man pages section 1: User Commands
Updated: July 2014

## cvs (1)

### Name

cvs - Concurrent Versions System

### Synopsis

cvs [ cvs_options ]
cvs_command [ command_options ] [ command_args ]

### Description



User Commands                                              CVS(1)

NAME
cvs - Concurrent Versions System

SYNOPSIS
cvs [ cvs_options ]
cvs_command [ command_options ] [ command_args ]

NOTE
This  manpage  is  a summary of some of the features of cvs.
It is auto-generated from an appendix  of  the  CVS  manual.
For  more  in-depth  documentation,  please consult the Ced-
erqvist manual (via the info CVS command  or  otherwise,  as
references in this man page refer to nodes in the same.

CVS commands
Guide to CVS commands
This appendix describes the overall structure  of  cvs  com-
mands,  and  describes  some  commands in detail (others are
described elsewhere; for a quick reference to cvs  commands,
see node Invoking CVS' in the CVS manual).

Structure
Overall structure of CVS commands
The overall format of all cvs commands is:

cvs [ cvs_options ] cvs_command [ command_options ] [ com-
mand_args ]

cvs

The name of the cvs program.

cvs_options

Some options that affect all sub-commands of  cvs.   These
are described below.

cvs_command

One  of  several  different  sub-commands.   Some  of  the

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commands have aliases that  can  be  used  instead;  those
aliases  are  noted  in the reference manual for that com-
mand.  There are only two situations where  you  may  omit
cvs_command:  cvs -H elicits a list of available commands,
and cvs -v displays version information on cvs itself.

command_options

Options that are specific for the command.

command_args

Arguments to the commands.

There is unfortunately some confusion between  cvs_options
and  command_options.   When  given  as a cvs_option, some
options only affect some of the commands.  When given as a
command_option  it  may  have  a different meaning, and be
accepted by more commands.  In other words,  do  not  take
the above categorization too seriously.  Look at the docu-

Exit status
CVS's exit status
cvs can indicate to the calling environment whether it  suc-
ceeded  or failed by setting its exit status.  The exact way
of testing the exit status will vary from one operating sys-
tem  to  another.  For example in a unix shell script the $? variable will be 0 if the last command returned a successful exit status, or greater than 0 if the exit status indicated failure. If cvs is successful, it returns a successful status; if there is an error, it prints an error message and returns a failure status. The one exception to this is the cvs diff command. It will return a successful status if it found no differences, or a failure status if there were differences or if there was an error. Because this behavior provides no good way to detect errors, in the future it is possible that cvs diff will be changed to behave like the other cvs com- mands. ~/.cvsrc Default options and the ~/.cvsrc file There are some command_options that are used so often that you might have set up an alias or some other means to make SunOS 5.11 Last change: 2 User Commands CVS(1) sure you always specify that option. One example (the one that drove the implementation of the default output of the diff command to be very hard to read, and that either con- text diffs or unidiffs are much easier to understand. The ~/.cvsrc file is a way that you can add default options to cvs_commands within cvs, instead of relying on aliases or other shell scripts. The format of the ~/.cvsrc file is simple. The file is searched for a line that begins with the same name as the cvs_command being executed. If a match is found, then the remainder of the line is split up (at whitespace characters) into separate options and added to the command arguments before any options from the command line. If a command has two names (e.g., checkout and co), the official name, not necessarily the one used on the command line, will be used to match against the file. So if this is the contents of the user's ~/.cvsrc file: log -N diff -uN rdiff -u update -Pd checkout -P release -d the command cvs checkout foo would have the -P option added to the arguments, as well as cvs co foo. With the example file above, the output from cvs diff foobar will be in unidiff format. cvs diff -c foobar will provide context diffs, as usual. Getting "old" format diffs would be slightly more complicated, because diff doesn't have an option to specify use of the "old" format, so you would need cvs -f diff foobar. In place of the command name you can use cvs to specify global options (see node Global options' in the CVS man- ual). For example the following line in .cvsrc cvs -z6 SunOS 5.11 Last change: 3 User Commands CVS(1) causes cvs to use compression level 6. Global options The available cvs_options (that are given to the left of cvs_command) are: --allow-root=rootdir May be invoked multiple times to specify one legal cvsroot directory with each invocation. Also causes CVS to preparse the configuration file for each specified root, which can be useful when configuring write proxies, See see node Password authentication server' in the CVS man- ual & see node Write proxies' in the CVS manual. -a Authenticate all communication between the client and the server. Only has an effect on the cvs client. As of this writing, this is only implemented when using a GSSAPI con- nection (see node GSSAPI authenticated' in the CVS man- ual). Authentication prevents certain sorts of attacks involving hijacking the active tcp connection. Enabling authentication does not enable encryption. -b bindir In cvs 1.9.18 and older, this specified that rcs programs are in the bindir directory. Current versions of cvs do not run rcs programs; for compatibility this option is accepted, but it does nothing. -T tempdir Use tempdir as the directory where temporary files are located. The cvs client and server store temporary files in a tem- porary directory. The path to this temporary directory is set via, in order of precedence: o The argument to the global -T option. SunOS 5.11 Last change: 4 User Commands CVS(1) o The value set for TmpDir in the config file (server only - see node config' in the CVS manual). o The contents of the$TMPDIR   environment   variable
(%TMPDIR%  on Windows - see node Environment variables'
in the CVS manual).

o   /tmp

Temporary directories should always be specified  as  an
absolute  pathname.   When  running  a  CVS  client,  -T
affects only the local process; specifying  -T  for  the
client has no effect on the server and vice versa.

-d cvs_root_directory

Use  cvs_root_directory  as the root directory pathname of
the repository.  Overrides the  setting  of  the  $CVSROOT environment variable. see node Repository' in the CVS manual. -e editor Use editor to enter revision log information. Overrides the setting of the$CVSEDITOR  and $EDITOR environment variables. For more information, see see node Committing your changes' in the CVS manual. -f Do not read the ~/.cvsrc file. This option is most often used because of the non-orthogonality of the cvs option set. For example, the cvs log option -N (turn off display of tag names) does not have a corresponding option to turn the display on. So if you have -N in the ~/.cvsrc entry for log, you may need to use -f to show the tag names. -H SunOS 5.11 Last change: 5 User Commands CVS(1) --help Display usage information about the specified cvs_command (but do not actually execute the command). If you don't specify a command name, cvs -H displays overall help for cvs, including a list of other help options. -R Turns on read-only repository mode. This allows one to check out from a read-only repository, such as within an anoncvs server, or from a cd-rom repository. Same effect as if the CVSREADONLYFS environment variable is set. Using -R can also considerably speed up checkouts over NFS. -n Do not change any files. Attempt to execute the cvs_com- mand, but only to issue reports; do not remove, update, or merge any existing files, or create any new files. Note that cvs will not necessarily produce exactly the same output as without -n. In some cases the output will be the same, but in other cases cvs will skip some of the processing that would have been required to produce the exact same output. -Q Cause the command to be really quiet; the command will only generate output for serious problems. -q Cause the command to be somewhat quiet; informational mes- sages, such as reports of recursion through subdirecto- ries, are suppressed. -r SunOS 5.11 Last change: 6 User Commands CVS(1) Make new working files read-only. Same effect as if the$CVSREAD  environment  variable is set (see node Environ-
ment variables' in the CVS manual).   The  default  is  to
make  working  files  writable, unless watches are on (see
node Watches' in the CVS manual).

-s variable=value

Set a user variable (see node Variables' in the CVS  man-
ual).

-t

Trace  program  execution;  display  messages  showing the
steps of cvs activity.  Particularly  useful  with  -n  to
explore the potential impact of an unfamiliar command.

-v

--version

Display version and copyright information for cvs.

-w

Make  new working files read-write.  Overrides the setting
of the $CVSREAD environment variable. Files are created read-write by default, unless$CVSREAD is set or -r is
given.

-x

Encrypt all  communication  between  the  client  and  the
server.  Only has an effect on the cvs client.  As of this
writing, this is only implemented when using a GSSAPI con-
nection  (see  node GSSAPI authenticated' in the CVS man-
ual) or a Kerberos connection (see node Kerberos  authen-
ticated'  in the CVS manual).  Enabling encryption implies
that message traffic is  also  authenticated.   Encryption

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support  is  not  available by default; it must be enabled
using a  special  configure  option,  --enable-encryption,
when you build cvs.

-z level

Request compression level for network traffic.  cvs inter-
prets level identically to the gzip program.  Valid levels
are  1 (high speed, low compression) to 9 (low speed, high
compression), or 0 to disable compression  (the  default).
Data  sent  to  the  server  will  be  compressed  at  the
requested level and the client will request the server use
the  same compression level for data returned.  The server
will use the closest level allowed by the server  adminis-
trator to compress returned data.  This option only has an
effect when passed to the cvs client.

Common options
Common command options
This section describes the command_options that  are  avail-
able  across several cvs commands.  These options are always
given to the right of cvs_command. Not all commands  support
all of these options; each option is only supported for com-
mands where it makes sense.  However, when a command has one
of  these  options  you  can almost always count on the same
behavior of the option as in other commands.  (Other command
options,  which are listed with the individual commands, may
have different behavior from one cvs command to the  other).

Note:  the history command is an exception; it supports many
options that conflict even with these standard options.

-D date_spec

Use the most recent  revision  no  later  than  date_spec.
date_spec  is a single argument, a date description speci-
fying a date in the past.

The specification is sticky when you use it to make a pri-
vate  copy of a source file; that is, when you get a work-
ing file using -D, cvs records the date you specified,  so
that  further  updates  in the same directory will use the
node Sticky tags' in the CVS manual).

-D is available with the annotate, checkout, diff, export,
history, ls, rdiff, rls, rtag, tag, and  update  commands.

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(The  history  command uses this option in a slightly dif-
ferent way; see node history options' in the CVS manual).

For a complete description of the date formats accepted by
cvs, see node Date input formats' in the CVS manual.

Remember to quote the argument to the -D flag so that your
shell  doesn't interpret spaces as argument separators.  A
command using the -D flag can look like this:

$cvs diff -D "1 hour ago" cvs.texinfo -f When you specify a particular date or tag to cvs commands, they normally ignore files that do not contain the tag (or did not exist prior to the date) that you specified. Use the -f option if you want files retrieved even when there is no match for the tag or date. (The most recent revi- sion of the file will be used). Note that even with -f, a tag that you specify must exist (that is, in some file, not necessary in every file). This is so that cvs will continue to give an error if you mistype a tag name. -f is available with these commands: annotate, checkout, export, rdiff, rtag, and update. WARNING: The commit and remove commands also have a -f option, but it has a different behavior for those com- mands. See see node commit options' in the CVS manual, and see node Removing files' in the CVS manual. -k kflag Override the default processing of RCS keywords other than -kb. see node Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual, for the meaning of kflag. Used with the checkout and update commands, your kflag specification is sticky; that is, when you use this option with a checkout or update command, cvs associates your selected kflag with any files it operates on, and continues to use that kflag with future commands on the same files until you specify SunOS 5.11 Last change: 9 User Commands CVS(1) otherwise. The -k option is available with the add, checkout, diff, export, import, rdiff, and update commands. WARNING: Prior to CVS version 1.12.2, the -k flag overrode the -kb indication for a binary file. This could some- times corrupt binary files. see node Merging and key- words' in the CVS manual, for more. -l Local; run only in current working directory, rather than recursing through subdirectories. Available with the following commands: annotate, checkout, commit, diff, edit, editors, export, log, rdiff, remove, rtag, status, tag, unedit, update, watch, and watchers. -m message Use message as log information, instead of invoking an editor. Available with the following commands: add, commit and import. -n Do not run any tag program. (A program can be specified to run in the modules database (see node modules' in the CVS manual); this option bypasses it). Note: this is not the same as the cvs -n program option, which you can specify to the left of a cvs command! Available with the checkout, commit, export, and rtag com- mands. -P Prune empty directories. See see node Removing directo- ries' in the CVS manual. SunOS 5.11 Last change: 10 User Commands CVS(1) -p Pipe the files retrieved from the repository to standard output, rather than writing them in the current directory. Available with the checkout and update commands. -R Process directories recursively. This is the default for all cvs commands, with the exception of ls & rls. Available with the following commands: annotate, checkout, commit, diff, edit, editors, export, ls, rdiff, remove, rls, rtag, status, tag, unedit, update, watch, and watch- ers. -r tag -r tag[:date] Use the revision specified by the tag argument (and the date argument for the commands which accept it) instead of the default head revision. As well as arbitrary tags defined with the tag or rtag command, two special tags are always available: HEAD refers to the most recent version available in the repository, and BASE refers to the revi- sion you last checked out into the current working direc- tory. The tag specification is sticky when you use this with checkout or update to make your own copy of a file: cvs remembers the tag and continues to use it on future update commands, until you specify otherwise (for more informa- tion on sticky tags/dates, see node Sticky tags' in the CVS manual). The tag can be either a symbolic or numeric tag, as described in see node Tags' in the CVS manual, or the name of a branch, as described in see node Branching and merging' in the CVS manual. When tag is the name of a branch, some commands accept the optional date argument to specify the revision as of the given date on the branch. When a command expects a specific revision, the name of a branch is interpreted as the most recent revision on that SunOS 5.11 Last change: 11 User Commands CVS(1) branch. Specifying the -q global option along with the -r command option is often useful, to suppress the warning messages when the rcs file does not contain the specified tag. Note: this is not the same as the overall cvs -r option, which you can specify to the left of a cvs command! -r tag is available with the commit and history commands. -r tag[:date] is available with the annotate, checkout, diff, export, rdiff, rtag, and update commands. -W Specify file names that should be filtered. You can use this option repeatedly. The spec can be a file name pat- tern of the same type that you can specify in the .cvswrappers file. Available with the following commands: import, and update. admin Administration o Requires: repository, working directory. o Changes: repository. o Synonym: rcs This is the cvs interface to assorted administrative facilities. Some of them have questionable usefulness for cvs but exist for historical purposes. Some of the ques- tionable options are likely to disappear in the future. This command does work recursively, so extreme care should be used. On unix, if there is a group named cvsadmin, only members of that group can run cvs admin commands, except for those specified using the UserAdminOptions configuration option in the CVSROOT/config file. Options specified using User- AdminOptions can be run by any user. See see node con- fig' in the CVS manual for more on UserAdminOptions. The cvsadmin group should exist on the server, or any sys- tem running the non-client/server cvs. To disallow cvs admin for all users, create a group with no users in it. On NT, the cvsadmin feature does not exist and all users SunOS 5.11 Last change: 12 User Commands CVS(1) can run cvs admin. admin options Some of these options have questionable usefulness for cvs but exist for historical purposes. Some even make it impos- sible to use cvs until you undo the effect! -Aoldfile Might not work together with cvs. Append the access list of oldfile to the access list of the rcs file. -alogins Might not work together with cvs. Append the login names appearing in the comma-separated list logins to the access list of the rcs file. -b[rev] Set the default branch to rev. In cvs, you normally do not manipulate default branches; sticky tags (see node Sticky tags' in the CVS manual) are a better way to decide which branch you want to work on. There is one reason to run cvs admin -b: to revert to the vendor's ver- sion when using vendor branches (see node Reverting local changes' in the CVS manual). There can be no space between -b and its argument. -cstring Sets the comment leader to string. The comment leader is not used by current versions of cvs or rcs 5.7. There- fore, you can almost surely not worry about it. see node Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual. -e[logins] Might not work together with cvs. Erase the login names appearing in the comma-separated list logins from the access list of the RCS file. If logins is omitted, erase SunOS 5.11 Last change: 13 User Commands CVS(1) the entire access list. There can be no space between -e and its argument. -I Run interactively, even if the standard input is not a terminal. This option does not work with the client/server cvs and is likely to disappear in a future release of cvs. -i Useless with cvs. This creates and initializes a new rcs file, without depositing a revision. With cvs, add files with the cvs add command (see node Adding files' in the CVS manual). -ksubst Set the default keyword substitution to subst. see node Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual. Giving an explicit -k option to cvs update, cvs export, or cvs checkout overrides this default. -l[rev] Lock the revision with number rev. If a branch is given, lock the latest revision on that branch. If rev is omit- ted, lock the latest revision on the default branch. There can be no space between -l and its argument. This can be used in conjunction with the rcslock.pl script in the contrib directory of the cvs source distribution to provide reserved checkouts (where only one user can be editing a given file at a time). See the comments in that file for details (and see the README file in that direc- tory for disclaimers about the unsupported nature of con- trib). According to comments in that file, locking must set to strict (which is the default). -L SunOS 5.11 Last change: 14 User Commands CVS(1) Set locking to strict. Strict locking means that the owner of an RCS file is not exempt from locking for checkin. For use with cvs, strict locking must be set; see the discussion under the -l option above. -mrev:msg Replace the log message of revision rev with msg. -Nname[:[rev]] Act like -n, except override any previous assignment of name. For use with magic branches, see see node Magic branch numbers' in the CVS manual. -nname[:[rev]] Associate the symbolic name name with the branch or revi- sion rev. It is normally better to use cvs tag or cvs rtag instead. Delete the symbolic name if both : and rev are omitted; otherwise, print an error message if name is already associated with another number. If rev is sym- bolic, it is expanded before association. A rev consist- ing of a branch number followed by a . stands for the cur- rent latest revision in the branch. A : with an empty rev stands for the current latest revision on the default branch, normally the trunk. For example, cvs admin -nname: associates name with the current latest revision of all the RCS files; this contrasts with cvs admin -nname:$ which associates name with the  revision  numbers
extracted  from keyword strings in the corresponding work-
ing files.

-orange

Deletes (outdates) the revisions given by range.

Note that this command can be quite dangerous  unless  you
know exactly what you are doing (for example see the warn-
ings below about how the rev1:rev2 syntax is confusing).

If you are short on disc this option might help you.   But
think  twice  before  using  it--there  is no way short of
restoring the latest backup to undo this command!  If  you

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delete different revisions than you planned, either due to
carelessness or (heaven forbid) a cvs  bug,  there  is  no
opportunity  to correct the error before the revisions are
deleted.  It probably would be a good idea  to  experiment
on a copy of the repository first.

Specify range in one of the following ways:

rev1::rev2

Collapse  all  revisions  between rev1 and rev2, so that
cvs only stores the differences  associated  with  going
from rev1 to rev2, not intermediate steps.  For example,
after -o 1.3::1.5 one can retrieve revision  1.3,  revi-
sion 1.5, or the differences to get from 1.3 to 1.5, but
not the revision 1.4, or the differences between 1.3 and
1.4.   Other  examples: -o 1.3::1.4 and -o 1.3::1.3 have
no effect, because there are no  intermediate  revisions
to remove.

::rev

Collapse  revisions  between the beginning of the branch
containing rev and rev itself.  The branchpoint and  rev
are  left  intact.   For  example,  -o ::1.3.2.6 deletes
revision 1.3.2.1, revision 1.3.2.5,  and  everything  in
between, but leaves 1.3 and 1.3.2.6 intact.

rev::

Collapse revisions between rev and the end of the branch
containing rev.  Revision rev is  left  intact  but  the

rev

Delete the revision rev.  For example, -o 1.3 is equiva-
lent to -o 1.2::1.4.

rev1:rev2

Delete the revisions from rev1 to  rev2,  inclusive,  on
the  same branch.  One will not be able to retrieve rev1
or rev2 or any of the revisions in between.   For  exam-
ple,  the  command cvs admin -oR_1_01:R_1_02 . is rarely
useful.  It means to delete revisions up to, and includ-
ing,  the  tag  R_1_02.  But beware!  If there are files

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that have not changed between R_1_02 and R_1_03 the file
will have the same numerical revision number assigned to
the tags R_1_02 and R_1_03.  So  not  only  will  it  be
impossible  to retrieve R_1_02; R_1_03 will also have to
be restored from the tapes!  In most cases you  want  to

:rev

Delete  revisions  from the beginning of the branch con-
taining rev up to and including rev.

rev:

Delete  revisions  from  revision  rev,  including   rev
itself, to the end of the branch containing rev.

None of the revisions to be deleted may have branches or
locks.

If any of the revisions  to  be  deleted  have  symbolic
names,  and  one  specifies one of the :: syntaxes, then
cvs will give an error and not delete any revisions.  If
you  really  want  to delete both the symbolic names and
the revisions, first delete the symbolic names with  cvs
tag  -d,  then  run  cvs admin -o.  If one specifies the
non-:: syntaxes, then cvs will delete the revisions  but
leave  the  symbolic names pointing to nonexistent revi-
sions.  This behavior  is  preserved  for  compatibility
with previous versions of cvs, but because it isn't very
useful, in the future it may change to be  like  the  ::
case.

Due to the way cvs handles branches rev cannot be speci-
fied symbolically if it is a branch.   see  node  Magic
branch numbers' in the CVS manual, for an explanation.

Make  sure  that  no-one  has  checked out a copy of the
revision you outdate.  Strange things will happen if  he
starts  to  edit  it and tries to check it back in.  For
this reason, this option is not a good way to take  back
a  bogus commit; commit a new revision undoing the bogus
change instead (see node Merging two revisions' in  the
CVS manual).

-q

Run quietly; do not print diagnostics.

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-sstate[:rev]

Useful  with cvs.  Set the state attribute of the revision
rev to state.  If rev is a branch number, assume the  lat-
est  revision  on  that branch.  If rev is omitted, assume
the latest revision on the default branch.  Any identifier
is  acceptable  for  state.  A useful set of states is Exp
(for  experimental),  Stab  (for  stable),  and  Rel  (for
released).  By default, the state of a new revision is set
to Exp when it is created.  The state is  visible  in  the
output  from  cvs  log (see node log' in the CVS manual),
and in the $Log$ and $State$ keywords (see  node  Keyword
substitution'  in the CVS manual).  Note that cvs uses the
dead state for its own purposes (see node Attic'  in  the
CVS  manual); to take a file to or from the dead state use
removing' in the CVS manual), not cvs admin -s.

-t[file]

Useful with cvs.  Write descriptive text from the contents
of the named file into the RCS file, deleting the existing
text.   The  file  pathname  may  not  begin  with -.  The
descriptive text can be seen in the output  from  cvs  log
(see node log' in the CVS manual).  There can be no space
between -t and its argument.

If file is omitted, obtain the text from  standard  input,
terminated  by  end-of-file  or  by a line containing . by
itself.  Prompt for the text if interaction  is  possible;
see -I.

-t-string

Similar  to -tfile. Write descriptive text from the string
into the rcs file, deleting the existing text.  There  can
be no space between -t and its argument.

-U

Set  locking to non-strict.  Non-strict locking means that
the owner of a file need not lock a revision for  checkin.
For use with cvs, strict locking must be set; see the dis-
cussion under the -l option above.

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-u[rev]

See the option -l above, for a discussion  of  using  this
option with cvs.  Unlock the revision with number rev.  If
a branch is given, unlock  the  latest  revision  on  that
branch.  If rev is omitted, remove the latest lock held by
the caller.  Normally, only the locker of a  revision  may
unlock  it;  somebody else unlocking a revision breaks the
lock.  This causes the original locker to be sent a commit
notification  (see node Getting Notified' in the CVS man-
ual).  There can be no space between -u and its  argument.

-Vn

In previous versions of cvs, this option meant to write an
rcs file which would be acceptable to rcs version  n,  but
it  is  now  obsolete  and  specifying  it will produce an
error.

-xsuffixes

In previous versions of cvs, this was documented as a  way
of  specifying  the  names of the rcs files.  However, cvs
has always required that the rcs files used by cvs end  in
,v, so this option has never done anything useful.

annotate
What revision modified each line of a file?
o Synopsis: annotate [options] files...

o Requires: repository.

o Changes: nothing.

For  each  file  in  files, print the head revision of the
trunk, together with information on the last  modification
for each line.

annotate options
These  standard  options are supported by annotate (see node
Common options' in the CVS manual, for a complete  descrip-
tion of them):

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-l

Local directory only, no recursion.

-R

Process directories recursively.

-f

-F

Annotate binary files.

-r tag[:date]

Annotate  file  as of specified revision/tag or, when date
is specified and tag is a branch tag, the version from the
branch  tag  as  it existed on date.  See see node Common
options' in the CVS manual.

-D date

Annotate file as of specified date.

annotate example
For example:

$cvs annotate ssfile Annotations for ssfile *************** 1.1 (mary 27-Mar-96): ssfile line 1 1.2 (joe 28-Mar-96): ssfile line 2 SunOS 5.11 Last change: 20 User Commands CVS(1) The file ssfile currently contains two lines. The ssfile line 1 line was checked in by mary on March 27. Then, on March 28, joe added a line ssfile line 2, without modifying the ssfile line 1 line. This report doesn't tell you any- thing about lines which have been deleted or replaced; you need to use cvs diff for that (see node diff' in the CVS manual). The options to cvs annotate are listed in see node Invoking CVS' in the CVS manual, and can be used to select the files and revisions to annotate. The options are described in more detail there and in see node Common options' in the CVS manual. checkout Check out sources for editing o Synopsis: checkout [options] modules... o Requires: repository. o Changes: working directory. o Synonyms: co, get Create or update a working directory containing copies of the source files specified by modules. You must execute checkout before using most of the other cvs commands, since most of them operate on your working directory. The modules are either symbolic names for some collection of source directories and files, or paths to directories or files in the repository. The symbolic names are defined in the modules file. see node modules' in the CVS manual. Depending on the modules you specify, checkout may recur- sively create directories and populate them with the appropriate source files. You can then edit these source files at any time (regardless of whether other software developers are editing their own copies of the sources); update them to include new changes applied by others to the source repository; or commit your work as a permanent change to the source repository. Note that checkout is used to create directories. The top-level directory created is always added to the direc- tory where checkout is invoked, and usually has the same name as the specified module. In the case of a module alias, the created sub-directory may have a different name, but you can be sure that it will be a sub-directory, and that checkout will show the relative path leading to SunOS 5.11 Last change: 21 User Commands CVS(1) each file as it is extracted into your private work area (unless you specify the -Q global option). The files created by checkout are created read-write, unless the -r option to cvs (see node Global options' in the CVS manual) is specified, the CVSREAD environment variable is specified (see node Environment variables' in the CVS manual), or a watch is in effect for that file (see node Watches' in the CVS manual). Note that running checkout on a directory that was already built by a prior checkout is also permitted. This is sim- ilar to specifying the -d option to the update command in the sense that new directories that have been created in the repository will appear in your work area. However, checkout takes a module name whereas update takes a direc- tory name. Also to use checkout this way it must be run from the top level directory (where you originally ran checkout from), so before you run checkout to update an existing directory, don't forget to change your directory to the top level directory. For the output produced by the checkout command see see node update output' in the CVS manual. checkout options These standard options are supported by checkout (see node Common options' in the CVS manual, for a complete descrip- tion of them): -D date Use the most recent revision no later than date. This option is sticky, and implies -P. See see node Sticky tags' in the CVS manual, for more information on sticky tags/dates. -f Only useful with the -D or -r flags. If no matching revi- sion is found, retrieve the most recent revision (instead of ignoring the file). -k kflag SunOS 5.11 Last change: 22 User Commands CVS(1) Process keywords according to kflag. See see node Key- word substitution' in the CVS manual. This option is sticky; future updates of this file in this working direc- tory will use the same kflag. The status command can be viewed to see the sticky options. See see node Invoking CVS' in the CVS manual, for more information on the status command. -l Local; run only in current working directory. -n Do not run any checkout program (as specified with the -o option in the modules file; see node modules' in the CVS manual). -P Prune empty directories. See see node Moving directo- ries' in the CVS manual. -p Pipe files to the standard output. -R Checkout directories recursively. This option is on by default. -r tag[:date] Checkout the revision specified by tag or, when date is specified and tag is a branch tag, the version from the branch tag as it existed on date. This option is sticky, and implies -P. See see node Sticky tags' in the CVS manual, for more information on sticky tags/dates. Also, see see node Common options' in the CVS manual. SunOS 5.11 Last change: 23 User Commands CVS(1) In addition to those, you can use these special command options with checkout: -A Reset any sticky tags, dates, or -k options. See see node Sticky tags' in the CVS manual, for more information on sticky tags/dates. -c Copy the module file, sorted, to the standard output, instead of creating or modifying any files or directories in your working directory. -d dir Create a directory called dir for the working files, instead of using the module name. In general, using this flag is equivalent to using mkdir dir; cd dir followed by the checkout command without the -d flag. There is an important exception, however. It is very con- venient when checking out a single item to have the output appear in a directory that doesn't contain empty interme- diate directories. In this case only, cvs tries to shorten'' pathnames to avoid those empty directories. For example, given a module foo that contains the file bar.c, the command cvs co -d dir foo will create directory dir and place bar.c inside. Similarly, given a module bar which has subdirectory baz wherein there is a file quux.c, the command cvs co -d dir bar/baz will create directory dir and place quux.c inside. Using the -N flag will defeat this behavior. Given the same module definitions above, cvs co -N -d dir foo will create directories dir/foo and place bar.c inside, while cvs co -N -d dir bar/baz will create directories dir/bar/baz and place quux.c inside. -j tag With two -j options, merge changes from the revision SunOS 5.11 Last change: 24 User Commands CVS(1) specified with the first -j option to the revision speci- fied with the second j option, into the working directory. With one -j option, merge changes from the ancestor revi- sion to the revision specified with the -j option, into the working directory. The ancestor revision is the com- mon ancestor of the revision which the working directory is based on, and the revision specified in the -j option. In addition, each -j option can contain an optional date specification which, when used with branches, can limit the chosen revision to one within a specific date. An optional date is specified by adding a colon (:) to the tag: -jSymbolic_Tag:Date_Specifier. see node Branching and merging' in the CVS manual. -N Only useful together with -d dir. With this option, cvs will not shorten'' module paths in your working direc- tory when you check out a single module. See the -d flag for examples and a discussion. -s Like -c, but include the status of all modules, and sort it by the status string. see node modules' in the CVS manual, for info about the -s option that is used inside the modules file to set the module status. checkout examples Get a copy of the module tc:$ cvs checkout tc

Get a copy of the module tc as it looked one day ago:

$cvs checkout -D yesterday tc SunOS 5.11 Last change: 25 User Commands CVS(1) commit Check files into the repository o Synopsis: commit [-lnRf] [-m 'log_message' | -F file] [-r revision] [files...] o Requires: working directory, repository. o Changes: repository. o Synonym: ci Use commit when you want to incorporate changes from your working source files into the source repository. If you don't specify particular files to commit, all of the files in your working current directory are examined. commit is careful to change in the repository only those files that you have really changed. By default (or if you explicitly specify the -R option), files in subdirectories are also examined and committed if they have changed; you can use the -l option to limit commit to the current directory only. commit verifies that the selected files are up to date with the current revisions in the source repository; it will notify you, and exit without committing, if any of the specified files must be made current first with update (see node update' in the CVS manual). commit does not call the update command for you, but rather leaves that for you to do when the time is right. When all is well, an editor is invoked to allow you to enter a log message that will be written to one or more logging programs (see node modules' in the CVS manual, and see node loginfo' in the CVS manual) and placed in the rcs file inside the repository. This log message can be retrieved with the log command; see see node log' in the CVS manual. You can specify the log message on the command line with the -m message option, and thus avoid the editor invocation, or use the -F file option to spec- ify that the argument file contains the log message. At commit, a unique commitid is placed in the rcs file inside the repository. All files committed at once get the same commitid. The commitid can be retrieved with the log and status command; see see node log' in the CVS manual, see node File status' in the CVS manual. commit options These standard options are supported by commit (see node Common options' in the CVS manual, for a complete SunOS 5.11 Last change: 26 User Commands CVS(1) description of them): -l Local; run only in current working directory. -R Commit directories recursively. This is on by default. -r revision Commit to revision. revision must be either a branch, or a revision on the main trunk that is higher than any existing revision number (see node Assigning revisions' in the CVS manual). You cannot commit to a specific revi- sion on a branch. commit also supports these options: -c Refuse to commit files unless the user has registered a valid edit on the file via cvs edit. This is most useful when commit -c and edit -c have been placed in all .cvsrc files. A commit can be forced anyways by either regester- ing an edit retroactively via cvs edit (no changes to the file will be lost) or using the -f option to commit. Sup- port for commit -c requires both client and a server ver- sions 1.12.10 or greater. -F file Read the log message from file, instead of invoking an editor. -f Note that this is not the standard behavior of the -f option as defined in see node Common options' in the CVS SunOS 5.11 Last change: 27 User Commands CVS(1) manual. Force cvs to commit a new revision even if you haven't made any changes to the file. As of cvs version 1.12.10, it also causes the -c option to be ignored. If the cur- rent revision of file is 1.7, then the following two com- mands are equivalent:$ cvs commit -f file
$cvs commit -r 1.8 file The -f option disables recursion (i.e., it implies -l). To force cvs to commit a new revision for all files in all subdirectories, you must use -f -R. -m message Use message as the log message, instead of invoking an editor. commit examples Committing to a branch You can commit to a branch revision (one that has an even number of dots) with the -r option. To create a branch revision, use the -b option of the rtag or tag commands (see node Branching and merging' in the CVS manual). Then, either checkout or update can be used to base your sources on the newly created branch. From that point on, all commit changes made within these working sources will be automati- cally added to a branch revision, thereby not disturbing main-line development in any way. For example, if you had to create a patch to the 1.2 version of the product, even though the 2.0 version is already under development, you might do:$ cvs rtag -b -r FCS1_2 FCS1_2_Patch product_module
$cvs checkout -r FCS1_2_Patch product_module$ cd product_module
[[ hack away ]]
$cvs commit SunOS 5.11 Last change: 28 User Commands CVS(1) This works automatically since the -r option is sticky. Creating the branch after editing Say you have been working on some extremely experimental software, based on whatever revision you happened to check- out last week. If others in your group would like to work on this software with you, but without disturbing main-line development, you could commit your change to a new branch. Others can then checkout your experimental stuff and utilize the full benefit of cvs conflict resolution. The scenario might look like: [[ hacked sources are present ]]$ cvs tag -b EXPR1
$cvs update -r EXPR1$ cvs commit

The update command will make the -r EXPR1 option  sticky  on
all  files.   Note that your changes to the files will never
be removed by the update command.  The commit will automati-
cally  commit  to  the  correct  branch,  because  the -r is
sticky.  You could also do like this:

[[ hacked sources are present ]]
$cvs tag -b EXPR1$ cvs commit -r EXPR1

but then, only those files that were  changed  by  you  will
have the -r EXPR1 sticky flag.  If you hack away, and commit
without specifying the -r EXPR1 flag, some files  may  acci-
dentally end up on the main trunk.

To  work  with  you on the experimental change, others would
simply do

cvs checkout -r EXPR1 whatever_module SunOS 5.11 Last change: 29 User Commands CVS(1) diff Show differences between revisions o Synopsis: diff [-lR] [-k kflag] [format_options] [(-r rev1[:date1] | -D date1) [-r rev2[:date2] | -D date2]] [files...] o Requires: working directory, repository. o Changes: nothing. The diff command is used to compare different revisions of files. The default action is to compare your working files with the revisions they were based on, and report any differences that are found. If any file names are given, only those files are com- pared. If any directories are given, all files under them will be compared. The exit status for diff is different than for other cvs commands; for details see node Exit status' in the CVS manual. diff options These standard options are supported by diff (see node Com- mon options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them): -D date Use the most recent revision no later than date. See -r for how this affects the comparison. -k kflag Process keywords according to kflag. See see node Key- word substitution' in the CVS manual. -l Local; run only in current working directory. -R SunOS 5.11 Last change: 30 User Commands CVS(1) Examine directories recursively. This option is on by default. -r tag[:date] Compare with revision specified by tag or, when date is specified and tag is a branch tag, the version from the branch tag as it existed on date. Zero, one or two -r options can be present. With no -r option, the working file will be compared with the revision it was based on. With one -r, that revision will be compared to your cur- rent working file. With two -r options those two revi- sions will be compared (and your working file will not affect the outcome in any way). One or both -r options can be replaced by a -D date option, described above. The following options specify the format of the output. They have the same meaning as in GNU diff. Most options have two equivalent names, one of which is a single letter preceded by -, and the other of which is a long name pre- ceded by --. -lines Show lines (an integer) lines of context. This option does not specify an output format by itself; it has no effect unless it is combined with -c or -u. This option is obsolete. For proper operation, patch typically needs at least two lines of context. -a Treat all files as text and compare them line-by-line, even if they do not seem to be text. -b Ignore trailing white space and consider all other sequences of one or more white space characters to be equivalent. SunOS 5.11 Last change: 31 User Commands CVS(1) -B Ignore changes that just insert or delete blank lines. --binary Read and write data in binary mode. --brief Report only whether the files differ, not the details of the differences. -c Use the context output format. -C lines --context[=lines] Use the context output format, showing lines (an integer) lines of context, or three if lines is not given. For proper operation, patch typically needs at least two lines of context. --changed-group-format=format Use format to output a line group containing differing lines from both files in if-then-else format. see node Line group formats' in the CVS manual. -d Change the algorithm to perhaps find a smaller set of changes. This makes diff slower (sometimes much slower). SunOS 5.11 Last change: 32 User Commands CVS(1) -e --ed Make output that is a valid ed script. --expand-tabs Expand tabs to spaces in the output, to preserve the alignment of tabs in the input files. -f Make output that looks vaguely like an ed script but has changes in the order they appear in the file. -F regexp In context and unified format, for each hunk of differ- ences, show some of the last preceding line that matches regexp. --forward-ed Make output that looks vaguely like an ed script but has changes in the order they appear in the file. -H Use heuristics to speed handling of large files that have numerous scattered small changes. --horizon-lines=lines Do not discard the last lines lines of the common prefix and the first lines lines of the common suffix. SunOS 5.11 Last change: 33 User Commands CVS(1) -i Ignore changes in case; consider upper- and lower-case letters equivalent. -I regexp Ignore changes that just insert or delete lines that match regexp. --ifdef=name Make merged if-then-else output using name. --ignore-all-space Ignore white space when comparing lines. --ignore-blank-lines Ignore changes that just insert or delete blank lines. --ignore-case Ignore changes in case; consider upper- and lower-case to be the same. --ignore-matching-lines=regexp Ignore changes that just insert or delete lines that match regexp. --ignore-space-change Ignore trailing white space and consider all other sequences of one or more white space characters to be equivalent. SunOS 5.11 Last change: 34 User Commands CVS(1) --initial-tab Output a tab rather than a space before the text of a line in normal or context format. This causes the alignment of tabs in the line to look normal. -L label Use label instead of the file name in the context format and unified format headers. --label=label Use label instead of the file name in the context format and unified format headers. --left-column Print only the left column of two common lines in side by side format. --line-format=format Use format to output all input lines in if-then-else for- mat. see node Line formats' in the CVS manual. --minimal Change the algorithm to perhaps find a smaller set of changes. This makes diff slower (sometimes much slower). -n Output RCS-format diffs; like -f except that each command specifies the number of lines affected. -N SunOS 5.11 Last change: 35 User Commands CVS(1) --new-file In directory comparison, if a file is found in only one directory, treat it as present but empty in the other directory. --new-group-format=format Use format to output a group of lines taken from just the second file in if-then-else format. see node Line group formats' in the CVS manual. --new-line-format=format Use format to output a line taken from just the second file in if-then-else format. see node Line formats' in the CVS manual. --old-group-format=format Use format to output a group of lines taken from just the first file in if-then-else format. see node Line group formats' in the CVS manual. --old-line-format=format Use format to output a line taken from just the first file in if-then-else format. see node Line formats' in the CVS manual. -p Show which C function each change is in. --rcs Output RCS-format diffs; like -f except that each command SunOS 5.11 Last change: 36 User Commands CVS(1) specifies the number of lines affected. --report-identical-files -s Report when two files are the same. --show-c-function Show which C function each change is in. --show-function-line=regexp In context and unified format, for each hunk of differ- ences, show some of the last preceding line that matches regexp. --side-by-side Use the side by side output format. --speed-large-files Use heuristics to speed handling of large files that have numerous scattered small changes. --suppress-common-lines Do not print common lines in side by side format. -t Expand tabs to spaces in the output, to preserve the alignment of tabs in the input files. SunOS 5.11 Last change: 37 User Commands CVS(1) -T Output a tab rather than a space before the text of a line in normal or context format. This causes the alignment of tabs in the line to look normal. --text Treat all files as text and compare them line-by-line, even if they do not appear to be text. -u Use the unified output format. --unchanged-group-format=format Use format to output a group of common lines taken from both files in if-then-else format. see node Line group formats' in the CVS manual. --unchanged-line-format=format Use format to output a line common to both files in if- then-else format. see node Line formats' in the CVS man- ual. -U lines --unified[=lines] Use the unified output format, showing lines (an integer) lines of context, or three if lines is not given. For proper operation, patch typically needs at least two lines of context. SunOS 5.11 Last change: 38 User Commands CVS(1) -w Ignore white space when comparing lines. -W columns --width=columns Use an output width of columns in side by side format. -y Use the side by side output format. Line group formats Line group formats let you specify formats suitable for many applications that allow if-then-else input, including pro- gramming languages and text formatting languages. A line group format specifies the output format for a contiguous group of similar lines. For example, the following command compares the TeX file myfile with the original version from the repository, and outputs a merged file in which old regions are surrounded by \begin{em}-\end{em} lines, and new regions are surrounded by \begin{bf}-\end{bf} lines. cvs diff \ --old-group-format='\begin{em} %<\end{em} ' \ --new-group-format='\begin{bf} %>\end{bf} ' \ myfile The following command is equivalent to the above example, but it is a little more verbose, because it spells out the default line group formats. SunOS 5.11 Last change: 39 User Commands CVS(1) cvs diff \ --old-group-format='\begin{em} %<\end{em} ' \ --new-group-format='\begin{bf} %>\end{bf} ' \ --unchanged-group-format='%=' \ --changed-group-format='\begin{em} %<\end{em} \begin{bf} %>\end{bf} ' \ myfile Here is a more advanced example, which outputs a diff list- ing with headers containing line numbers in a plain English'' style. cvs diff \ --unchanged-group-format='' \ --old-group-format='-------- %dn line%(n=1?:s) deleted at %df: %<' \ --new-group-format='-------- %dN line%(N=1?:s) added after %de: %>' \ --changed-group-format='-------- %dn line%(n=1?:s) changed at %df: %<-------- to: %>' \ myfile To specify a line group format, use one of the options listed below. You can specify up to four line group for- mats, one for each kind of line group. You should quote format, because it typically contains shell metacharacters. --old-group-format=format These line groups are hunks containing only lines from the first file. The default old group format is the same as the changed group format if it is specified; otherwise it SunOS 5.11 Last change: 40 User Commands CVS(1) is a format that outputs the line group as-is. --new-group-format=format These line groups are hunks containing only lines from the second file. The default new group format is same as the changed group format if it is specified; otherwise it is a format that outputs the line group as-is. --changed-group-format=format These line groups are hunks containing lines from both files. The default changed group format is the concatena- tion of the old and new group formats. --unchanged-group-format=format These line groups contain lines common to both files. The default unchanged group format is a format that outputs the line group as-is. In a line group format, ordinary characters represent themselves; conversion specifications start with % and have one of the following forms. %< stands for the lines from the first file, including the trailing newline. Each line is formatted according to the old line format (see node Line formats' in the CVS man- ual). %> stands for the lines from the second file, including the trailing newline. Each line is formatted according to the new line format. %= SunOS 5.11 Last change: 41 User Commands CVS(1) stands for the lines common to both files, including the trailing newline. Each line is formatted according to the unchanged line format. %% stands for %. %c'C' where C is a single character, stands for C. C may not be a backslash or an apostrophe. For example, %c':' stands for a colon, even inside the then-part of an if-then-else format, which a colon would normally terminate. %c'\O' where O is a string of 1, 2, or 3 octal digits, stands for the character with octal code O. For example, %c'\0' stands for a null character. Fn where F is a printf conversion specification and n is one of the following letters, stands for n's value formatted with F. e The line number of the line just before the group in the old file. f The line number of the first line in the group in the old file; equals e + 1. l The line number of the last line in the group in the old file. SunOS 5.11 Last change: 42 User Commands CVS(1) m The line number of the line just after the group in the old file; equals l + 1. n The number of lines in the group in the old file; equals l - f + 1. E, F, L, M, N Likewise, for lines in the new file. The printf conversion specification can be %d, %o, %x, or %X, specifying decimal, octal, lower case hexadeci- mal, or upper case hexadecimal output respectively. After the % the following options can appear in sequence: a - specifying left-justification; an integer specifying the minimum field width; and a period fol- lowed by an optional integer specifying the minimum num- ber of digits. For example, %5dN prints the number of new lines in the group in a field of width 5 characters, using the printf format "%5d". (A=B?T:E) If A equals B then T else E. A and B are each either a decimal constant or a single letter interpreted as above. This format spec is equivalent to T if A's value equals B's; otherwise it is equivalent to E. For example, %(N=0?no:%dN) line%(N=1?:s) is equivalent to no lines if N (the number of lines in the group in the new file) is 0, to 1 line if N is 1, and to %dN lines other- wise. Line formats Line formats control how each line taken from an input file is output as part of a line group in if-then-else format. For example, the following command outputs text with a one- column change indicator to the left of the text. The first column of output is - for deleted lines, | for added lines, and a space for unchanged lines. The formats contain new- line characters where newlines are desired on output. SunOS 5.11 Last change: 43 User Commands CVS(1) cvs diff \ --old-line-format='-%l ' \ --new-line-format='|%l ' \ --unchanged-line-format=' %l ' \ myfile To specify a line format, use one of the following options. You should quote format, since it often contains shell metacharacters. --old-line-format=format formats lines just from the first file. --new-line-format=format formats lines just from the second file. --unchanged-line-format=format formats lines common to both files. --line-format=format formats all lines; in effect, it sets all three above options simultaneously. In a line format, ordinary characters represent them- selves; conversion specifications start with % and have one of the following forms. %l stands for the contents of the line, not counting its trailing newline (if any). This format ignores whether the line is incomplete. SunOS 5.11 Last change: 44 User Commands CVS(1) %L stands for the contents of the line, including its trail- ing newline (if any). If a line is incomplete, this for- mat preserves its incompleteness. %% stands for %. %c'C' where C is a single character, stands for C. C may not be a backslash or an apostrophe. For example, %c':' stands for a colon. %c'\O' where O is a string of 1, 2, or 3 octal digits, stands for the character with octal code O. For example, %c'\0' stands for a null character. Fn where F is a printf conversion specification, stands for the line number formatted with F. For example, %.5dn prints the line number using the printf format "%.5d". see node Line group formats' in the CVS manual, for more about printf conversion specifications. The default line format is %l followed by a newline char- acter. If the input contains tab characters and it is important that they line up on output, you should ensure that %l or %L in a line format is just after a tab stop (e.g. by pre- ceding %l or %L with a tab character), or you should use the -t or --expand-tabs option. Taken together, the line and line group formats let you specify many different formats. For example, the follow- ing command uses a format similar to diff's normal format. SunOS 5.11 Last change: 45 User Commands CVS(1) You can tailor this command to get fine control over diff's output. cvs diff \ --old-line-format='< %l ' \ --new-line-format='> %l ' \ --old-group-format='%df%(f=l?:,%dl)d%dE %<' \ --new-group-format='%dea%dF%(F=L?:,%dL) %>' \ --changed-group-format='%df%(f=l?:,%dl)c%dF%(F=L?:,%dL) %<-- %>' \ --unchanged-group-format='' \ myfile diff examples The following line produces a Unidiff (-u flag) between revision 1.14 and 1.19 of backend.c. Due to the -kk flag no keywords are substituted, so differences that only depend on keyword substitution are ignored. cvs diff -kk -u -r 1.14 -r 1.19 backend.c

Suppose  the experimental branch EXPR1 was based on a set of
files tagged RELEASE_1_0.  To see what has happened on  that
branch, the following can be used:

$cvs diff -r RELEASE_1_0 -r EXPR1 A command like this can be used to produce a context diff between two releases:$ cvs diff -c -r RELEASE_1_0 -r RELEASE_1_1 > diffs

SunOS 5.11                Last change:                         46

User Commands                                              CVS(1)

If you are maintaining ChangeLogs, a command like  the  fol-
write the ChangeLog entry.   All  local  modifications  that
have not yet been committed will be printed.

$cvs diff -u | less export Export sources from CVS, similar to checkout o Synopsis: export [-flNnR] (-r rev[:date] | -D date) [-k subst] [-d dir] module... o Requires: repository. o Changes: current directory. This command is a variant of checkout; use it when you want a copy of the source for module without the cvs administrative directories. For example, you might use export to prepare source for shipment off-site. This com- mand requires that you specify a date or tag (with -D or -r), so that you can count on reproducing the source you ship to others (and thus it always prunes empty directo- ries). One often would like to use -kv with cvs export. This causes any keywords to be expanded such that an import done at some other site will not lose the keyword revision information. But be aware that doesn't handle an export containing binary files correctly. Also be aware that after having used -kv, one can no longer use the ident command (which is part of the rcs suite--see ident(1)) which looks for keyword strings. If you want to be able to use ident you must not use -kv. export options These standard options are supported by export (see node Common options' in the CVS manual, for a complete descrip- tion of them): -D date SunOS 5.11 Last change: 47 User Commands CVS(1) Use the most recent revision no later than date. -f If no matching revision is found, retrieve the most recent revision (instead of ignoring the file). -l Local; run only in current working directory. -n Do not run any checkout program. -R Export directories recursively. This is on by default. -r tag[:date] Export the revision specified by tag or, when date is specified and tag is a branch tag, the version from the branch tag as it existed on date. See see node Common options' in the CVS manual. In addition, these options (that are common to checkout and export) are also supported: -d dir Create a directory called dir for the working files, instead of using the module name. see node checkout options' in the CVS manual, for complete details on how cvs handles this flag. -k subst SunOS 5.11 Last change: 48 User Commands CVS(1) Set keyword expansion mode (see node Substitution modes' in the CVS manual). -N Only useful together with -d dir. see node checkout options' in the CVS manual, for complete details on how cvs handles this flag. history Show status of files and users o Synopsis: history [-report] [-flags] [-options args] [files...] o Requires: the file$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/history

o Changes: nothing.

cvs  can  keep  a history log that tracks each use of most
cvs commands.  You can use history to display this  infor-
mation in various formats.

To  enable  logging,  the LogHistory config option must be
set to some value other than the empty string and the his-
tory  file  specified by the HistoryLogPath option must be
writable by all users who may run the cvs executable  (see
node config' in the CVS manual).

To  enable the history command, logging must be enabled as
above and the HistorySearchPath config  option  (see  node
config'  in  the  CVS manual) must be set to specify some
number of the history logs created thereby and these files
must  be  readable  by each user who might run the history
command.

Creating a repository via the cvs init command will enable
logging  of  all  possible  events to a single history log
file ($CVSROOT/CVSROOT/history) with read and write per- missions for all users (see node Creating a repository' in the CVS manual). Note: history uses -f, -l, -n, and -p in ways that con- flict with the normal use inside cvs (see node Common options' in the CVS manual). history options Several options (shown above as -report) control what kind of report is generated: SunOS 5.11 Last change: 49 User Commands CVS(1) -c Report on each time commit was used (i.e., each time the repository was modified). -e Everything (all record types). Equivalent to specifying -x with all record types. Of course, -e will also include record types which are added in a future version of cvs; if you are writing a script which can only handle certain record types, you'll want to specify -x. -m module Report on a particular module. (You can meaningfully use -m more than once on the command line.) -o Report on checked-out modules. This is the default report type. -T Report on all tags. -x type Extract a particular set of record types type from the cvs history. The types are indicated by single letters, which you may specify in combination. Certain commands have a single record type: F release O SunOS 5.11 Last change: 50 User Commands CVS(1) checkout E export T rtag One of five record types may result from an update: C A merge was necessary but collisions were detected (requiring manual merging). G A merge was necessary and it succeeded. U A working file was copied from the repository. P A working file was patched to match the repository. W The working copy of a file was deleted during update (because it was gone from the repository). One of three record types results from commit: A A file was added for the first time. M A file was modified. R A file was removed. The options shown as -flags constrain or expand the report without requiring option arguments: SunOS 5.11 Last change: 51 User Commands CVS(1) -a Show data for all users (the default is to show data only for the user executing history). -l Show last modification only. -w Show only the records for modifications done from the same working directory where history is executing. The options shown as -options args constrain the report based on an argument: -b str Show data back to a record containing the string str in either the module name, the file name, or the repository path. -D date Show data since date. This is slightly different from the normal use of -D date, which selects the newest revision older than date. -f file Show data for a particular file (you can specify several -f options on the same command line). This is equivalent to specifying the file on the command line. -n module Show data for a particular module (you can specify several -n options on the same command line). SunOS 5.11 Last change: 52 User Commands CVS(1) -p repository Show data for a particular source repository (you can specify several -p options on the same command line). -r rev Show records referring to revisions since the revision or tag named rev appears in individual rcs files. Each rcs file is searched for the revision or tag. -t tag Show records since tag tag was last added to the history file. This differs from the -r flag above in that it reads only the history file, not the rcs files, and is much faster. -u name Show records for user name. -z timezone Show times in the selected records using the specified time zone instead of UTC. import Import sources into CVS, using vendor branches o Synopsis: import [-options] repository vendortag release- tag... o Requires: Repository, source distribution directory. o Changes: repository. Use import to incorporate an entire source distribution from an outside source (e.g., a source vendor) into your source repository directory. You can use this command both for initial creation of a repository, and for whole- sale updates to the module from the outside source. see node Tracking sources' in the CVS manual, for a SunOS 5.11 Last change: 53 User Commands CVS(1) discussion on this subject. The repository argument gives a directory name (or a path to a directory) under the cvs root directory for reposito- ries; if the directory did not exist, import creates it. When you use import for updates to source that has been modified in your source repository (since a prior import), it will notify you of any files that conflict in the two branches of development; use checkout -j to reconcile the differences, as import instructs you to do. If cvs decides a file should be ignored (see node cvsig- nore' in the CVS manual), it does not import it and prints I followed by the filename (see node import output' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of the output). If the file$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/cvswrappers exists, any file
whose names match the specifications in that file will  be
treated  as packages and the appropriate filtering will be
performed on the  file/directory  before  being  imported.
see node Wrappers' in the CVS manual.

The  outside  source  is saved in a first-level branch, by
default 1.1.1.  Updates are leaves  of  this  branch;  for
example,  files  from  the  first  imported  collection of
source will be revision 1.1.1.1, then files from the first
imported update will be revision 1.1.1.2, and so on.

At  least  three  arguments  are  required.  repository is
needed to identify the collection of source.  vendortag is
a  tag  for the entire branch (e.g., for 1.1.1).  You must
also specify at least one releasetag to uniquely  identify
the  files  at  the  leaves  created each time you execute
import.  The releasetag  should  be  new,  not  previously
existing in the repository file, and uniquely identify the
imported release,

Note that import does not change the  directory  in  which
you  invoke  it.   In  particular, it does not set up that
directory as a cvs working directory; if you want to  work
with the sources import them first and then check them out
into a different directory (see node Getting the  source'
in the CVS manual).

import options
This  standard option is supported by import (see node Com-
mon options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description):

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-m message

Use  message  as  log  information, instead of invoking an
editor.

There are the following additional special options.

-b branch

See see node Multiple vendor branches' in the CVS manual.

-k subst

Indicate the keyword expansion mode desired.  This setting
will apply to all files created during the import, but not
to  any  files  that previously existed in the repository.
See see node Substitution modes' in the CVS manual, for a
list of valid -k settings.

-I name

Specify  file  names that should be ignored during import.
You can use this option repeatedly.  To avoid ignoring any
files  at all (even those ignored by default), specify -I
!'.

name can be a file name pattern of the same type that  you
can  specify in the .cvsignore file.  see node cvsignore'
in the CVS manual.

-W spec

Specify file names that should be filtered during  import.
You can use this option repeatedly.

spec  can be a file name pattern of the same type that you
can specify in the .cvswrappers file. see node  Wrappers'
in the CVS manual.

-X

Modify  the algorithm used by cvs when importing new files

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so that new files do not immediately appear  on  the  main
trunk.

Specifically, this flag causes cvs to mark new files as if
they were deleted on the main trunk, by taking the follow-
ing  steps  for  each  file  in addition to those normally
taken on import: creating a new revision on the main trunk
indicating  that  the  new file is dead, resetting the new
file's default branch, and placing the file in  the  Attic
(see node Attic' in the CVS manual) directory.

Use  of  this  option  can  be forced on a repository-wide
basis  by  setting  the   ImportNewFilesToVendorBranchOnly
option  in  CVSROOT/config  (see  node config' in the CVS
manual).

import output
import keeps you informed of its progress by printing a line
for each file, preceded by one character indicating the sta-
tus of the file:

U file

The file already exists in the repository and has not been
locally modified; a new revision has been created (if nec-
essary).

N file

The file is a new file which has been added to the reposi-
tory.

C file

The  file  already  exists  in the repository but has been
locally modified; you will have to merge the changes.

I file

The file is being ignored (see node cvsignore' in the CVS
manual).

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L file

The  file  is a symbolic link; cvs import ignores symbolic
links.  People periodically  suggest  that  this  behavior
should  be changed, but if there is a consensus on what it
should be  changed  to,  it  is  not  apparent.   (Various
options  in  the modules file can be used to recreate sym-
bolic links on checkout, update, etc.; see node  modules'
in the CVS manual.)

import examples
See  see  node Tracking sources' in the CVS manual, and see
node From files' in the CVS manual.

log
o Synopsis: log [options] [files...]

o Requires: repository, working directory.

o Changes: nothing.

rcs  utility rlog.  Although this is no longer true in the
current sources, this history determines the format of the
output  and  the options, which are not quite in the style
of the other cvs commands.

The output includes the location of the rcs file, the head
revision  (the latest revision on the trunk), all symbolic
names (tags) and some other things.   For  each  revision,
the  revision  number, the date, the author, the number of
lines added/deleted, the commitid and the log message  are
printed.   All  dates  are  displayed in local time at the
client. This is typically specified in the $TZ environment variable, which can be set to govern how log displays dates. Note: log uses -R in a way that conflicts with the normal use inside cvs (see node Common options' in the CVS man- ual). log options By default, log prints all information that is available. All other options restrict the output. Note that the revi- sion selection options (-d, -r, -s, and -w) have no effect, other than possibly causing a search for files in Attic directories, when used in conjunction with the options that SunOS 5.11 Last change: 57 User Commands CVS(1) restrict the output to only log header fields (-b, -h, -R, and -t) unless the -S option is also specified. -b Print information about the revisions on the default branch, normally the highest branch on the trunk. -d dates Print information about revisions with a checkin date/time in the range given by the semicolon-separated list of dates. The date formats accepted are those accepted by the -D option to many other cvs commands (see node Common options' in the CVS manual). Dates can be combined into ranges as follows: d1<d2 d2>d1 Select the revisions that were deposited between d1 and d2. <d d> Select all revisions dated d or earlier. d< >d Select all revisions dated d or later. d SunOS 5.11 Last change: 58 User Commands CVS(1) Select the single, latest revision dated d or earlier. The > or < characters may be followed by = to indicate an inclusive range rather than an exclusive one. Note that the separator is a semicolon (;). -h Print only the name of the rcs file, name of the file in the working directory, head, default branch, access list, locks, symbolic names, and suffix. -l Local; run only in current working directory. (Default is to run recursively). -N Do not print the list of tags for this file. This option can be very useful when your site uses a lot of tags, so rather than "more"'ing over 3 pages of tag information, the log information is presented without tags at all. -R Print only the name of the rcs file. -rrevisions Print information about revisions given in the comma-sepa- rated list revisions of revisions and ranges. The follow- ing table explains the available range formats: rev1:rev2 Revisions rev1 to rev2 (which must be on the same branch). SunOS 5.11 Last change: 59 User Commands CVS(1) rev1::rev2 The same, but excluding rev1. :rev ::rev Revisions from the beginning of the branch up to and including rev. rev: Revisions starting with rev to the end of the branch containing rev. rev:: Revisions starting just after rev to the end of the branch containing rev. branch An argument that is a branch means all revisions on that branch. branch1:branch2 branch1::branch2 A range of branches means all revisions on the branches in that range. branch. The latest revision in branch. A bare -r with no revisions means the latest revision on the default branch, normally the trunk. There can be no space between the -r option and its argument. SunOS 5.11 Last change: 60 User Commands CVS(1) -S Suppress the header if no revisions are selected. -s states Print information about revisions whose state attributes match one of the states given in the comma-separated list states. Individual states may be any text string, though cvs commonly only uses two states, Exp and dead. See see node admin options' in the CVS manual for more informa- tion. -t Print the same as -h, plus the descriptive text. -wlogins Print information about revisions checked in by users with login names appearing in the comma-separated list logins. If logins is omitted, the user's login is assumed. There can be no space between the -w option and its argument. log prints the intersection of the revisions selected with the options -d, -s, and -w, intersected with the union of the revisions selected by -b and -r. log examples Since log shows dates in local time, you might want to see them in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) or some other time- zone. To do this you can set your$TZ environment  variable
before invoking cvs:

$TZ=UTC cvs log foo.c$ TZ=EST cvs log bar.c

(If  you  are  using a csh-style shell, like tcsh, you would
need to prefix the examples above with env.)

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ls & rls
o ls [-e | -l] [-RP] [-r tag[:date]] [-D date] [path...]

o Requires: repository for rls, repository & working  direc-
tory for ls.

o Changes: nothing.

o Synonym:  dir  & list are synonyms for ls and rdir & rlist
are synonyms for rls.

The ls and rls commands are used to list files and  direc-
tories in the repository.

By  default ls lists the files and directories that belong
in your working directory, what would be  there  after  an
update.

By  default rls lists the files and directories on the tip
of the trunk in the topmost directory of the repository.

Both commands accept an optional list of file  and  direc-
tory  names,  relative to the working directory for ls and
the topmost directory of the repository for rls.   Neither
is recursive by default.

ls & rls options
These standard options are supported by ls & rls:

-d

Show dead revisions (with tag when specified).

-e

Display  in  CVS/Entries  format.  This format is meant to
remain easily parsable by automation.

-l

Display all details.

-P

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Don't list contents of empty directories when recursing.

-R

List recursively.

-r tag[:date]

Show files specified by tag or, when date is specified and
tag is a branch tag, the version from the branch tag as it
existed on date.  See see node Common options' in the CVS
manual.

-D date

Show files from date.

rls examples
$cvs rls cvs rls: Listing module: .' CVSROOT first-dir$ cvs rls CVSROOT
cvs rls: Listing module: CVSROOT'
checkoutlist
commitinfo
config
cvswrappers
modules
notify
rcsinfo
taginfo
verifymsg

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rdiff
'patch' format diffs between releases
o rdiff  [-flags]  [-V  vn] (-r tag1[:date1] | -D date1) [-r
tag2[:date2] | -D date2] modules...

o Requires: repository.

o Changes: nothing.

o Synonym: patch

Builds a Larry  Wall  format  patch(1)  file  between  two
releases,  that can be fed directly into the patch program
to bring an old release up-to-date with the  new  release.
(This  is  one  of  the  few  cvs  commands  that operates
directly from the repository, and doesn't require a  prior
checkout.)  The diff output is sent to the standard output
device.

You can specify (using the standard -r and -D options) any
combination of one or two revisions or dates.  If only one
revision or date is specified,  the  patch  file  reflects
differences  between that revision or date and the current
head revisions in the rcs file.

Note that if the software release affected is contained in
more than one directory, then it may be necessary to spec-
ify the -p option to the patch command when  patching  the
old  sources, so that patch is able to find the files that
are located in other directories.

rdiff options
These standard options are  supported  by  rdiff  (see  node
Common  options' in the CVS manual, for a complete descrip-
tion of them):

-D date

Use the most recent revision no later than date.

-f

If no matching revision is found, retrieve the most recent
revision (instead of ignoring the file).

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-k kflag

Process  keywords  according to kflag.  See see node Key-
word substitution' in the CVS manual.

-l

Local; don't descend subdirectories.

-R

Examine directories recursively.  This  option  is  on  by
default.

-r tag

Use  the revision specified by tag, or when date is speci-
fied and tag is a branch tag, the version from the  branch
tag  as it existed on date.  See see node Common options'
in the CVS manual.

In addition to the above, these options are available:

-c

Use the context diff format.  This is the default  format.

-s

Create  a  summary  change report instead of a patch.  The
summary includes information about files that were changed
or added between the releases.  It is sent to the standard
output device.  This is useful for finding out, for  exam-
ple,  which  files have changed between two dates or revi-
sions.

-t

A diff of the top two revisions is sent  to  the  standard
output  device.   This  is most useful for seeing what the

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last change to a file was.

-u

Use the unidiff format for the  context  diffs.   Remember
that  old  versions  of the patch program can't handle the
unidiff format, so if you plan to post this patch  to  the
net you should probably not use -u.

-V vn

Expand keywords according to the rules current in rcs ver-
sion vn (the expansion format changed with rcs version 5).
Note  that  this  option  is no longer accepted.  cvs will
always expand keywords the way that rcs version 5 does.

rdiff examples
update from release 1.2 to 1.4 of the tc compiler.  You have
no such patches on hand, but with cvs  that  can  easily  be
fixed with a command such as this:

$cvs rdiff -c -r FOO1_2 -r FOO1_4 tc | \$$Mail -s 'The patches you asked for' foo@example.net Suppose you have made release 1.3, and forked a branch called R_1_3fix for bug fixes. R_1_3_1 corresponds to release 1.3.1, which was made some time ago. Now, you want to see how much development has been done on the branch. This command can be used:$ cvs patch -s -r R_1_3_1 -r R_1_3fix module-name
cvs rdiff: Diffing module-name
File   ChangeLog,v   changed  from  revision  1.52.2.5  to
1.52.2.6
File foo.c,v changed from revision 1.52.2.3 to 1.52.2.4
File bar.h,v changed from revision 1.29.2.1 to 1.2

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release
Indicate that a Module is no longer in use
o release [-d] directories...

o Requires: Working directory.

o Changes: Working directory, history log.

This command is meant to safely cancel the effect  of  cvs
checkout.  Since cvs doesn't lock files, it isn't strictly
necessary to use this  command.   You  can  always  simply
delete  your  working directory, if you like; but you risk
losing changes you may have forgotten, and  you  leave  no
trace  in the cvs history file (see node history file' in
the CVS manual) that you've abandoned your checkout.

Use cvs release to avoid  these  problems.   This  command
checks  that  no uncommitted changes are present; that you
are executing it from  immediately  above  a  cvs  working
directory; and that the repository recorded for your files
is the same as the repository defined in the module  data-
base.

If  all  these  conditions  are true, cvs release leaves a
record of its execution (attesting to  your  intentionally
abandoning your checkout) in the cvs history log.

release options
The release command supports one command option:

-d

Delete  your  working copy of the file if the release suc-
ceeds.  If this flag is not given your files  will  remain

WARNING:   The release command deletes all directories and
files recursively.  This has the very serious  side-effect
that  any  directory  that  you  have  created inside your
checked-out sources,  and  not  added  to  the  repository
(using the add command; see node Adding files' in the CVS
manual) will be silently deleted--even if it is non-empty!

release output
Before  release  releases  your sources it will print a one-
line message for any file that is not up-to-date.

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U file

P file

There exists a newer revision of this file in the  reposi-
tory,  and  you  have  not modified your local copy of the
file (U and P mean the same thing).

A file

sources, but has not yet been committed to the repository.
If you delete your copy of the sources this file  will  be
lost.

R file

The  file  has  been removed from your private copy of the
sources, but has not yet been removed from the repository,
since  you  have  not yet committed the removal.  see node
commit' in the CVS manual.

M file

The file is modified in  your  working  directory.   There
might also be a newer revision inside the repository.

? file

file is in your working directory, but does not correspond
to anything in the source repository, and is  not  in  the
list  of  files  for cvs to ignore (see the description of
the -I option, and see node cvsignore' in  the  CVS  man-
ual).   If you remove your working sources, this file will
be lost.

release examples
Release the tc directory, and delete your local working copy
of the files.

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$cd .. # You must stand immediately above the # sources when you issue cvs release.$ cvs release -d tc
You have [0] altered files in this repository.
Are  you  sure  you want to release (and delete) directory
tc': y
$server & pserver Act as a server for a client on stdin/stdout o pserver [-c path] server [-c path] o Requires: repository, client conversation on stdin/stdout o Changes: Repository or, indirectly, client working direc- tory. The cvs server and pserver commands are used to provide repository access to remote clients and expect a client conversation on stdin & stdout. Typically these commands are launched from inetd or via ssh (see node Remote repositories' in the CVS manual). server expects that the client has already been authenti- cated somehow, typically via ssh, and pserver attempts to authenticate the client itself. Only one option is available with the server and pserver commands: -c path Load configuration from path rather than the default loca- tion$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/config (see node config' in the CVS
manual).   path  must  be  /etc/cvs.conf  or  prefixed  by
/etc/cvs/.   This  option  is supported beginning with cvs
release 1.12.13.

update
Bring work tree in sync with repository
o update [-ACdflPpR] [-I name] [-j rev [-j rev]] [-k  kflag]
[-r tag[:date] | -D date] [-W spec] files...

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o Requires: repository, working directory.

o Changes: working directory.

After  you've  run checkout to create your private copy of
source from the common repository, other  developers  will
continue  changing the central source.  From time to time,
when it is convenient in your development process, you can
use  the update command from within your working directory
to reconcile your work with any revisions applied  to  the
source  repository  since  your  last  checkout or update.
Without the -C option, update will also merge any  differ-
ences between the local copy of files and their base revi-
sions into any destination revisions  specified  with  -r,
-D, or -A.

update options
These  standard  options are available with update (see node
Common options' in the CVS manual, for a complete  descrip-
tion of them):

-D date

Use  the  most  recent  revision no later than date.  This
option is sticky, and implies -P.  See  see  node  Sticky
tags/dates.

-f

Only useful with the -D or -r flags.  If no matching revi-
sion  is found, retrieve the most recent revision (instead
of ignoring the file).

-k kflag

Process keywords according to kflag.  See see  node  Key-
word  substitution'  in  the  CVS  manual.  This option is
sticky; future updates of this file in this working direc-
tory  will  use the same kflag.  The status command can be
viewed to see the sticky options.  See see node  Invoking
command.

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-l

Local; run only in current working  directory.   see  node
Recursive behavior' in the CVS manual.

-P

Prune  empty  directories.   See see node Moving directo-
ries' in the CVS manual.

-p

Pipe files to the standard output.

-R

Update  directories  recursively  (default).    see   node
Recursive behavior' in the CVS manual.

-r tag[:date]

Retrieve  the  revisions specified by tag or, when date is
specified and tag is a branch tag, the  version  from  the
branch  tag as it existed on date.  This option is sticky,
and implies -P.  See see node Sticky  tags'  in  the  CVS
manual,  for  more  information on sticky tags/dates. Also
see see node Common options' in the CVS manual.

These special options are also available with update.

-A

Reset any sticky tags, dates, or -k options.  See see node
sticky tags/dates.

-C

Overwrite locally modified files with  clean  copies  from

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the repository (the modified file is saved in

-d

Create  any  directories  that  exist in the repository if
they're missing from  the  working  directory.   Normally,
update  acts  only  on  directories  and  files  that were

This is useful for updating directories that were  created
in  the  repository since the initial checkout; but it has
an unfortunate side effect.  If you  deliberately  avoided
certain  directories  in  the  repository when you created
your working directory (either through  use  of  a  module
name  or  by  listing explicitly the files and directories
you wanted on the command line),  then  updating  with  -d
will  create  those directories, which may not be what you
want.

-I name

Ignore files whose  names  match  name  (in  your  working
directory)  during  the  update.   You can specify -I more
than once on the command line to specify several files  to
ignore.  Use -I ! to avoid ignoring any files at all.  see
node cvsignore' in the CVS manual, for other ways to make
cvs ignore some files.

-Wspec

Specify  file names that should be filtered during update.
You can use this option repeatedly.

spec can be a file name pattern of the same type that  you
can  specify in the .cvswrappers file. see node Wrappers'
in the CVS manual.

-jrevision

With two -j options, merge changes from the revision spec-
ified  with  the first -j option to the revision specified
with the second j option, into the working directory.

With one  -j  option,  merge  changes  from  the  ancestor

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revision  to  the  revision  specified with the -j option,
into the working directory.  The ancestor revision is  the
common  ancestor  of the revision which the working direc-
tory is based on, and the revision  specified  in  the  -j
option.

Note  that using a single -j tagname option rather than -j
branchname to merge changes from a branch will  often  not
remove  files  which were removed on the branch.  see node
Merging adds and removals' in the CVS manual, for more.

In addition, each -j option can contain an  optional  date
specification  which,  when  used with branches, can limit
the chosen revision to one within  a  specific  date.   An
optional  date  is  specified by adding a colon (:) to the
tag: -jSymbolic_Tag:Date_Specifier.

see node Branching and merging' in the CVS manual.

update output
update and checkout keep you informed of their  progress  by
printing  a  line  for  each file, preceded by one character
indicating the status of the file:

U file

The file was brought up to date with respect to the repos-
itory.   This  is  done  for  any  file that exists in the
repository but not in  your  working  directory,  and  for
files that you haven't changed but are not the most recent
versions available in the repository.

P file

Like U, but the cvs server sends a  patch  instead  of  an
entire  file.  This accomplishes the same thing as U using
less bandwidth.

A file

sources,  and  will be added to the source repository when
you run commit on the file.  This is  a  reminder  to  you
that the file needs to be committed.

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R file

The  file  has  been removed from your private copy of the
sources, and will be removed from  the  source  repository
when  you  run  commit on the file.  This is a reminder to
you that the file needs to be committed.

M file

The file is modified in  your  working  directory.

M can indicate one of two states for a file you're working
on: either there were no modifications to the same file in
the repository, so that your file remains as you last  saw
it;  or there were modifications in the repository as well
as in your copy, but they were merged successfully,  with-
out conflict, in your working directory.

cvs will print some messages if it merges your work, and a
backup copy of your working file (as it looked before  you
ran  update) will be made.  The exact name of that file is
printed while update runs.

C file

A conflict was detected while trying to merge your changes
to  file  with  changes  from the source repository.  file
(the copy in your working directory) is now the result  of
attempting  to merge the two revisions; an unmodified copy
name is the revision that your modified file started from.
Resolve the conflict as described in see  node  Conflicts
example' in the CVS manual.  (Note that some systems auto-
matically purge files that begin with .# if they have  not
been  accessed  for  a  few days.  If you intend to keep a
copy of your original file, it is  a  very  good  idea  to
rename  it.)   Under  vms,  the  file  name starts with __
rather than .#.

? file

file is in your working directory, but does not correspond
to  anything  in  the source repository, and is not in the
list of files for cvs to ignore (see  the  description  of
the  -I  option,  and  see  node  cvsignore'  in  the CVS

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manual).

AUTHORS
Dick Grune
Original author of the cvs shell script version  posted
to  comp.sources.unix  in the volume6 release of Decem-
ber, 1986.  Credited with much of the cvs conflict res-
olution algorithms.

Brian Berliner
Coder  and designer of the cvs program itself in April,
1989, based on the original work done by Dick.

Jeff Polk
Helped Brian with the design of the cvs module and ven-
dor  branch  support and author of the checkin(1) shell
script (the ancestor of cvs import).

Larry Jones, Derek R. Price, and Mark D. Baushke
Have helped maintain cvs for many years.

And many others too numerous to mention here.

ATTRIBUTES
See  attributes(5)  for  descriptions   of   the   following
attributes:

+---------------+--------------------------+
|ATTRIBUTE TYPE |     ATTRIBUTE VALUE      |
+---------------+--------------------------+
|Availability   | developer/versioning/cvs |
+---------------+--------------------------+
|Stability      | Committed                |
+---------------+--------------------------+
The  most comprehensive manual for CVS is Version Management
with CVS by Per Cederqvist et al.  Depending on your system,
you  may  be  able to get it with the info CVS command or it
may be available  as  cvs.pdf  (Portable  Document  Format),
cvs.ps   (PostScript),   cvs.texinfo  (Texinfo  source),  or
cvs.html.

related to CVS, development of CVS, and more, see:

http://www.nongnu.org/cvs/

ci(1),  co(1),  cvs(5),  cvsbug(8),  diff(1),  grep(1), patch(1),
rcs(1), rcsdiff(1), rcsmerge(1), rlog(1).

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NOTES
This  software  was   built   from   source   available   at
https://java.net/projects/solaris-userland.    The  original
http://ftp.gnu.org/non-gnu/cvs/source/fea-
ture/1.12.13/cvs-1.12.13.tar.bz2

open source community website at http://www.nongnu.org/cvs/.

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