man pages section 9: DDI and DKI Kernel Functions

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Updated: July 2014
 
 

ddi_get_soft_state(9F)

Name

ddi_soft_state, ddi_get_soft_state, ddi_soft_state_fini , ddi_soft_state_free, ddi_soft_state_init , ddi_soft_state_zalloc - driver soft state utility routines

Synopsis

#include <sys/ddi.h> 
#include <sys/sunddi.h> 

void *ddi_get_soft_state(void *state, int item);
void ddi_soft_state_fini(void **state_p);
void ddi_soft_state_free(void *state, int item);
int ddi_soft_state_init(void **state_p, size_t size, size_t n_items);
int ddi_soft_state_zalloc(void *state, int item);

Interface Level

Solaris DDI specific (Solaris DDI).

Parameters

state_p

Address of the opaque state pointer which will be initialized by ddi_soft_state_init() to point to implementation dependent data.

size

Size of the item which will be allocated by subsequent calls to ddi_soft_state_zalloc().

n_items

A hint of the number of items which will be preallocated; zero is allowed.

state

An opaque pointer to implementation-dependent data that describes the soft state.

item

The item number for the state structure; usually the instance number of the associated devinfo node.

Description

Most device drivers maintain state information with each instance of the device they control; for example, a soft copy of a device control register, a mutex that must be held while accessing a piece of hardware, a partition table, or a unit structure. These utility routines are intended to help device drivers manage the space used by the driver to hold such state information.

For example, if the driver holds the state of each instance in a single state structure, these routines can be used to dynamically allocate and deallocate a separate structure for each instance of the driver as the instance is attached and detached.

To use the routines, the driver writer needs to declare a state pointer, state_p, which the implementation uses as a place to hang a set of per-driver structures; everything else is managed by these routines.

The routine ddi_soft_state_init() is usually called in the driver's _init(9E) routine to initialize the state pointer, set the size of the soft state structure, and to allow the driver to pre-allocate a given number of such structures if required.

The routine ddi_soft_state_zalloc() is usually called in the driver's attach(9E) routine. The routine is passed an item number which is used to refer to the structure in subsequent calls to ddi_get_soft_state() and ddi_soft_state_free(). The item number is usually just the instance number of the devinfo node, obtained with ddi_get_instance(9F). The routine attempts to allocate space for the new structure, and if the space allocation was successful, DDI_SUCCESS is returned to the caller. Returned memory is zeroed.

A pointer to the space previously allocated for a soft state structure can be obtained by calling ddi_get_soft_state() with the appropriate item number.

The space used by a given soft state structure can be returned to the system using ddi_soft_state_free(). This routine is usually called from the driver's detach(9E) entry point.

The space used by all the soft state structures allocated on a given state pointer, together with the housekeeping information used by the implementation can be returned to the system using ddi_soft_state_fini(). This routine can be called from the driver's _fini( 9E) routine.

The ddi_soft_state_zalloc(), ddi_soft_state_free () and ddi_get_soft_state() routines coordinate access to the underlying data structures in an MT-safe fashion, thus no additional locks should be necessary.

Return Values

ddi_get_soft_state()

NULL

The requested state structure was not allocated at the time of the call.

pointer

The pointer to the state structure.

ddi_soft_state_init()

0

The allocation was successful.

EINVAL

Either the size parameter was zero, or the state_p parameter was invalid.

ddi_soft_state_zalloc()

DDI_SUCCESS

The allocation was successful.

DDI_FAILURE

The routine failed to allocate the storage required; either the state parameter was invalid, the item number was negative, or an attempt was made to allocate an item number that was already allocated.

Context

The ddi_soft_state_init() and ddi_soft_state_alloc () functions can be called from user or kernel context only, since they may internally call kmem_zalloc(9F) with the KM_SLEEP flag.

The ddi_soft_state_fini(), ddi_soft_state_free () and ddi_get_soft_state() routines can be called from any driver context.

Examples

Example 1 Creating and Removing Data Structures

The following example shows how the routines described above can be used in terms of the driver entry points of a character-only driver. The example concentrates on the portions of the code that deal with creating and removing the driver's data structures.

typedef struct {
   volatile caddr_t *csr;        /* device registers */
   kmutex_t         csr_mutex;   /* protects 'csr' field */
   unsigned int     state;
   dev_info_t       *dip;        /* back pointer to devinfo */
} devstate_t;
static void *statep;

int
_init(void)
{
   int error;

   error = ddi_soft_state_init(&statep, sizeof (devstate_t), 0);
   if (error != 0)
		   return (error);
   if ((error = mod_install(&modlinkage)) != 0)
		   ddi_soft_state_fini(&statep);
   return (error);
}

int
_fini(void)
{
   int error;

   if ((error = mod_remove(&modlinkage)) != 0)
		   return (error);
   ddi_soft_state_fini(&statep);
   return (0);
}

static int
xxattach(dev_info_t *dip, ddi_attach_cmd_t cmd)
{
   int instance;
   devstate_t *softc;

   switch (cmd) {
   case DDI_ATTACH:
	      instance = ddi_get_instance(dip);
      if (ddi_soft_state_zalloc(statep, instance) != DDI_SUCCESS)
	         return (DDI_FAILURE);
	      softc = ddi_get_soft_state(statep, instance);
	      softc->dip = dip;	
	      ...
	      return (DDI_SUCCESS);
   default:
	      return (DDI_FAILURE);
   }
}

static int
xxdetach(dev_info_t *dip, ddi_detach_cmd_t cmd)
{
   int instance;

   switch (cmd) {

   case DDI_DETACH:
	      instance = ddi_get_instance(dip);
	      ...
      ddi_soft_state_free(statep, instance);
      return (DDI_SUCCESS);

   default:
      return (DDI_FAILURE);
   }
}

static int
xxopen(dev_t *devp, int flag, int otyp, cred_t *cred_p)
{
   devstate_t *softc;
   int   instance;

   instance = getminor(*devp);
   if ((softc = ddi_get_soft_state(statep, instance)) == NULL)
	      return (ENXIO);
   ...
   softc->state |= XX_IN_USE;
   ...
   return (0);
}

See Also

_fini(9E), _init(9E), attach(9E), detach(9E), ddi_get_instance(9F), getminor(9F), kmem_zalloc(9F)

Writing Device Drivers for Oracle Solaris 11.2

Warnings

There is no attempt to validate the item parameter given to ddi_soft_state_zalloc() other than it must be a positive signed integer. Therefore very large item numbers may cause the driver to hang forever waiting for virtual memory resources that can never be satisfied.

Notes

If necessary, a hierarchy of state structures can be constructed by embedding state pointers in higher order state structures.

Diagnostics

All of the messages described below usually indicate bugs in the driver and should not appear in normal operation of the system.

WARNING: ddi_soft_state_zalloc: bad handle
WARNING: ddi_soft_state_free: bad handle
WARNING: ddi_soft_state_fini: bad handle

The implementation-dependent information kept in the state variable is corrupt.

WARNING: ddi_soft_state_free: null handle
WARNING: ddi_soft_state_fini: null handle

The routine has been passed a null or corrupt state pointer. Check that ddi_soft_state_init() has been called.

WARNING: ddi_soft_state_free: item %d not in range [0..%d]

The routine has been asked to free an item which was never allocated. The message prints out the invalid item number and the acceptable range.