man pages section 1: User Commands

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Updated: July 2014

mysql_upgrade (1)


mysql_upgrade - check and upgrade MySQL tables


mysql_upgrade [options]


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     mysql_upgrade - check and upgrade MySQL tables

     mysql_upgrade [options]

     mysql_upgrade examines all tables in all databases for
     incompatibilities with the current version of MySQL Server.
     mysql_upgrade also upgrades the system tables so that you
     can take advantage of new privileges or capabilities that
     might have been added.

     mysql_upgrade should be executed each time you upgrade

     If mysql_upgrade finds that a table has a possible
     incompatibility, it performs a table check and, if problems
     are found, attempts a table repair. If the table cannot be
     repaired, see Section 2.12.4, "Rebuilding or Repairing
     Tables or Indexes" for manual table repair strategies.


         On Windows Server 2008, Vista, and newer, you must run
         mysql_upgrade with administrator privileges. You can do
         this by running a Command Prompt as Administrator and
         running the command. Failure to do so may result in the
         upgrade failing to execute correctly.


         You should always back up your current MySQL
         installation before performing an upgrade. See
         Section 7.2, "Database Backup Methods".

         Some upgrade incompatibilities may require special
         handling before you upgrade your MySQL installation and
         run mysql_upgrade. See Section 2.12.1, "Upgrading
         MySQL", for instructions on determining whether any such
         incompatibilities apply to your installation and how to
         handle them.

     To use mysql_upgrade, make sure that the server is running,
     and then invoke it like this:

         shell> mysql_upgrade [options]

     After running mysql_upgrade, stop the server and restart it
     so that any changes made to the system tables take effect.

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     mysql_upgrade executes the following commands to check and
     repair tables and to upgrade the system tables:

         mysqlcheck --all-databases --check-upgrade --auto-repair
         mysql < fix_priv_tables
         mysqlcheck --all-databases --check-upgrade --fix-db-names --fix-table-names

     Notes about the preceding commands:

     o   Because mysql_upgrade invokes mysqlcheck with the
         --all-databases option, it processes all tables in all
         databases, which might take a long time to complete.
         Each table is locked and therefore unavailable to other
         sessions while it is being processed. Check and repair
         operations can be time-consuming, particularly for large

     o   For details about what checks the --check-upgrade option
         entails, see the description of the FOR UPGRADE option
         of the CHECK TABLE statement (see Section,
         "CHECK TABLE Syntax").

     o   fix_priv_tables represents a script generated internally
         by mysql_upgrade that contains SQL statements to upgrade
         the tables in the mysql database.

     All checked and repaired tables are marked with the current
     MySQL version number. This ensures that next time you run
     mysql_upgrade with the same version of the server, it can
     tell whether there is any need to check or repair the table

     mysql_upgrade also saves the MySQL version number in a file
     named mysql_upgrade_info in the data directory. This is used
     to quickly check whether all tables have been checked for
     this release so that table-checking can be skipped. To
     ignore this file and perform the check regardless, use the
     --force option.

     If you install MySQL from RPM packages on Linux, you must
     install the server and client RPMs.  mysql_upgrade is
     included in the server RPM but requires the client RPM
     because the latter includes mysqlcheck. (See Section 2.5.1,
     "Installing MySQL from RPM Packages on Linux".)

     mysql_upgrade does not upgrade the contents of the help
     tables. For upgrade instructions, see Section 5.1.10,
     "Server-Side Help".

     mysql_upgrade supports the following options, which can be
     specified on the command line or in the [mysql_upgrade] and
     [client] groups of an option file. Other options are passed

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     to mysqlcheck. For example, it might be necessary to specify
     the --password[=password] option.  mysql_upgrade also
     supports the options for processing option files described
     at Section, "Command-Line Options that Affect
     Option-File Handling".

     o   --help

         Display a short help message and exit.

     o   --basedir=path

         The path to the MySQL installation directory. This
         option is accepted for backward compatibility but

     o   --datadir=path

         The path to the data directory. This option is accepted
         for backward compatibility but ignored.

     o   --debug-check

         Print some debugging information when the program exits.

     o   --debug-info, -T

         Print debugging information and memory and CPU usage
         statistics when the program exits.

     o   --default-auth=plugin

         The client-side authentication plugin to use. See
         Section 6.3.6, "Pluggable Authentication".

         This option was added in MySQL 5.5.10.

     o   --force

         Ignore the mysql_upgrade_info file and force execution
         of mysqlcheck even if mysql_upgrade has already been
         executed for the current version of MySQL.

     o   --plugin-dir=path

         The directory in which to look for plugins. It may be
         necessary to specify this option if the --default-auth
         option is used to specify an authentication plugin but
         mysql_upgrade does not find it. See Section 6.3.6,
         "Pluggable Authentication".

         This option was added in MySQL 5.5.10.

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     o   --tmpdir=path, -t path

         The path name of the directory to use for creating
         temporary files.

     o   --upgrade-system-tables, -s

         Upgrade only the system tables, do not upgrade data.

     o   --user=user_name, -u user_name

         The MySQL user name to use when connecting to the
         server. The default user name is root.

     o   --verbose

         Verbose mode. Print more information about what the
         program does.

     o   --version-check, -k

         Check the version of the server to which mysql_upgrade
         is connecting to verify that it is the same as the
         version for which mysql_upgrade was built. If not,
         mysql_upgrade exits. This option is enabled by default;
         to disable the check, use --skip-version-check. This
         option was added in MySQL 5.5.32.

     o   --write-binlog

         Cause binary logging to be enabled while mysql_upgrade
         runs. This is the default behavior; to disable binary
         logging during the upgrade, use the inverse of this
         option (that is, start the program with

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