alternately in roman  and
              bold face.  The text must be on the same line as the macro call.

       .RI text
              Causes  text on the same line to appear alternately in roman and
              italic.  The text must be on the same line as the macro call.

       .SB [text]
              Causes the text on the same line or the text on the  next  input
              line to appear in boldface font, one point size smaller than the
              default font.

       .SM [text]
              Causes the text on the same line or the text on the  next  input
              line to appear in a font that is one point size smaller than the
              default font.

MACROS TO DESCRIBE HYPERLINKS AND EMAIL ADDRESSES
       The following macros are not defined on  legacy  Unix  systems  running
       classic  troff.  To be certain your page will be portable to those sys-
       tems, copy their definitions from  the  an-ext.tmac  file  of  a  groff
       installation.

       Using  these macros helps ensure that you get hyperlinks when your man-
       ual page is rendered in a browser or other program that is Web-enabled.

       .MT address
       .ME [punctuation]
              Wrap an email address.  The argument of .MT is the address; text
              following,  until  .ME,  is  a  name  to  be associated with the
              address.  Any argument to the ME macro is pasted to the  end  of
              the link text.  On a device that is not a browser,

                     contact
                     .MT fred.foonly@\:fubar.net
                     Fred Foonly
                     .ME
                     for more information

              usually  displays  like this: "contact Fred Foonly <fred.foonly@
              fubar.net> for more information".

              The use of \: to insert hyphenless breakpoints is a groff exten-
              sion and can be omitted.

       .UR URL
       .UE [punctuation]
              Wrap  a  World  Wide  Web hyperlink.  The argument to .UR is the
              URL; thereafter, lines until .UE are collected and used  as  the
              link text.  Any argument to the UE macro is pasted to the end of
              the text.  On a device that is not a browser,

                     this is a link to
                     .UR http://\:randomsite.org/\:fubar
                     some random site
                     .UE ,
                     given as an example

              usually displays like this: "this is a link to some random  site
              <http://randomsite.org/fubar>, given as an example".

              The use of \: to insert hyphenless breakpoints is a groff exten-
              sion and can be omitted.

MACROS TO DESCRIBE COMMAND SYNOPSES
       The following macros are not defined on  legacy  Unix  systems  running
       classic  troff.  To be certain your page will be portable to those sys-
       tems, copy their definitions from  the  an-ext.tmac  file  of  a  groff
       installation.

       These macros are a convenience for authors.  They also assist automated
       translation tools and help browsers in recognizing command synopses and
       treating them differently from running text.

       .OP key value
              Describe  an  optional  command argument.  The arguments of this
              macro are set surrounded by option braces in the  default  Roman
              font;  the first argument is printed with a bold face, while the
              second argument is typeset as italic.

       .SY command
              Begin synopsis.  Takes a single argument, the name of a command.
              Text  following,  until  closed  by  .YS,  is set with a hanging
              indentation with the width of command plus a space.   This  pro-
              duces the traditional look of a Unix command synopsis.

       .YS    This  macro  restores normal indentation at the end of a command
              synopsis.

       Here is a real example:

              .SY groff
              .OP \-abcegiklpstzCEGNRSUVXZ
              .OP \-d cs
              .OP \-f fam
              .OP \-F dir
              .OP \-I dir
              .OP \-K arg
              .OP \-L arg
              .OP \-m name
              .OP \-M dir
              .OP \-n num
              .OP \-o list
              .OP \-P arg
              .OP \-r cn
              .OP \-T dev
              .OP \-w name
              .OP \-W name
              .RI [ file
              .IR .\|.\|. ]
              .YS

       produces the following output:

              groff [-abcegiklpstzCEGNRSUVXZ] [-d cs] [-f fam] [-F dir]
                    [-I dir] [-K arg] [-L arg] [-m name] [-M dir] [-n num]
                    [-o list] [-P arg] [-r cn] [-T dev] [-w name] [-W name]
                    [file ...]

       If  necessary, you might use br requests to control line breaking.  You
       can insert plain text as well; this looks like the traditional (unorna-
       mented) syntax for a required command argument or filename.

MISCELLANEOUS
       The  default  indentation  is  7.2n  in troff mode and 7n in nroff mode
       except for grohtml, which ignores indentation.

       .AT [system [release]]
              Alter the footer for use with  AT&T  man  pages.   This  command
              exists only for compatibility; don't use it.  See the groff info
              manual for more.

       .BT    Print the footer string.  Redefine this macro to get control  of
              the footer.

       .DT    Set  tabs  every  0.5 inches.  Since this macro is always called
              during a TH macro, it makes sense to call it  only  if  the  tab
              positions have been changed.

              Use  of  this presentation-level macro is deprecated.  It trans-
              lates poorly to HTML, under which exact whitespace  control  and
              tabbing  are  not  readily available.  Thus, information or dis-
              tinctions that you use .DT to express are likely to be lost.  If
              you  feel  tempted to use it, you should probably be composing a
              table using tbl(1) markup instead.

       .PD [nnn]
              Adjust the empty space before a new paragraph or  section.   The
              optional  argument  gives  the  amount of space (default unit is
              `v'); without parameter, the value is reset to its default value
              (1 line in nroff mode, 0.4v otherwise).  This affects the macros
              SH, SS, TP, LP (resp. PP and P), IP, and HP.

              Use of this presentation-level macro is deprecated.   It  trans-
              lates  poorly  to HTML, under which exact control of inter-para-
              graph spacing is not readily available.   Thus,  information  or
              distinctions that you use .PD to express are likely to be lost.

       .PT    Print  the header string.  Redefine this macro to get control of
              the header.

       .UC [version]
              Alter the footer for use  with  BSD  man  pages.   This  command
              exists only for compatibility; don't use it.  See the groff info
              manual for more.

       The following strings are defined:

       \*R    The `registered' sign.

       \*S    Switch back to the default font size.

       \*(lq
       \*(rq  Left and right quote.  This is equal to `\(lq'  and  `\(rq\[cq],
              respectively.

       \*(HF  The  typeface  used  to  print  headings  and  subheadings.  The
              default is `B'.

       \*(Tm  The `trademark' sign.

       If a preprocessor like tbl or eqn is needed, it has  become  common  to
       make the first line of the man page look like this:

              '\" word

       Note  the single space character after the double quote.  word consists
       of letters for the needed preprocessors: `e' for eqn,  `r'  for  refer,
       and  `t'  for tbl.  Modern implementations of the man program read this
       first line and automatically call the right preprocessor(s).

PORTABILITY AND TROFF REQUESTS
       Since the man macros consist of groups of groff requests, one  can,  in
       principle, supplement the functionality of the man macros with individ-
       ual groff requests where necessary.  See the groff  info  pages  for  a
       complete reference of all requests.

       Note,  however,  that  using  raw troff requests is likely to make your
       page render poorly on the (increasingly common) class of  viewers  that
       render  it  to  HTML.   Troff  requests make implicit assumptions about
       things like character and page sizes that may break in an HTML environ-
       ment; also, many of these viewers don't interpret the full troff vocab-
       ulary, a problem that can lead to portions of your text being  silently
       dropped.

       For  portability  to  modern  viewers,  it  is  best to write your page
       entirely in the requests described on this page.  Further, it  is  best
       to  completely  avoid  those  we have described as `presentation-level'
       (.HP, .PD, and .DT).

       The macros we  have  described  as  extensions  (.EX/.EE,  .SY/.OP/.YS,
       .UR/.UE,  and .MT/.ME) should be used with caution, as they may not yet
       be built in to some viewer that is important to your audience.   If  in
       doubt, copy the implementation onto your page.

FILES
       man.tmac
       an.tmac
              These are wrapper files to call andoc.tmac.

       andoc.tmac
              Use  this  file in case you don't know whether the man macros or
              the mdoc package should be used.  Multiple man pages (in  either
              format) can be handled.

       an-old.tmac
              Most man macros are contained in this file.

       an-ext.tmac
              The extension macro definitions for .SY, .OP, .YS, .TQ, .EX/.EE,
              .UR/.UE, and .MT/.ME are contained in this file.  It is  written
              in  classic  troff,  and released for free re-use, and not copy-
              lefted; manual  page  authors  concerned  about  portability  to
              legacy  Unix  systems  are  encouraged to copy these definitions
              into their pages, and maintainers of troff or its workalikes are
              encouraged to re-use them.

              Note  that  the  definitions for these macros are read after the
              call of TH, so they will replace macros of the same names  given
              at the beginning of your file.  If you must use your own defini-
              tions for these macros, they must be given after calling TH.

       man.local
              Local changes and customizations should be put into this file.


ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:


       +---------------+------------------+
       |ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE  |
       +---------------+------------------+
       |Availability   | text/groff       |
       +---------------+------------------+
       |Stability      | Uncommitted      |
       +---------------+------------------+
SEE ALSO
       tbl(1), eqn(1), refer(1), man(1), man(7), groff_mdoc(7)

COPYING
       Copyright (C) 1999-2014 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this
       manual provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are
       preserved on all copies.

       Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this
       manual under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided that the
       entire resulting derived work is distributed under the terms of a per-
       mission notice identical to this one.

       Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this man-
       ual into another language, under the above conditions for modified ver-
       sions, except that this permission notice may be included in transla-
       tions approved by the Free Software Foundation instead of in the origi-
       nal English.

AUTHORS
       This manual page was originally written for the Debian GNU/Linux system
       by Susan G. Kleinmann <sgk@debian.org>.

       It was corrected and updated by Werner Lemberg <wl@gnu.org>.

       The extension macros were documented (and partly designed) by Eric S.
       Raymond <esr@thyrsus.com>; he also wrote the portability advice.



NOTES
       This software was built from source available at
       https://github.com/oracle/solaris-userland.  The original community
       source was downloaded from
       https://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/groff/groff-1.22.3.tar.gz

       Further information about this software can be found on the open source
       community website at https://www.gnu.org/software/groff.



Groff Version 1.22.3            4 November 2014                   GROFF_MAN(7)