netstat - show network status
netstat [-uanvR] [-f address_family] [-P protocol]
netstat -g [-nv] [-f address_family]
netstat -p [-n] [-f address_family]
netstat -s [-f address_family] [-P protocol] [-T u | d ] [interval [count]]
netstat -m [-T u | d ] [-v] [interval [count]]
netstat -i [-I interface] [-an] [-f address_family] [-T u | d ] [interval [count]]
netstat -r [-anvR] [-f address_family | filter]
netstat -M [-ns] [-f address_family]
netstat -D [-I interface] [-f address_family]
netstat -d [-f address_family]
The netstat command displays the contents of certain network-related data structures in various formats, depending on the options you select.
The netstat command has the several forms shown in the SYNOPSIS section, above, listed as follows:
The first form of the command (with no required arguments) displays a list of active sockets for each protocol.
The second, third, and fourth forms (–g, –p, and –s options) display information from various network data structures.
The fifth form (–m option) displays STREAMS memory statistics.
The sixth form (–i option) shows the state of the interfaces.
The seventh form (–r option) displays the routing table.
The eighth form (–M option) displays the multicast routing table.
The ninth form (–D option) displays the state of DHCP on one or all interfaces.
The tenth form (–d option) displays the table of destination cache entries.
These forms are described in greater detail below.
With no arguments (the first form), netstat displays connected sockets for PF_INET, PF_INET6, and PF_UNIX, unless modified otherwise by the –f option.
Show the state of all sockets, all routing table entries, or all interfaces, both physical and logical. Normally, listener sockets used by server processes are not shown. Under most conditions, only interface, host, network, and default routes are shown and only the status of physical interfaces is shown.
Show the destination cache entry table. See DISPLAYS, below.
Limit all displays to those of the specified address_family. The value of address_family can be one of the following:
For the AF_INET address family showing IPv4 information.
For the AF_INET6 address family showing IPv6 information.
For the AF_UNIX address family.
For the Socket Description Protocol (SDP) protocol and address family. The address state displayed for an SDP socket are listed below. Flags displayed by netstat are followed by their meanings.
For the SDP protocol and address family, netstat displays the following column headings:
Local IP address
Remote IP address
Current state of the socket
Bytes queued for Tx (includes TxBPosted)
Bytes sent to HW for transmission
Local advertised buffer size
Remote advertised buffer size
Number of local advertised Rx buffers
Number of remote advertised Rx buffers
Number of Rx buffers currently posted
With –r only, limit the display of routes to those matching the specified filter. A filter rule consists of a keyword:value pair. The known keywords and the value syntax are:
Selects an address family. This is identical to –f address_family and both syntaxes are supported.
Selects an output interface. You can specify the interface by name (such as hme0) or by ifIndex number (for example, 2). If any is used, the filter matches all routes having a specified interface (anything other than null). If none is used, the filter matches all routes having a null interface. Note that you can view the index number (ifIndex) for an interface with the –a option of ifconfig(1M).
Selects a destination IP address. If specified with a mask length, then any routes with matching or longer (more specific) masks are selected. If any is used, then all but addresses but 0 are selected. If none is used, then address 0 is selected.
Selects routes tagged with the specified flags. By default, the flags as specified must be set in order to match. With a leading +, the flags specified must be set but others are ignored. With a leading -, the flags specified must not be set and others are permitted.
You can specify multiple instances of –f to specify multiple filters. For example:
% netstat -nr -f outif:hme0 -f outif:hme1 -f dst:10.0.0.0/8
The preceding command displays routes within network 10.0.0.0/8, with mask length 8 or greater, and an output interface of either hme0 or hme1, and excludes all other routes.
Show the multicast group memberships for all interfaces. If the –v option is included, source-specific membership information is also displayed. See DISPLAYS, below.
Show the state of the interfaces that are used for IP traffic. Normally this shows statistics for the physical interfaces. When combined with the –a option, this will also report information for the logical interfaces. See ifconfig(1M).
Show the STREAMS memory statistics.
Show network addresses as numbers. netstat normally displays addresses as symbols. This option may be used with any of the display formats.
Show the net to media tables. See DISPLAYS, below.
Show the routing tables. Normally, only interface, host, network, and default routes are shown, but when this option is combined with the –a option, all routes will be displayed, including cache. If you have not set up a multicast route, –ra might not show any multicast routing entries, although the kernel will derive such an entry if needed.
Show per-protocol statistics. When used with the –M option, show multicast routing statistics instead. When used with the –a option, per-interface statistics will be displayed, when available, in addition to statistics global to the system. See DISPLAYS, below.
Display a time stamp.
Lists the user, process id, and the program which originally created the network endpoint or controls it now.
Verbose. Show additional information for the sockets, STREAMS memory statistics, routing table, processes, and multicast group memberships.
Show the state of a particular interface. interface can be any valid interface such as hme0 or eri0. Normally, the status and statistics for physical interfaces are displayed. When this option is combined with the – a option, information for the logical interfaces is also reported.
Show the multicast routing tables. When used with the –s option, show multicast routing statistics instead.
Limit display of statistics or state of all sockets to those applicable to protocol. The protocol can be one of ip, ipv6, icmp, icmpv6, icmp, icmpv6, igmp, udp, tcp, rawip. rawip can also be specified as raw. The command accepts protocol options only as all lowercase.
Show the status of DHCP configured interfaces.
This modifier displays extended security attributes for sockets and routing table entries. The –R modifier is available only if the system is configured with the Solaris Trusted Extensions feature.
With –r only, this option displays the routing entries' gateway security attributes. See route(1M) for more information on security attributes.
When displaying socket information using the first form of the commmand, this option displays additional information for Multi-Level Port(MLP) sockets. This includes:
The label for the peer if the socket is connected.
The following flags can be appended to the socket's “State” output:
The socket is a MLP on zone-private IP addresses.
The socket is a MLP on IP addresses shared between zones.
Display statistics accumulated since last display every interval seconds, repeating forever, unless count is specified. When invoked with interval, the first row of netstat output shows statistics accumulated since last reboot.
The following options support interval: –i, –m, –s and –Ms. Some values are configuration parameters and are just redisplayed at each interval.
Display interface statistics the number of times specified by count, at the interval specified by interval.
The display for each active socket shows the local and remote address, the send and receive queue sizes (in bytes), the send and receive windows (in bytes), and the internal state of the protocol.
For udp sockets, the display will be:
The local and remote IP address
The send and receive buffer size (in bytes)
The number of times overflow occurred for transmitting/receiving packets
The internal state of the protocol
Currently, an UDP socket write/send will block in case of Tx overflow. The incoming packets will be dropped in case of Rx overflow.
For kernel bypass sockets, there are two data paths. The Rx/TxOverflows only represent the overflows happening in the kernel data path. An additional (*) will be displayed following the value to indicate this is for kernel bypass sockets.
The symbolic format normally used to display socket addresses is either:
when the name of the host is specified, or
if a socket address specifies a network but no specific host.
The numeric host address or network number associated with the socket is used to look up the corresponding symbolic hostname or network name in the hosts or networks database.
If the network or hostname for an address is not known, or if the –n option is specified, the numerical network address is shown. Unspecified, or “wildcard”, addresses and ports appear as an asterisk (*). For more information regarding the Internet naming conventions, refer to inet(7P) and inet6(7P).
For SCTP sockets, because an endpoint can be represented by multiple addresses, the verbose option (–v) displays the list of all the local and remote addresses.
The possible state values for TCP sockets are as follows:
Bound, ready to connect or listen.
Closed. The socket is not being used.
Closed, then remote shutdown; awaiting acknowledgment.
Remote shutdown; waiting for the socket to close.
Connection has been established.
Socket closed; shutting down connection.
Socket closed; waiting for shutdown from remote.
Idle, opened but not bound.
Remote shutdown, then closed; awaiting acknowledgment.
Listening for incoming connections.
Initial synchronization of the connection under way.
Actively trying to establish connection.
Wait after close for remote shutdown retransmission.
The possible state values for SCTP sockets are as follows:
Closed. The socket is not being used.
Listening for incoming associations.
Association has been established.
INIT has been sent to the peer, awaiting acknowledgment.
State cookie from the INIT-ACK has been sent to the peer, awaiting acknowledgement.
SHUTDOWN has been received from the upper layer, awaiting acknowledgement of all outstanding DATA from the peer.
All outstanding data has been acknowledged in the SHUTDOWN_SENT state. SHUTDOWN has been sent to the peer, awaiting acknowledgement.
SHUTDOWN has been received from the peer, awaiting acknowledgement of all outstanding DATA.
All outstanding data has been acknowledged in the SHUTDOWN_RECEIVED state. SHUTDOWN_ACK has been sent to the peer.
The form of the display depends upon which of the –g, –m, –p, or –s options you select.
Displays the list of multicast group membership.
Displays the memory usage, for example, STREAMS mblks.
Displays the net to media mapping table. For IPv4, the address resolution table is displayed. See arp(1M). For IPv6, the neighbor cache is displayed.
Displays the statistics for the various protocol layers.
The statistics use the MIB specified variables. The defined values for ipForwarding are:
Acting as a gateway.
Not acting as a gateway.
The IPv6 and ICMPv6 protocol layers maintain per-interface statistics. If the –a option is specified with the –s option, then the per-interface statistics as well as the total sums are displayed. Otherwise, just the sum of the statistics are shown.
For the second, third, and fourth forms of the command, you must specify at least –g, –p, or –s. You can specify any combination of these options. You can also specify –m (the fifth form) with any set of the –g, – p, and –s options. If you specify more than one of these options, netstat displays the information for each one of them.
The interface status display lists information for all current interfaces, one interface per line. If an interface is specified using the –I option, it displays information for only the specified interface.
The list consists of the interface name, mtu (maximum transmission unit, or maximum packet size)(see ifconfig(1M)), the network to which the interface is attached, addresses for each interface, and counter associated with the interface. The counters show the number of input packets, input errors, output packets, output errors, and collisions, respectively. For Point-to-Point interfaces, the Net/Dest field is the name or address on the other side of the link.
If the –a option is specified with either the –i option or the –I option, then the output includes names of the physical interface(s), counts for input packets and output packets for each logical interface, plus additional information.
If the –n option is specified, the list displays the IP address instead of the interface name.
If an optional interval is specified, the output will be continually displayed in interval seconds until interrupted by the user or until count is reached. See OPERANDS.
The physical interface is specified using the –I option. When used with the interval operand, output for the –I option has the following format:
input eri0 output input (Total) output packets errs packets errs colls packets errs packets errs colls 227681 0 659471 1 502 261331 0 99597 1 502 10 0 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 0 0 10 0 2 0 0 10 0 2 0 0
If the input interface is not specified, the first interface of address family inet or inet6 will be displayed.
The routing table display lists the available routes and the status of each. Each route consists of a destination host or network, and a gateway to use in forwarding packets. The flags column shows the status of the route. These flags are as follows:
Indicates route is up.
Route is to a gateway.
Route is to a host and not a network.
Redundant route established with the –multirt option.
Route was established using the –setsrc option.
Route was created dynamically by a redirect.
Packets will be silently dropped (RTF_BLACKHOLE set).
Packets will be dropped with ICMP error sent (RTF_REJECT set).
Indirect routes (gateway not directly reachable) established with the –indirect option.
(non-global exclusive-IP zone only) The route was statically added on boot based on routing information configured using zonecfg(1M) in the global zone.
If the –a option is specified, there will be routing entries with the following flags:
Clones interface host route entries for on-link destinations.
Local addresses for the host.
Interface routes are created for each interface attached to the local host; the gateway field for such entries shows the address of the outgoing interface.
The use column displays the number of packets sent or forwarded using the route in question.
The interface entry indicates the network interface utilized for the route.
The multicast routing table consists of the virtual interface table and the actual routing table.
The DHCP interface information consists of the interface name, its current state, lease information, packet counts, and a list of flags.
The states correlate with the specifications set forth in RFC 2131.
Lease information includes:
when the lease began;
when lease renewal will begin; and
when the lease will expire.
The flags currently defined include:
The interface has a lease obtained through BOOTP (IPv4 only).
The interface is busy with a DHCP transaction.
The interface is in failure state and must be manually restarted.
Packet counts are maintained for the number of packets sent, the number of packets received, and the number of lease offers declined by the DHCP client. All three counters are initialized to zero and then incremented while obtaining a lease. The counters are reset when the period of lease renewal begins for the interface. Thus, the counters represent either the number of packets sent, received, and declined while obtaining the current lease, or the number of packets sent, received, and declined while attempting to obtain a future lease.
The destination cache entry display shows the recorded path MTU, the age (in seconds) of the entry, and flags. The P flag indicates that a path MTU is recorded. The S flag indicates that the path MTU is smaller than the minumum that IP will allow. The U flag indicates that some transport metrics (round-trip time, and so forth) are cached in the destination cache entry.
See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:
arp(1M), dhcpinfo(1), dhcpagent(1M), ifconfig(1M), iostat(1M), kstat(1M), savecore(1M), vmstat(1M), zonecfg(1M), hosts(4), inet_type(4), networks(4), protocols(4), services(4), attributes(5), dhcp(5), kstat(7D), inet(7P), inet6(7P)
Droms, R., RFC 2131, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, Network Working Group, March 1997.
Droms, R. RFC 3315, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6). Cisco Systems. July 2003.
When displaying interface information, netstat honors the DEFAULT_IP setting in /etc/default/inet_type. If it is set to IP_VERSION4, then netstat will omit information relating to IPv6 interfaces, statistics, connections, routes and the like.
However, you can override the DEFAULT_IP setting in /etc/default/inet_type on the command-line. For example, if you have used the command-line to explicitly request IPv6 information by using the inet6 address family or one of the IPv6 protocols, it will override the DEFAULT_IP setting.
The netstat utility obtains TCP statistics from the system by opening /dev/tcp and issuing queries. Because of this, netstat might display an extra, unused connection in IDLE state when reporting connection status.
netstat restricts its output to information that is relevant to the zone in which netstat runs. (This is true for both shared-IP and exclusive-IP zones.)