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man pages section 7: Standards, Environments, Macros, Character Sets, and Miscellany

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Updated: Wednesday, July 27, 2022

X (7)


X - transparent window system


Please see following description for synopsis


Miscellaneous Information Manual                                          X(7)

       X - a portable, network-transparent window system

       The  X  Window System is a network transparent window system which runs
       on a wide range of computing and graphics machines.  It should be rela-
       tively straightforward to build the X.Org Foundation software distribu-
       tion on most ANSI C and POSIX compliant systems.  Commercial  implemen-
       tations are also available for a wide range of platforms.

       The  X.Org  Foundation  requests  that the following names be used when
       referring to this software:

                                   X Window System
                                    X Version 11
                             X Window System, Version 11

       X Window System is a trademark of The Open Group.

       X Window System servers run on computers  with  bitmap  displays.   The
       server distributes user input to and accepts output requests from vari-
       ous client programs through a variety of different interprocess  commu-
       nication  channels.   Although  the  most common case is for the client
       programs to be running on the same machine as the server,  clients  can
       be  run transparently from other machines (including machines with dif-
       ferent architectures and operating systems) as well.

       X supports overlapping hierarchical subwindows and  text  and  graphics
       operations, on both monochrome and color displays.  For a full explana-
       tion of the functions that are available, see the Xlib - C  Language  X
       Interface  manual,  the  X  Window System Protocol specification, the X
       Toolkit Intrinsics - C Language Interface manual, and  various  toolkit
       documents.   Those manuals, specifications, & documents may be found in
       /usr/share/doc   or   on    the    X.Org    Foundation    website    at

       The number of programs that use X is quite large.  Sample programs pro-
       vided by the X.Org Foundation include: a terminal  emulator,  xterm;  a
       window  manager,  twm;  a compositing manager, xcompmgr; a display man-
       ager, xdm; a console redirect program, xconsole; utilities for managing
       input and output devices, xinput and xrandr; resource listing/manipula-
       tion tools, appres, editres; access control programs, xauth, xhost, and
       iceauth;  user  preference  setting  programs,  transset, xrdb, xcmsdb,
       xset, xsetroot, xstdcmap, and xmodmap; clocks, xclock and oclock;  font
       display  utilities, xfd and xfontsel; utilities for listing information
       about displays, extensions, and resources, xdpyinfo, xdriinfo,  xvinfo,
       xwininfo, xlsclients, xprop, xlsatoms, xlsclients, and xlsfonts; screen
       image manipulation utilities, xwd, xwud, and xmag; a  performance  mea-
       surement utility, x11perf; a font compiler, bdftopcf; a font server and
       related utilities, xfs, xfsinfo, fslsfonts, fstobdf; a  display  server
       and  related  utilities,  Xserver, rgb, mkfontdir; a clipboard manager,
       xclipboard; keyboard description compiler and related  utilities,  xkb-
       comp,  setxkbmap  xkbprint,  xkbbell, xkbevd, xkbvleds, and xkbwatch; a
       utility to terminate clients, xkill; and a utility to cause part or all
       of the screen to be redrawn, xrefresh.

       Many, but not all, of these programs are included in Oracle Solaris.

       Many  other  utilities,  window  managers,  games,  toolkits,  etc. are
       included as packages in many operating  system  distributions,  or  are
       available on the Internet.  See your site administrator or distro pack-
       age manager for details.

       There are two main ways of getting the X server and an initial  set  of
       client  applications  started.   The  particular method used depends on
       what operating system you are running and whether or not you use  other
       window systems in addition to X.

       Display Manager
               The  default  configuration  of Oracle Solaris starts X at boot
               time via the gdm(8) display manager.   The xdm(1) display  man-
               ager is also provided as an option the system administrator can
               configure.  If you are running one of these  display  managers,
               you  will  normally see a window on the screen welcoming you to
               the system and asking for your login information.  Simply  type
               them  in as you would at a normal terminal.  If you make a mis-
               take, the display manager will display an error message and ask
               you  to  try again.  After you have successfully logged in, the
               display manager will start up your X environment.  The documen-
               tation  for  the  display  manager  you  use  can  provide more

       xinit (run manually from the shell)
               Sites that support more than one window system might choose  to
               use the xinit program for starting X manually.  If this is true
               for your machine, your site administrator  will  probably  have
               provided a program named "x11", "startx", or "xstart" that will
               do site-specific initialization  (such  as  loading  convenient
               default  resources,  running  a  window  manager,  displaying a
               clock, and starting several terminal emulators) in a nice  way.
               If  not,  you  can build such a script using the xinit program.
               This utility simply runs one user-specified  program  to  start
               the  server,  runs another to start up any desired clients, and
               then waits for either to finish.  Since either or both  of  the
               user-specified  programs may be a shell script, this gives sub-
               stantial flexibility at the expense of a nice  interface.   For
               this reason, xinit is not intended for end users.

       From  the  user's perspective, every X server has a display name of the


       This information is used by the application to determine how it  should
       connect  to  the  server  and which screen it should use by default (on
       displays with multiple monitors):

               The protocol specifies the protocol to use  for  communication.
               Exactly  which  protocols  are supported is platform dependent,
               but most commonly supported ones are:

               tcp     TCP over IPv4 or IPv6
               inet    TCP over IPv4 only
               inet6   TCP over IPv6 only
               unix    UNIX Domain Sockets (same host only)
               local   Platform preferred local connection method
               If the  protocol  is  not  specified,  Xlib  uses  whatever  it
               believes is the most efficient transport.

               The  hostname  specifies  the  name of the machine to which the
               display is physically connected.  If the hostname is not given,
               a connection to a server on the same machine will be used.

               The  phrase  "display" is usually used to refer to a collection
               of monitors that share a common set of input devices (keyboard,
               mouse,  tablet, etc.).  Most workstations tend to only have one
               display.  Larger, multi-user systems, however, frequently  have
               several  displays  so  that  more  than one person can be doing
               graphics work at once.  To avoid confusion, each display  on  a
               machine  is assigned a display number (beginning at 0) when the
               X server for that display is started.  The display number  must
               always be given in a display name.

               Some displays share their input devices among two or more moni-
               tors.  These may be configured  as  a  single  logical  screen,
               which  allows  windows to move across screens, or as individual
               screens, each with their own set  of  windows.   If  configured
               such  that each monitor has its own set of windows, each screen
               is assigned a screen number (beginning at 0) when the X  server
               for  that  display  is  started.   If  the screen number is not
               given, screen 0 will be used.

       On POSIX systems, the default display name is stored  in  your  DISPLAY
       environment  variable.  This variable is set automatically by the xterm
       terminal emulator.  However, when you log into  another  machine  on  a
       network,  you may need to set DISPLAY by hand to point to your display.
       For example,

           % setenv DISPLAY myws:0
           $ DISPLAY=myws:0; export DISPLAY

       The ssh program can be used to start an X program on a remote  machine;
       it automatically sets the DISPLAY variable correctly.

       Finally,  most X programs accept a command line option of -display dis-
       playname to temporarily override the contents of DISPLAY.  This is most
       commonly used to pop windows on another person's screen or as part of a
       "remote shell" command to start an xterm pointing back to your display.
       For example,

           % xeyes -display joesws:0 -geometry 1000x1000+0+0
           % rsh big xterm -display myws:0 -ls </dev/null &

       X  servers  listen for connections on a variety of different communica-
       tions channels (network byte  streams,  shared  memory,  etc.).   Since
       there  can be more than one way of contacting a given server, The host-
       name part of the display name is used to determine the type of  channel
       (also  called  a transport layer) to be used.  X servers generally sup-
       port the following types of connections:

               The hostname part of the  display  name  should  be  the  empty
               string.   For  example:   :0, :1, and :0.1.  The most efficient
               local transport will be chosen.

               The hostname part of the display  name  should  be  the  server
               machine's  hostname or IP address.  Full Internet names, abbre-
               viated names,  IPv4  addresses,  and  IPv6  addresses  are  all
               allowed.     For    example:    x.org:0,    expo:0,    [::1]:0,
     , bigmachine:1, and hydra:0.1.

       For operating systems that support local connections  other  than  Unix
       Domain  sockets (SVR3 and SVR4), there is a compiled-in list specifying
       the order in which local connections should be  attempted.   This  list
       can  be  overridden by the XLOCAL environment variable described below.
       If the display name indicates a best-choice connection should  be  made
       (e.g.   :0.0),  each  connection  mechanism is tried until a connection
       succeeds or no more mechanisms are available.

       The XLOCAL environment variable should contain a list of one more  more
       of the following:


       which  represent  SVR4  Named Streams pipe, Old-style USL Streams pipe,
       SCO XSight Streams pipe, and Unix domain  sockets,  respectively.   You
       can  select a single mechanism (e.g.  XLOCAL=NAMED), or an ordered list
       (e.g. XLOCAL="NAMED:PTS:SCO").  This variable overrides the compiled-in
       defaults.   For  SVR4 it is recommended that NAMED be the first prefer-
       ence connection.  The default setting is platform-dependent.

       To globally override the compiled-in defaults, you should  define  (and
       export  if  using  sh or ksh) XLOCAL globally.  If you use startx(1) or
       xinit(1), the definition should be at the top of  your  .xinitrc  file.
       If  you  use  xdm(1),  the  definitions  should  be  early  on  in  the
       /usr/lib/X11/xdm/Xsession script.

       An X server can use several types of access control.   Mechanisms  pro-
       vided in Release 7 are:

       Host Access           Simple host-based access control.
       MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1    Shared plain-text "cookies".
       XDM-AUTHORIZATION-1   Secure DES based private-keys.
       SUN-DES-1             Based on Sun's secure rpc system.
       Server Interpreted    Server-dependent methods of access control

       Xdm  initializes  access  control for the server and also places autho-
       rization information in a file accessible to the user.

       Normally, the list of hosts from which connections are always  accepted
       should  be  empty,  so that only clients with are explicitly authorized
       can connect to the display.  When you add  entries  to  the  host  list
       (with  xhost),  the server no longer performs any authorization on con-
       nections from those machines.  Be careful with this.

       The file from which Xlib extracts authorization data can  be  specified
       with  the  environment  variable  XAUTHORITY,  and defaults to the file
       .Xauthority in the home directory.  Xdm uses $HOME/.Xauthority and will
       create it or merge in authorization records if it already exists when a
       user logs in.

       If you use several machines and share a common  home  directory  across
       all of the machines by means of a network file system, you never really
       have to worry about authorization files, the system  should  work  cor-
       rectly  by default.  Otherwise, as the authorization files are machine-
       independent, you can simply copy the files to share  them.   To  manage
       authorization  files,  use  xauth.   This program allows you to extract
       records and insert them into other files.  Using  this,  you  can  send
       authorization  to remote machines when you login, if the remote machine
       does not share a common home directory with your local  machine.   Note
       that  authorization  information transmitted ``in the clear'' through a
       network file system or using ftp or rcp can be ``stolen'' by a  network
       eavesdropper,  and  as  such  may  enable unauthorized access.  In many
       environments, this level of security is not a concern, but  if  it  is,
       you  need  to  know the exact semantics of the particular authorization
       data to know if this is actually a problem.

       For more information on access control,  see  the  Xsecurity(7)  manual

       One of the advantages of using window systems instead of hardwired ter-
       minals is that applications don't have to be restricted to a particular
       size  or  location  on the screen.  Although the layout of windows on a
       display is controlled by the window manager that the  user  is  running
       (described  below),  most  X programs accept a command line argument of
       the form -geometry WIDTHxHEIGHT+XOFF+YOFF (where WIDTH,  HEIGHT,  XOFF,
       and  YOFF are numbers) for specifying a preferred size and location for
       this application's main window.

       The WIDTH and HEIGHT parts of the geometry  specification  are  usually
       measured  in either pixels or characters, depending on the application.
       The XOFF and YOFF parts are measured in pixels and are used to  specify
       the  distance  of  the window from the left or right and top and bottom
       edges of the screen, respectively.  Both types of offsets are  measured
       from  the indicated edge of the screen to the corresponding edge of the
       window.  The X offset may be specified in the following ways:

       +XOFF   The left edge of the window is to be placed XOFF pixels in from
               the left edge of the screen (i.e., the X coordinate of the win-
               dow's origin will be XOFF).  XOFF may  be  negative,  in  which
               case the window's left edge will be off the screen.

       -XOFF   The  right  edge  of  the window is to be placed XOFF pixels in
               from the right edge of the screen.  XOFF may  be  negative,  in
               which case the window's right edge will be off the screen.

       The Y offset has similar meanings:

       +YOFF   The  top  edge of the window is to be YOFF pixels below the top
               edge of the screen (i.e., the Y coordinate of the window's ori-
               gin  will  be  YOFF).   YOFF may be negative, in which case the
               window's top edge will be off the screen.

       -YOFF   The bottom edge of the window is to be YOFF  pixels  above  the
               bottom edge of the screen.  YOFF may be negative, in which case
               the window's bottom edge will be off the screen.

       Offsets must be given as pairs; in other words,  in  order  to  specify
       either XOFF or YOFF both must be present.  Windows can be placed in the
       four corners of the screen using the following specifications:

       +0+0    upper left hand corner.

       -0+0    upper right hand corner.

       -0-0    lower right hand corner.

       +0-0    lower left hand corner.

       In the following examples, a terminal emulator is placed in roughly the
       center of the screen and a load average monitor, mailbox, and clock are
       placed in the upper right hand corner:

           xterm -fn 6x10 -geometry 80x24+30+200 &
           xclock -geometry 48x48-0+0 &
           xload -geometry 48x48-96+0 &
           xbiff -geometry 48x48-48+0 &

       The layout of windows on the screen is controlled by  special  programs
       called window managers.  Although many window managers will honor geom-
       etry specifications as given, others may choose to ignore them (requir-
       ing  the user to explicitly draw the window's region on the screen with
       the pointer, for example).

       Since window managers are regular (albeit complex) client  programs,  a
       variety  of  different  user  interfaces  can be built.  Oracle Solaris
       includes several window managers, including the  GNOME  window  manager
       gnome-shell(1), and the X.Org classic window manager twm(1).

       Collections  of  characters  for  displaying  text and symbols in X are
       known as fonts.  A font typically contains images that share  a  common
       appearance  and  look  nice together (for example, a single size, bold-
       ness, slant, and character set).  Similarly, collections of fonts  that
       are  based  on  a  common  type face (the variations are usually called
       roman, bold, italic, bold italic, oblique, and bold oblique) are called

       Fonts  come  in  various  sizes.  The X server supports scalable fonts,
       meaning it is possible to create a font of arbitrary size from a single
       source  for  the  font.  The server supports scaling from outline fonts
       and bitmap fonts.  Scaling from outline fonts usually produces signifi-
       cantly better results than scaling from bitmap fonts.

       An  X  server can obtain fonts from individual files stored in directo-
       ries in the file system, or from one or more font servers,  or  from  a
       mixtures  of  directories  and  font  servers.   The list of places the
       server looks when trying to find a font is controlled by its font path.
       Although  most  installations  will  choose to have the server start up
       with all of the commonly used font directories in the  font  path,  the
       font  path  can be changed at any time with the xset program.  However,
       it is important to  remember  that  the  directory  names  are  on  the
       server's machine, not on the application's.

       Bitmap  font  files  are  usually  created  by compiling a textual font
       description into binary form, using bdftopcf.  Font databases are  cre-
       ated  by  running the mkfontdir program in the directory containing the
       source or compiled versions of the fonts.  Whenever fonts are added  to
       a  directory, mkfontdir should be rerun so that the server can find the
       new fonts.  To make the server reread the font database, reset the font
       path  with  the  xset program.  For example, to add a font to a private
       directory, the following commands could be used:

           % cp newfont.pcf ~/myfonts
           % mkfontdir ~/myfonts
           % xset fp rehash

       The xfontsel and xlsfonts programs can be used to  browse  through  the
       fonts available on a server.  Font names tend to be fairly long as they
       contain all of the information needed to uniquely  identify  individual
       fonts.   However,  the  X server supports wildcarding of font names, so
       the full specification


       might be abbreviated as:


       Because the shell also has special meanings for  *  and  ?,  wildcarded
       font names should be quoted:

           % xlsfonts -fn '-*-courier-medium-r-normal--*-100-*-*-*-*-*-*'

       The  xlsfonts program can be used to list all of the fonts that match a
       given pattern.  With no arguments, it lists all available fonts.   This
       will  usually  list the same font at many different sizes.  To see just
       the base scalable font names, try using one of the following patterns:


       To convert one of the resulting names into a font at a  specific  size,
       replace  one  of  the  first two zeros with a nonzero value.  The field
       containing the first zero is for the pixel size; replace it with a spe-
       cific height in pixels to name a font at that size.  Alternatively, the
       field containing the second zero is for the point size; replace it with
       a  specific size in decipoints (there are 722.7 decipoints to the inch)
       to name a font at that size.  The last zero is an average width  field,
       measured in tenths of pixels; some servers will anamorphically scale if
       this value is specified.

       One of the following forms can be used  to  name  a  font  server  that
       accepts TCP connections:


       The  hostname  specifies  the  name (or decimal numeric address) of the
       machine on which the font server is running.  The port is  the  decimal
       TCP  port  on  which the font server is listening for connections.  The
       cataloguelist specifies a list of catalogue names, with '+' as a  sepa-

       Examples: tcp/x.org:7100, tcp/

       Most  applications provide ways of tailoring (usually through resources
       or command line arguments) the colors of various elements in  the  text
       and  graphics  they  display.   A  color  can be specified either by an
       abstract color name, or by a numerical color specification.  The numer-
       ical  specification  can  identify  a  color in either device-dependent
       (RGB) or device-independent terms.  Color strings are case-insensitive.

       X supports the use of abstract color names, for example, "red", "blue".
       A  value  for  this  abstract name is obtained by searching one or more
       color name databases.  Xlib first searches  zero  or  more  client-side
       databases;  the  number,  location,  and  content of these databases is
       implementation dependent.  If the name  is  not  found,  the  color  is
       looked  up  in the X server's database.  The text form of this database
       is commonly stored in the file /usr/share/X11/rgb.txt.

       A numerical color specification consists of a color space  name  and  a
       set of values in the following syntax:


       An  RGB Device specification is identified by the prefix "rgb:" and has
       the following syntax:


               <red>, <green>, <blue> := h | hh | hhh | hhhh
               h := single hexadecimal digits

       Note that h indicates the value scaled in 4 bits, hh the  value  scaled
       in  8  bits, hhh the value scaled in 12 bits, and hhhh the value scaled
       in 16 bits, respectively.  These values are passed directly  to  the  X
       server, and are assumed to be gamma corrected.

       The eight primary colors can be represented as:

                            black     rgb:0/0/0
                            red       rgb:ffff/0/0
                            green     rgb:0/ffff/0
                            blue      rgb:0/0/ffff
                            yellow    rgb:ffff/ffff/0
                            magenta   rgb:ffff/0/ffff
                            cyan      rgb:0/ffff/ffff
                            white     rgb:ffff/ffff/ffff

       For  backward  compatibility,  an  older  syntax for RGB Device is sup-
       ported, but its continued use is not encouraged.  The syntax is an ini-
       tial  sharp  sign character followed by a numeric specification, in one
       of the following formats:

                           #RGB            (4 bits each)
                           #RRGGBB         (8 bits each)
                           #RRRGGGBBB      (12 bits each)
                           #RRRRGGGGBBBB   (16 bits each)

       The R, G, and B represent single hexadecimal digits.  When  fewer  than
       16 bits each are specified, they represent the most-significant bits of
       the value (unlike the "rgb:" syntax, in which values are scaled).   For
       example, #3a7 is the same as #3000a0007000.

       An  RGB intensity specification is identified by the prefix "rgbi:" and
       has the following syntax:


       The red, green, and blue are floating point values between 0.0 and 1.0,
       inclusive.  They represent linear intensity values, with 1.0 indicating
       full intensity, 0.5 half intensity, and so on.  These  values  will  be
       gamma  corrected  by Xlib before being sent to the X server.  The input
       format for these values is an optional sign, a string of numbers possi-
       bly containing a decimal point, and an optional exponent field contain-
       ing an E or e followed by a possibly signed integer string.

       The standard device-independent string specifications have the  follow-
       ing syntax:

                       CIEXYZ:<X>/<Y>/<Z>   (none, 1, none)
                       CIEuvY:<u>/<v>/<Y>   (~.6, ~.6, 1)
                       CIExyY:<x>/<y>/<Y>   (~.75, ~.85, 1)
                       CIELab:<L>/<a>/<b>   (100, none, none)
                       CIELuv:<L>/<u>/<v>   (100, none, none)
                       TekHVC:<H>/<V>/<C>   (360, 100, 100)

       All  of  the  values  (C, H, V, X, Y, Z, a, b, u, v, y, x) are floating
       point values.  Some of the values are constrained to  be  between  zero
       and  some upper bound; the upper bounds are given in parentheses above.
       The syntax for these values is an optional '+' or '-' sign, a string of
       digits  possibly  containing  a decimal point, and an optional exponent
       field consisting of an 'E' or 'e' followed by an optional  '+'  or  '-'
       followed by a string of digits.

       For  more  information on device independent color, see the Xlib refer-
       ence manual.

       The X keyboard model is broken into two layers:  server-specific  codes
       (called  keycodes)  which represent the physical keys, and server-inde-
       pendent symbols (called keysyms) which represent the letters  or  words
       that  appear  on  the keys.  Two tables are kept in the server for con-
       verting keycodes to keysyms:

       modifier list
               Some keys (such as Shift, Control, and Caps Lock) are known  as
               modifier  and  are  used  to  select different symbols that are
               attached to a single key (such as Shift-a generates  a  capital
               A, and Control-l generates a control character ^L).  The server
               keeps a list of keycodes corresponding to the various  modifier
               keys.  Whenever a key is pressed or released, the server gener-
               ates an event that contains the keycode of the indicated key as
               well  as  a  mask that specifies which of the modifier keys are
               currently pressed.  Most servers set up this list to  initially
               contain  the various shift, control, and shift lock keys on the

       keymap table
               Applications translate event keycodes and modifier  masks  into
               keysyms  using  a  keysym table which contains one row for each
               keycode and one column for various modifier states.  This table
               is initialized by the server to correspond to normal typewriter
               conventions.  The exact semantics of how the  table  is  inter-
               preted  to  produce  keysyms depends on the particular program,
               libraries, and language input method used,  but  the  following
               conventions  for  the first four keysyms in each row are gener-
               ally adhered to:

       The first four elements of the  list  are  split  into  two  groups  of
       keysyms.   Group  1 contains the first and second keysyms; Group 2 con-
       tains the third and fourth keysyms.  Within each group,  if  the  first
       element  is alphabetic and the the second element is the special keysym
       NoSymbol, then the group is treated as equivalent to a group  in  which
       the first element is the lowercase letter and the second element is the
       uppercase letter.

       Switching between groups is controlled by the keysym named MODE SWITCH,
       by  attaching that keysym to some key and attaching that key to any one
       of the modifiers Mod1  through  Mod5.   This  modifier  is  called  the
       ``group  modifier.''   Group  1 is used when the group modifier is off,
       and Group 2 is used when the group modifier is on.

       Within a group, the modifier state determines which keysym to use.  The
       first  keysym  is  used when the Shift and Lock modifiers are off.  The
       second keysym is used when the Shift modifier is on, when the Lock mod-
       ifier  is on and the second keysym is uppercase alphabetic, or when the
       Lock modifier is on and is interpreted as ShiftLock.   Otherwise,  when
       the  Lock  modifier  is on and is interpreted as CapsLock, the state of
       the Shift modifier is applied first to select a  keysym;  but  if  that
       keysym is lowercase alphabetic, then the corresponding uppercase keysym
       is used instead.

       Most X programs attempt to use the same names for command line  options
       and  arguments.  All applications written with the X Toolkit Intrinsics
       automatically accept the following options:

       -display display
               This option specifies the name of the X server to use.

       -geometry geometry
               This option specifies the initial size and location of the win-

       -bg color, -background color
               Either  option  specifies the color to use for the window back-

       -bd color, -bordercolor color
               Either option specifies the color to use for the window border.

       -bw number, -borderwidth number
               Either option specifies the width in pixels of the window  bor-

       -fg color, -foreground color
               Either option specifies the color to use for text or graphics.

       -fn font, -font font
               Either option specifies the font to use for displaying text.

               This  option  indicates  that  the  user  would prefer that the
               application's windows initially not be visible as if  the  win-
               dows had be immediately iconified by the user.  Window managers
               may choose not to honor the application's request.

               This option specifies the name under which  resources  for  the
               application  should  be  found.  This option is useful in shell
               aliases to distinguish between invocations of  an  application,
               without  resorting  to  creating  links to alter the executable
               file name.

       -rv, -reverse
               Either  option  indicates  that  the  program  should  simulate
               reverse video if possible, often by swapping the foreground and
               background colors.  Not all programs honor this or implement it
               correctly.  It is usually only used on monochrome displays.

               This  option  indicates  that  the  program should not simulate
               reverse video.  This is used to  override  any  defaults  since
               reverse video doesn't always work properly.

               This  option specifies the timeout in milliseconds within which
               two communicating applications must respond to one another  for
               a selection request.

               This  option  indicates that requests to the X server should be
               sent synchronously, instead of asynchronously.  Since Xlib nor-
               mally buffers requests to the server, errors do not necessarily
               get reported immediately after they occur.  This  option  turns
               off  the buffering so that the application can be debugged.  It
               should never be used with a working program.

       -title string
               This option specifies the title to be  used  for  this  window.
               This  information is sometimes used by a window manager to pro-
               vide some sort of header identifying the window.

       -xnllanguage language[_territory][.codeset]
               This option specifies the language, territory, and codeset  for
               use in resolving resource and other filenames.

       -xrm resourcestring
               This option specifies a resource name and value to override any
               defaults.  It is also very useful for  setting  resources  that
               don't have explicit command line arguments.

       To make the tailoring of applications to personal preferences easier, X
       provides a mechanism for storing default values for  program  resources
       (e.g.  background  color,  window title, etc.) that is used by programs
       that use toolkits based on the  X  Toolkit  Intrinsics  library  libXt.
       (Programs using the common Gtk+ and Qt toolkits use other configuration
       mechanisms.)  Resources are specified as strings that are read in  from
       various  places  when  an  application  is run.  Program components are
       named in a hierarchical fashion, with each node in the hierarchy  iden-
       tified  by a class and an instance name.  At the top level is the class
       and instance name of the application itself.  By convention, the  class
       name  of the application is the same as the program name, but with  the
       first letter capitalized (e.g. Bitmap or Emacs) although some  programs
       that  begin with the letter ``x'' also capitalize the second letter for
       historical reasons.

       The precise syntax for resources is:

       ResourceLine    =       Comment | IncludeFile | ResourceSpec | <empty line>
       Comment         =       "!" {<any character except null or newline>}
       IncludeFile     =       "#" WhiteSpace "include" WhiteSpace FileName WhiteSpace
       FileName        =       <valid filename for operating system>
       ResourceSpec    =       WhiteSpace ResourceName WhiteSpace ":" WhiteSpace Value
       ResourceName    =       [Binding] {Component Binding} ComponentName
       Binding         =       "." | "*"
       WhiteSpace      =       {<space> | <horizontal tab>}
       Component       =       "?" | ComponentName
       ComponentName   =       NameChar {NameChar}
       NameChar        =       "a"-"z" | "A"-"Z" | "0"-"9" | "_" | "-"
       Value           =       {<any character except null or unescaped newline>}

       Elements separated by vertical bar (|) are alternatives.  Curly  braces
       ({...})  indicate  zero  or  more repetitions of the enclosed elements.
       Square brackets ([...]) indicate that the enclosed element is optional.
       Quotes ("...") are used around literal characters.

       IncludeFile  lines  are interpreted by replacing the line with the con-
       tents of the specified file.  The word "include" must be in  lowercase.
       The  filename  is  interpreted relative to the directory of the file in
       which the line occurs (for example, if the filename contains no  direc-
       tory or contains a relative directory specification).

       If a ResourceName contains a contiguous sequence of two or more Binding
       characters, the sequence will be replaced with single "." character  if
       the  sequence contains only "." characters, otherwise the sequence will
       be replaced with a single "*" character.

       A resource database never contains more than  one  entry  for  a  given
       ResourceName.  If a resource file contains multiple lines with the same
       ResourceName, the last line in the file is used.

       Any whitespace character before  or  after  the  name  or  colon  in  a
       ResourceSpec  are  ignored.  To allow a Value to begin with whitespace,
       the two-character sequence ``\space'' (backslash followed by space)  is
       recognized  and  replaced  by  a space character, and the two-character
       sequence ``\tab'' (backslash followed by horizontal tab) is  recognized
       and  replaced  by a horizontal tab character.  To allow a Value to con-
       tain embedded newline characters, the two-character sequence ``\n''  is
       recognized and replaced by a newline character.  To allow a Value to be
       broken across multiple lines in a text file, the two-character sequence
       ``\newline''  (backslash followed by newline) is recognized and removed
       from the value.  To allow a Value to contain arbitrary character codes,
       the four-character sequence ``\nnn'', where each n is a digit character
       in the range of ``0''-``7'', is recognized and replaced with  a  single
       byte that contains the octal value specified by the sequence.  Finally,
       the two-character sequence ``\\'' is recognized  and  replaced  with  a
       single backslash.

       When  an  application looks for the value of a resource, it specifies a
       complete path in the hierarchy, with both  class  and  instance  names.
       However,  resource  values are usually given with only partially speci-
       fied names and classes, using pattern matching constructs.  An asterisk
       (*) is a loose binding and is used to represent any number of interven-
       ing components, including none.  A period (.) is a tight binding and is
       used  to separate immediately adjacent components.  A question mark (?)
       is used to match any single component name or class.  A database  entry
       cannot  end  in  a  loose binding; the final component (which cannot be
       "?") must be specified.  The lookup  algorithm  searches  the  resource
       database for the entry that most closely matches (is most specific for)
       the full name and class being queried.  When  more  than  one  database
       entry  matches  the  full  name and class, precedence rules are used to
       select just one.

       The full name and class are scanned from left to  right  (from  highest
       level  in  the  hierarchy to lowest), one component at a time.  At each
       level, the corresponding component  and/or  binding  of  each  matching
       entry  is  determined,  and  these matching components and bindings are
       compared according to precedence rules.  Each of the rules  is  applied
       at  each level, before moving to the next level, until a rule selects a
       single entry over all others.  The rules (in order of precedence) are:

       1.   An entry that contains a matching component (whether name,  class,
            or  "?")  takes precedence over entries that elide the level (that
            is, entries that match the level in a loose binding).

       2.   An entry with a matching name takes precedence over  both  entries
            with  a matching class and entries that match using "?".  An entry
            with a matching class takes precedence  over  entries  that  match
            using "?".

       3.   An entry preceded by a tight binding takes precedence over entries
            preceded by a loose binding.

       Programs based on the X Toolkit Intrinsics obtain  resources  from  the
       following  sources (other programs usually support some subset of these

       RESOURCE_MANAGER root window property
               Any global resources that should be available to clients on all
               machines  should  be stored in the RESOURCE_MANAGER property on
               the root window of the first screen  using  the  xrdb  program.
               This  is  frequently  taken  care  of when the user starts up X
               through the display manager or xinit.

       SCREEN_RESOURCES root window property
               Any resources specific to a given  screen  (e.g.  colors)  that
               should be available to clients on all machines should be stored
               in the SCREEN_RESOURCES property on the  root  window  of  that
               screen.  The xrdb program will sort resources automatically and
               place them in RESOURCE_MANAGER or SCREEN_RESOURCES,  as  appro-

       application-specific files
               Directories  named by the environment variable XUSERFILESEARCH-
               PATH or the environment variable  XAPPLRESDIR  (which  names  a
               single  directory  and should end with a '/' on POSIX systems),
               plus  directories  in   a   standard   place   (usually   under
               /usr/share/X11/,  but  this  can  be overridden with the XFILE-
               SEARCHPATH environment variable) are searched for for  applica-
               tion-specific  resources.   For  example,  application  default
               resources are  usually  kept  in  /usr/share/X11/app-defaults/.
               See  the X Toolkit Intrinsics - C Language Interface manual for

               Any user- and machine-specific resources may  be  specified  by
               setting  the XENVIRONMENT environment variable to the name of a
               resource file to be loaded by all applications.  If this  vari-
               able  is not defined, a file named $HOME/.Xdefaults-hostname is
               looked for instead, where hostname is  the  name  of  the  host
               where the application is executing.

       -xrm resourcestring
               Resources  can  also  be  specified from the command line.  The
               resourcestring is a single resource name  and  value  as  shown
               above.  Note that if the string contains characters interpreted
               by the shell (e.g., asterisk), they must be quoted.  Any number
               of -xrm arguments may be given on the command line.

       Program  resources  are  organized  into groups called classes, so that
       collections  of  individual  resources  (each  of  which   are   called
       instances) can be set all at once.  By convention, the instance name of
       a resource begins with a lowercase letter and class name with an  upper
       case  letter.   Multiple word resources are concatenated with the first
       letter of the succeeding words capitalized.  Applications written  with
       the X Toolkit Intrinsics will have at least the following resources:

       background (class Background)
               This  resource  specifies the color to use for the window back-

       borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
               This resource specifies the width in pixels of the window  bor-

       borderColor (class BorderColor)
               This resource specifies the color to use for the window border.

       Most applications using the X Toolkit Intrinsics also have the resource
       foreground (class Foreground), specifying the color to use for text and
       graphics within the window.

       By combining class and instance specifications, application preferences
       can be set quickly and easily.  Users of color displays will frequently
       want  to  set Background and Foreground classes to particular defaults.
       Specific color instances such as text cursors can  then  be  overridden
       without having to define all of the related resources.  For example,

           bitmap*Dashed:  off
           XTerm*cursorColor:  gold
           XTerm*multiScroll:  on
           XTerm*jumpScroll:  on
           XTerm*reverseWrap:  on
           XTerm*curses:  on
           XTerm*Font:  6x10
           XTerm*scrollBar: on
           XTerm*scrollbar*thickness: 5
           XTerm*multiClickTime: 500
           XTerm*charClass:  33:48,37:48,45-47:48,64:48
           XTerm*cutNewline: off
           XTerm*cutToBeginningOfLine: off
           XTerm*titeInhibit:  on
           XTerm*ttyModes:  intr ^c erase ^? kill ^u
           XLoad*Background: gold
           XLoad*Foreground: red
           XLoad*highlight: black
           XLoad*borderWidth: 0
           emacs*Geometry:  80x65-0-0
           emacs*Background:  rgb:5b/76/86
           emacs*Foreground:  white
           emacs*Cursor:  white
           emacs*BorderColor:  white
           emacs*Font:  6x10
           xmag*geometry: -0-0
           xmag*borderColor:  white

       If  these  resources  were  stored in a file called .Xresources in your
       home directory, they could be added to any existing  resources  in  the
       server with the following command:

           % xrdb -merge $HOME/.Xresources

       This  is  frequently  how user-friendly startup scripts merge user-spe-
       cific defaults into any site-wide defaults.  All sites  are  encouraged
       to  set  up convenient ways of automatically loading resources. See the
       Xlib manual section Resource Manager Functions for more information.

              This is the only mandatory environment variable. It  must  point
              to an X server. See section "Display Names" above.

              This  must point to a file that contains authorization data. The
              default  is  $HOME/.Xauthority.  See   Xsecurity(7),   xauth(1),
              xdm(1), Xau(3).

              This  must point to a file that contains authorization data. The
              default is $HOME/.ICEauthority.

              The first non-empty value among these three determines the  cur-
              rent  locale's  facet  for character handling, and in particular
              the  default  text  encoding.   See   locale(7),   setlocale(3),

              This  variable  can  be  set  to  contain additional information
              important for the  current  locale  setting.  Typically  set  to
              @im=<input-method>  to  enable  a  particular  input method. See

              This must point to a directory containing the locale.alias  file
              and Compose and XLC_LOCALE file hierarchies for all locales. The
              default value is /usr/share/X11/locale.

              This must point to a file containing X resources. The default is
              $HOME/.Xdefaults-<hostname>.  Unlike  $HOME/.Xresources,  it  is
              consulted each time an X application starts.

              This must contain a colon  separated  list  of  path  templates,
              where  libXt  will  search for resource files. The default value
              consists of


              A path template is transformed to a pathname by substituting:

                  %D => the implementation-specific default path
                  %N => name (basename) being searched for
                  %T => type (dirname) being searched for
                  %S => suffix being searched for
                  %C => value of the resource "customization"
                        (class "Customization")
                  %L => the locale name
                  %l => the locale's language (part before '_')
                  %t => the locale's territory (part after '_` but before '.')
                  %c => the locale's encoding (part after '.')

              This must contain a colon  separated  list  of  path  templates,
              where  libXt  will search for user dependent resource files. The
              default value is:


              $XAPPLRESDIR defaults to $HOME, see below.

              A path template is transformed to a pathname by substituting:

                  %D => the implementation-specific default path
                  %N => name (basename) being searched for
                  %T => type (dirname) being searched for
                  %S => suffix being searched for
                  %C => value of the resource "customization"
                        (class "Customization")
                  %L => the locale name
                  %l => the locale's language (part before '_')
                  %t => the locale's territory (part after '_` but before '.')
                  %c => the locale's encoding (part after '.')

              This must point to a base directory where the  user  stores  the
              application  dependent  resource  files.  The  default  value is
              $HOME. Only used if XUSERFILESEARCHPATH is not set.

              This must point to a file containing nonstandard keysym  defini-
              tions.  The default value is /usr/share/X11/XKeysymDB.

       XCMSDB This must point to a color name database file. The default value

              This serves as main identifier for resources  belonging  to  the
              program  being executed. It defaults to the basename of pathname
              of the program.

              Denotes the session manager to which the application should con-
              nect. See xsm(1), rstart(1).

              Setting   this  variable  to  a  non-empty  value  disables  the
              XFree86-Bigfont extension. This  extension  is  a  mechanism  to
              reduce the memory consumption of big fonts by use of shared mem-


       These variables influence the X Keyboard Extension.

       The following is a collection of sample command lines for some  of  the
       more  frequently  used  commands.  For more information on a particular
       command, please refer to that command's manual page.

           %  xrdb $HOME/.Xresources
           %  xmodmap -e "keysym BackSpace = Delete"
           %  mkfontdir /usr/local/lib/X11/otherfonts
           %  xset fp+ /usr/local/lib/X11/otherfonts
           %  xmodmap $HOME/.keymap.km
           %  xsetroot -solid 'rgbi:.8/.8/.8'
           %  xset b 100 400 c 50 s 1800 r on
           %  xset q
           %  twm
           %  xmag
           %  xclock -geometry 48x48-0+0 -bg blue -fg white
           %  xeyes -geometry 48x48-48+0
           %  xbiff -update 20
           %  xlsfonts '*helvetica*'
           %  xwininfo -root
           %  xdpyinfo -display joesworkstation:0
           %  xhost -joesworkstation
           %  xrefresh
           %  xwd | xwud
           %  bitmap companylogo.bm 32x32
           %  xcalc -bg blue -fg magenta
           %  xterm -geometry 80x66-0-0 -name myxterm $*

       A wide variety of error messages are generated from  various  programs.
       The  default  error  handler  in Xlib (also used by many toolkits) uses
       standard resources to construct diagnostic messages when errors  occur.
       The    defaults    for   these   messages   are   usually   stored   in
       /usr/share/X11/XErrorDB.  If this file is not present,  error  messages
       will be rather terse and cryptic.

       When  the  X  Toolkit  Intrinsics  encounter errors converting resource
       strings to the appropriate internal format, no error messages are  usu-
       ally  printed.  This is convenient when it is desirable to have one set
       of resources across a variety of displays (e.g. color  vs.  monochrome,
       lots  of  fonts  vs. very few, etc.), although it can pose problems for
       trying to determine why an application might be failing.  This behavior
       can be overridden by the setting the StringConversionWarnings resource.

       To  force  the  X  Toolkit Intrinsics to always print string conversion
       error messages, the following resource should be  placed  in  the  file
       that gets loaded onto the RESOURCE_MANAGER property using the xrdb pro-
       gram (frequently called .Xresources or .Xres in the user's home  direc-

           *StringConversionWarnings: on

       To  have conversion messages printed for just a particular application,
       the appropriate instance name can be placed before the asterisk:

           xterm*StringConversionWarnings: on

       See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       |ATTRIBUTE TYPE |      ATTRIBUTE VALUE        |
       |Availability   | x11/documentation/xorg-docs |
       |Stability      | Uncommitted                 |

       XOrgFoundation(7), XStandards(7), Xsecurity(7), appres(1), bdftopcf(1),
       bitmap(1),  editres(1),  fslsfonts(1),  fstobdf(1), iceauth(1), mkfont-
       dir(1),  mkfontscale(1),  oclock(1),  rgb(1),  resize(1),   smproxy(1),
       transset(1),   twm(1),  x11perf(1),  x11perfcomp(1),  xauth(1),  xclip-
       board(1), xclock(1), xcmsdb(1), xcompmgr(1), xconsole(1), xdm(1), xdpy-
       info(1),  xdriinfo(1), xev(1), xfd(1), xfontsel(1), xfs(1), xfsinfo(1),
       xhost(1), xinit(1),  xkbbell(1),  xkbcomp(1),  xkbevd(1),  xkbprint(1),
       xkbvleds(1),     xkbwatch(1),    xkill(1),    xlogo(1),    xlsatoms(1),
       xlsclients(1), xlsfonts(1), xmag(1), xmodmap(1),  xprop(1),  xrandr(1),
       xrdb(1),  xrefresh(1),  xrestop(1),  xscope(1),  xset(1),  xsetroot(1),
       xsm(1), xstdcmap(1), xterm(1), xvinfo(1), xwd(1), xwininfo(1), xwud(1).
       Xserver(1),  Xorg(1),  Xdmx(1),  Xephyr(1), Xnest(1), Xvfb(1), Xvnc(1),
       gdm(8), gnome-session(1), gnome-shell(1), locale(7).

       Xlib - C Language X Interface, and X Toolkit Intrinsics  -  C  Language

       Those specifications, and additional specifications & documentation for
       the X Window System may also be found in /usr/share/doc or on the X.Org
       Foundation website at <http://www.x.org/releases/current/doc/>.

       X Window System is a trademark of The Open Group.

       A  cast of thousands, literally.  Releases 6.7 and later are brought to
       you by the X.Org Foundation. The names of all  people  who  made  it  a
       reality will be found in the individual documents and source files.

       Releases  6.6  and  6.5  were done by The X.Org Group.  Release 6.4 was
       done by The X Project Team.  The Release 6.3 distribution was from  The
       X  Consortium,  Inc.  The staff members at the X Consortium responsible
       for that release were: Donna Converse (emeritus), Stephen Gildea (emer-
       itus),  Kaleb  Keithley,  Matt Landau (emeritus), Ralph Mor (emeritus),
       Janet O'Halloran, Bob Scheifler, Ralph Swick, Dave Wiggins  (emeritus),
       and Reed Augliere.

       The X Window System standard was originally developed at the Laboratory
       for Computer Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology,  and
       all  rights  thereto  were  assigned  to the X Consortium on January 1,
       1994.  X Consortium, Inc. closed its doors on December 31,  1996.   All
       rights to the X Window System have been assigned to The Open Group.

       Source  code  for open source software components in Oracle Solaris can
       be found at https://www.oracle.com/downloads/opensource/solaris-source-

       This     software     was    built    from    source    available    at
       https://github.com/oracle/solaris-userland.   The  original   community
       source   was   downloaded  from   ['https://www.x.org/releases/individ-
       ual/doc/xorg-docs-1.7.1.tar.bz2',  'https://www.x.org/releases/individ-

       Further information about this software can be found on the open source
       community website at https://www.x.org.

X Version 11                    xorg-docs 1.7.1                           X(7)