Go to main content

man pages section 4: Device and Network Interfaces

Exit Print View

Updated: Thursday, June 13, 2019
 
 

termiox(4I)

Name

termiox - extended general terminal interface

Description

The extended general terminal interface supplements the termio(4I) general terminal interface by adding support for asynchronous hardware flow control, isochronous flow control and clock modes, and local implementations of additional asynchronous features. Some systems may not support all of these capabilities because of either hardware or software limitations. Other systems may not permit certain functions to be disabled. In these cases the appropriate bits will be ignored. See <sys/termiox.h> for your system to find out which capabilities are supported.

Hardware Flow Control Modes

Hardware flow control supplements the termio(4I) IXON, IXOFF, and IXANY character flow control. Character flow control occurs when one device controls the data transfer of another device by the insertion of control characters in the data stream between devices. Hardware flow control occurs when one device controls the data transfer of another device using electrical control signals on wires (circuits) of the asynchronous interface. Isochronous hardware flow control occurs when one device controls the data transfer of another device by asserting or removing the transmit clock signals of that device. Character flow control and hardware flow control may be simultaneously set.

In asynchronous, full duplex applications, the use of the Electronic Industries Association's EIA-232-D Request To Send (RTS) and Clear To Send (CTS) circuits is the preferred method of hardware flow control. An interface to other hardware flow control methods is included to provide a standard interface to these existing methods.

The EIA-232-D standard specified only unidirectional hardware flow control - the Data Circuit-terminating Equipment or Data Communications Equipment (DCE) indicates to the Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) to stop transmitting data. The termiox interface allows both unidirectional and bidirectional hardware flow control; when bidirectional flow control is enabled, either the DCE or DTE can indicate to each other to stop transmitting data across the interface. Note: It is assumed that the asynchronous port is configured as a DTE. If the connected device is also a DTE and not a DCE, then DTE to DTE (for example, terminal or printer connected to computer) hardware flow control is possible by using a null modem to interconnect the appropriate data and control circuits.

Clock Modes

Isochronous communication is a variation of asynchronous communication whereby two communicating devices may provide transmit and/or receive clock signals to one another. Incoming clock signals can be taken from the baud rate generator on the local isochronous port controller, from CCITT V.24 circuit 114, Transmitter Signal Element Timing - DCE source (EIA-232-D pin 15), or from CCITT V.24 circuit 115, Receiver Signal Element Timing - DCE source (EIA-232-D pin 17). Outgoing clock signals can be sent on CCITT V.24 circuit 113, Transmitter Signal Element Timing - DTE source (EIA-232-D pin 24), on CCITT V.24 circuit 128, Receiver Signal Element Timing - DTE source (no EIA-232-D pin), or not sent at all.

In terms of clock modes, traditional asynchronous communication is implemented simply by using the local baud rate generator as the incoming transmit and receive clock source and not outputting any clock signals.

Terminal Parameters

The parameters that control the behavior of devices providing the termiox interface are specified by the termiox structure defined in the < sys/termiox.h> header. Several ioctl(2) system calls that fetch or change these parameters use this structure:

#define	NFF	5
struct termiox	{
	unsigned short	x_hflag;       /* hardware flow control modes */
	unsigned short	x_cflag;       /* clock modes */
	unsigned short	x_rflag[NFF];  /* reserved modes */
	unsigned short	x_sflag;       /* spare local modes */
};

The x_hflag field describes hardware flow control modes:

RTSXOFF
0000001
Enable RTS hardware flow control on input.
CTSXON
0000002
Enable CTS hardware flow control on output.
DTRXOFF
0000004
Enable DTR hardware flow control on input.
CDXON
0000010
Enable CD hardware flow control on output.
ISXOFF
0000020
Enable isochronous hardware flow control on input

The EIA-232-D DTR and CD circuits are used to establish a connection between two systems. The RTS circuit is also used to establish a connection with a modem. Thus, both DTR and RTS are activated when an asynchronous port is opened. If DTR is used for hardware flow control, then RTS must be used for connectivity. If CD is used for hardware flow control, then CTS must be used for connectivity. Thus, RTS and DTR (or CTS and CD) cannot both be used for hardware flow control at the same time. Other mutual exclusions may apply, such as the simultaneous setting of the termio(4I) HUPCL and the termiox DTRXOFF bits, which use the DTE ready line for different functions.

Variations of different hardware flow control methods may be selected by setting the the appropriate bits. For example, bidirectional RTS/CTS flow control is selected by setting both the RTSXOFF and CTSXON bits and bidirectional DTR/CTS flow control is selected by setting both the DTRXOFF and CTSXON. Modem control or unidirectional CTS hardware flow control is selected by setting only the CTSXON bit.

As previously mentioned, it is assumed that the local asynchronous port (for example, computer) is configured as a DTE. If the connected device (for example, printer) is also a DTE, it is assumed that the device is connected to the computer's asynchronous port using a null modem that swaps control circuits (typically RTS and CTS). The connected DTE drives RTS and the null modem swaps RTS and CTS so that the remote RTS is received as CTS by the local DTE. In the case that CTSXON is set for hardware flow control, printer's lowering of its RTS would cause CTS seen by the computer to be lowered. Output to the printer is suspended until the printer's raising of its RTS, which would cause CTS seen by the computer to be raised.

If RTSXOFF is set, the Request To Send (RTS) circuit (line) will be raised, and if the asynchronous port needs to have its input stopped, it will lower the Request To Send (RTS) line. If the RTS line is lowered, it is assumed that the connected device will stop its output until RTS is raised.

If CTSXON is set, output will occur only if the Clear To Send (CTS) circuit (line) is raised by the connected device. If the CTS line is lowered by the connected device, output is suspended until CTS is raised.

If DTRXOFF is set, the DTE Ready (DTR) circuit (line) will be raised, and if the asynchronous port needs to have its input stopped, it will lower the DTE Ready (DTR) line. If the DTR line is lowered, it is assumed that the connected device will stop its output until DTR is raised.

If CDXON is set, output will occur only if the Received Line Signal Detector (CD) circuit (line) is raised by the connected device. If the CD line is lowered by the connected device, output is suspended until CD is raised.

If ISXOFF is set, and if the isochronous port needs to have its input stopped, it will stop the outgoing clock signal. It is assumed that the connected device is using this clock signal to create its output. Transit and receive clock sources are programmed using the x_cflag fields. If the port is not programmed for external clock generation, ISXOFF is ignored. Output isochronous flow control is supported by appropriate clock source programming using the x_cflag field and enabled at the remote connected device.

The x_cflag field specifies the system treatment of clock modes.

XMTCLK
0000007
Transmit clock source:
XCIBRG
0000000
Get transmit clock from internal baud rate generator.
XCTSET
0000001
Get transmit clock from transmitter signal element timing (DCE source) lead, CCITT V.24 circuit 114, EIA-232-D pin 15.
XCRSET
0000002
Get transmit clock from receiver signal element timing (DCE source) lead, CCITT V.24 circuit 115, EIA-232-D pin 17.
RCVCLK
0000070
Receive clock source:
RCIBRG
0000000
Get receive clock from internal baud rate generator.
RCTSET
0000010
Get receive clock from transmitter signal element timing (DCE source) lead, CCITT V.24 circuit 114, EIA-232-D pin 15.
RCRSET
0000020
Get receive clock from receiver signal element timing (DCE source) lead, CCITT V.24 circuit 115, EIA-232-D pin 17.
TSETCLK
0000700
Transmitter signal element timing (DTE source) lead, CCITT V.24 circuit 113, EIA-232-D pin 24, clock source:
TSETCOFF
0000000
TSET clock not provided.
TSETCRBRG
0000100
Output receive baud rate generator on circuit 113.
TSETCTBRG
0000200
Output transmit baud rate generator on circuit 113
TSETCTSET
0000300
Output transmitter signal element timing (DCE source) on circuit 113.
TSETCRSET
0000400
Output receiver signal element timing (DCE source) on circuit 113.
RSETCLK
0007000
Receiver signal element timing (DTE source) lead, CCITT V.24 circuit 128, no EIA-232-D pin, clock source:
RSETCOFF
0000000
RSET clock not provided.
RSETCRBRG
0001000
Output receive baud rate generator on circuit 128.
RSETCTBRG
0002000
Output transmit baud rate generator on circuit 128.
RSETCTSET
0003000
Output transmitter signal element timing (DCE source) on circuit 128.
RSETCRSET
0004000
Output receiver signal element timing (DCE) on circuit 128.

If the XMTCLK field has a value of XCIBRG the transmit clock is taken from the hardware internal baud rate generator, as in normal asynchronous transmission. If XMTCLK = XCTSET the transmit clock is taken from the Transmitter Signal Element Timing (DCE source) circuit. If XMTCLK = XCRSET the transmit clock is taken from the Receiver Signal Element Timing (DCE source) circuit.

If the RCVCLK field has a value of RCIBRG the receive clock is taken from the hardware Internal Baud Rate Generator, as in normal asynchronous transmission. If RCVCLK = RCTSET the receive clock is taken from the Transmitter Signal Element Timing (DCE source) circuit. If RCVCLK = RCRSET the receive clock is taken from the Receiver Signal Element Timing (DCE source) circuit.

If the TSETCLK field has a value of TSETCOFF the Transmitter Signal Element Timing (DTE source) circuit is not driven. If TSETCLK = TSETCRBRG the Transmitter Signal Element Timing (DTE source) circuit is driven by the Receive Baud Rate Generator. If TSETCLK = TSETCTBRG the Transmitter Signal Element Timing (DTE source) circuit is driven by the Transmit Baud Rate Generator. If TSETCLK = TSETCTSET the Transmitter Signal Element Timing (DTE source) circuit is driven by the Transmitter Signal Element Timing (DCE source). If TSETCLK = TSETCRBRG the Transmitter Signal Element Timing (DTE source) circuit is driven by the Receiver Signal Element Timing (DCE source).

If the RSETCLK field has a value of RSETCOFF the Receiver Signal Element Timing (DTE source) circuit is not driven. If RSETCLK = RSETCRBRG the Receiver Signal Element Timing (DTE source) circuit is driven by the Receive Baud Rate Generator. If RSETCLK = RSETCTBRG the Receiver Signal Element Timing (DTE source) circuit is driven by the Transmit Baud Rate Generator. If RSETCLK = RSETCTSET the Receiver Signal Element Timing (DTE source) circuit is driven by the Transmitter Signal Element Timing (DCE source). If RSETCLK = RSETCRBRG the Receiver Signal Element Timing (DTE source) circuit is driven by the Receiver Signal Element Timing (DCE source).

The x_rflag is reserved for future interface definitions and should not be used by any implementations. The x_sflag may be used by local implementations wishing to customize their terminal interface using the termiox ioctl system calls.

Ioctls

The ioctl(2) system calls have the form:

ioctl (fildes, command, arg) struct termiox * arg; 

The commands using this form are:

TCGETX

The argument is a pointer to a termiox structure. The current terminal parameters are fetched and stored into that structure.

TCSETX

The argument is a pointer to a termiox structure. The current terminal parameters are set from the values stored in that structure. The change is immediate.

TCSETXW

The argument is a pointer to a termiox structure. The current terminal parameters are set from the values stored in that structure. The change occurs after all characters queued for output have been transmitted. This form should be used when changing parameters that will affect output.

TCSETXF

The argument is a pointer to a termiox structure. The current terminal parameters are set from the values stored in that structure. The change occurs after all characters queued for output have been transmitted; all characters queued for input are discarded and then the change occurs.

Files

/dev/*

See Also

stty(1), ioctl(2), termio(4I)

Notes

The termiox(4I) system call is provided for compatibility with previous releases and its use is discouraged. Instead, the termio(4I) system call is recommended. See termio(4I) for usage information.