man pages section 1: User Commands

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Updated: July 2014

tr (1g)


tr - translate or delete characters


tr [OPTION]... SET1 [SET2]


User Commands                                               TR(1)

     tr - translate or delete characters

     tr [OPTION]... SET1 [SET2]

     Translate,  squeeze,  and/or delete characters from standard
     input, writing to standard output.

     -c, -C, --complement
          use the complement of SET1

     -d, --delete
          delete characters in SET1, do not translate

     -s, --squeeze-repeats
          replace each input sequence  of  a  repeated  character
          that is listed in SET1 with a single occurrence of that

     -t, --truncate-set1
          first truncate SET1 to length of SET2

          display this help and exit

          output version information and exit

     SETs are specified as strings of characters.  Most represent
     themselves.  Interpreted sequences are:

     \NNN character with octal value NNN (1 to 3 octal digits)

     \\   backslash

     \a   audible BEL

     \b   backspace

     \f   form feed

     \n   new line

     \r   return

     \t   horizontal tab

     \v   vertical tab


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User Commands                                               TR(1)

          all characters from CHAR1 to CHAR2 in ascending order

          in SET2, copies of CHAR until length of SET1

          REPEAT copies of CHAR, REPEAT octal if starting with 0

          all letters and digits

          all letters

          all horizontal whitespace

          all control characters

          all digits

          all printable characters, not including space

          all lower case letters

          all printable characters, including space

          all punctuation characters

          all horizontal or vertical whitespace

          all upper case letters

          all hexadecimal digits

          all characters which are equivalent to CHAR

     Translation occurs if -d is not given and both SET1 and SET2
     appear.  -t may be used  only  when  translating.   SET2  is
     extended  to  length of SET1 by repeating its last character
     as necessary.  Excess characters of SET2 are ignored.   Only
     [:lower:]   and   [:upper:]  are  guaranteed  to  expand  in

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User Commands                                               TR(1)

     ascending order; used in SET2 while  translating,  they  may
     only  be  used in pairs to specify case conversion.  -s uses
     SET1 if not translating nor deleting;  else  squeezing  uses
     SET2 and occurs after translation or deletion.

     Written by Jim Meyering.

     Report tr bugs to
     GNU  coreutils home page: <
     General help using GNU  software:  <
     Report   tr   translation  bugs  to  <http://translationpro->

     Copyright (C) 2012 Free Software Foundation,  Inc.   License
     GPLv3+:      GNU      GPL     version     3     or     later
     This is free software: you are free  to  change  and  redis-
     tribute  it.   There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted
     by law.

     See  attributes(5)  for  descriptions   of   the   following

     |Availability   | file/gnu-coreutils |
     |Stability      | Uncommitted        |
     The  full  documentation  for  tr is maintained as a Texinfo
     manual.  If the info and tr programs are properly  installed
     at your site, the command

          info coreutils 'tr invocation'

     should give you access to the complete manual.

     This   software   was   built   from   source  available  at   The   original
     community       source       was       downloaded       from

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User Commands                                               TR(1)

     Further information about this software can be found on  the
     open  source  community  website at

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