man pages section 1: User Commands

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Updated: July 2014

git-push (1)


git-push - Update remote refs along with associated objects


git push [--all | --mirror | --tags] [-n | --dry-run] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
[--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [-v | --verbose] [-u | --set-upstream]
[<repository> [<refspec>...]]


Git Manual                                            GIT-PUSH(1)

     git-push - Update remote refs along with associated objects

     git push [--all | --mirror | --tags] [-n | --dry-run] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
                [--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [-v | --verbose] [-u | --set-upstream]
                [<repository> [<refspec>...]]

     Updates remote refs using local refs, while sending objects
     necessary to complete the given refs.

     You can make interesting things happen to a repository every
     time you push into it, by setting up hooks there. See
     documentation for git-receive-pack(1).

         The "remote" repository that is destination of a push
         operation. This parameter can be either a URL (see the
         section GIT URLS below) or the name of a remote (see the
         section REMOTES below).

         The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus
         +, followed by the source ref <src>, followed by a colon
         :, followed by the destination ref <dst>. It is used to
         specify with what <src> object the <dst> ref in the
         remote repository is to be updated.

         The <src> is often the name of the branch you would want
         to push, but it can be any arbitrary "SHA-1 expression",
         such as master~4 or HEAD (see gitrevisions(5)).

         The <dst> tells which ref on the remote side is updated
         with this push. Arbitrary expressions cannot be used
         here, an actual ref must be named. If :<dst> is omitted,
         the same ref as <src> will be updated.

         The object referenced by <src> is used to update the
         <dst> reference on the remote side, but by default this
         is only allowed if the update can fast-forward <dst>. By
         having the optional leading +, you can tell git to
         update the <dst> ref even when the update is not a
         fast-forward. This does not attempt to merge <src> into
         <dst>. See EXAMPLES below for details.

         tag <tag> means the same as

         Pushing an empty <src> allows you to delete the <dst>

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         ref from the remote repository.

         The special refspec : (or +: to allow non-fast-forward
         updates) directs git to push "matching" branches: for
         every branch that exists on the local side, the remote
         side is updated if a branch of the same name already
         exists on the remote side. This is the default operation
         mode if no explicit refspec is found (that is neither on
         the command line nor in any Push line of the
         corresponding remotes file---see below).

         Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
         refs under refs/heads/ be pushed.

         Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
         refs under refs/ (which includes but is not limited to
         refs/heads/, refs/remotes/, and refs/tags/) be mirrored
         to the remote repository. Newly created local refs will
         be pushed to the remote end, locally updated refs will
         be force updated on the remote end, and deleted refs
         will be removed from the remote end. This is the default
         if the configuration option remote.<remote>.mirror is

     -n, --dry-run
         Do everything except actually send the updates.

         Produce machine-readable output. The output status line
         for each ref will be tab-separated and sent to stdout
         instead of stderr. The full symbolic names of the refs
         will be given.

         All listed refs are deleted from the remote repository.
         This is the same as prefixing all refs with a colon.

         All refs under refs/tags are pushed, in addition to
         refspecs explicitly listed on the command line.

     --receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>, --exec=<git-receive-pack>
         Path to the git-receive-pack program on the remote end.
         Sometimes useful when pushing to a remote repository
         over ssh, and you do not have the program in a directory
         on the default $PATH.

     -f, --force
         Usually, the command refuses to update a remote ref that
         is not an ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite

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         it. This flag disables the check. This can cause the
         remote repository to lose commits; use it with care.

         This option is only relevant if no <repository> argument
         is passed in the invocation. In this case, git push
         derives the remote name from the current branch: If it
         tracks a remote branch, then that remote repository is
         pushed to. Otherwise, the name "origin" is used. For
         this latter case, this option can be used to override
         the name "origin". In other words, the difference
         between these two commands

             git push public         #1
             git push --repo=public  #2

         is that #1 always pushes to "public" whereas #2 pushes
         to "public" only if the current branch does not track a
         remote branch. This is useful if you write an alias or
         script around git push.

     -u, --set-upstream
         For every branch that is up to date or successfully
         pushed, add upstream (tracking) reference, used by
         argument-less git-pull(1) and other commands. For more
         information, see branch.<name>.merge in git-config(1).

     --thin, --no-thin
         These options are passed to git-send-pack(1). A thin
         transfer significantly reduces the amount of sent data
         when the sender and receiver share many of the same
         objects in common. The default is --thin.

     -q, --quiet
         Suppress all output, including the listing of updated
         refs, unless an error occurs. Progress is not reported
         to the standard error stream.

     -v, --verbose
         Run verbosely.

         Progress status is reported on the standard error stream
         by default when it is attached to a terminal, unless -q
         is specified. This flag forces progress status even if
         the standard error stream is not directed to a terminal.

         Check whether all submodule commits used by the
         revisions to be pushed are available on a remote
         tracking branch. Otherwise the push will be aborted and
         the command will exit with non-zero status.

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Git Manual                                            GIT-PUSH(1)

     In general, URLs contain information about the transport
     protocol, the address of the remote server, and the path to
     the repository. Depending on the transport protocol, some of
     this information may be absent.

     Git natively supports ssh, git, http, https, ftp, ftps, and
     rsync protocols. The following syntaxes may be used with

     o   ssh://[user@]host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

     o   git://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

     o   http[s]://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

     o   ftp[s]://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

     o   rsync://host.xz/path/to/repo.git/

     An alternative scp-like syntax may also be used with the ssh

     o   [user@]host.xz:path/to/repo.git/

     The ssh and git protocols additionally support ~username

     o   ssh://[user@]host.xz[:port]/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

     o   git://host.xz[:port]/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

     o   [user@]host.xz:/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

     For local repositories, also supported by git natively, the
     following syntaxes may be used:

     o   /path/to/repo.git/

     o    file:///path/to/repo.git/

     These two syntaxes are mostly equivalent, except when
     cloning, when the former implies --local option. See git-
     clone(1) for details.

     When git doesn't know how to handle a certain transport
     protocol, it attempts to use the remote-<transport> remote
     helper, if one exists. To explicitly request a remote
     helper, the following syntax may be used:

     o   <transport>::<address>

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Git Manual                                            GIT-PUSH(1)

     where <address> may be a path, a server and path, or an
     arbitrary URL-like string recognized by the specific remote
     helper being invoked. See git-remote-helpers(1) for details.

     If there are a large number of similarly-named remote
     repositories and you want to use a different format for them
     (such that the URLs you use will be rewritten into URLs that
     work), you can create a configuration section of the form:

                 [url "<actual url base>"]
                         insteadOf = <other url base>

     For example, with this:

                 [url "git://"]
                         insteadOf = host.xz:/path/to/
                         insteadOf = work:

     a URL like "work:repo.git" or like
     "host.xz:/path/to/repo.git" will be rewritten in any context
     that takes a URL to be "git://".

     If you want to rewrite URLs for push only, you can create a
     configuration section of the form:

                 [url "<actual url base>"]
                         pushInsteadOf = <other url base>

     For example, with this:

                 [url "ssh://"]
                         pushInsteadOf = git://

     a URL like "git://" will be
     rewritten to "ssh://" for
     pushes, but pulls will still use the original URL.

     The name of one of the following can be used instead of a
     URL as <repository> argument:

     o   a remote in the git configuration file: $GIT_DIR/config,

     o   a file in the $GIT_DIR/remotes directory, or

     o   a file in the $GIT_DIR/branches directory.

     All of these also allow you to omit the refspec from the

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     command line because they each contain a refspec which git
     will use by default.

  Named remote in configuration file
     You can choose to provide the name of a remote which you had
     previously configured using git-remote(1), git-config(1) or
     even by a manual edit to the $GIT_DIR/config file. The URL
     of this remote will be used to access the repository. The
     refspec of this remote will be used by default when you do
     not provide a refspec on the command line. The entry in the
     config file would appear like this:

                 [remote "<name>"]
                         url = <url>
                         pushurl = <pushurl>
                         push = <refspec>
                         fetch = <refspec>

     The <pushurl> is used for pushes only. It is optional and
     defaults to <url>.

  Named file in $GIT_DIR/remotes
     You can choose to provide the name of a file in
     $GIT_DIR/remotes. The URL in this file will be used to
     access the repository. The refspec in this file will be used
     as default when you do not provide a refspec on the command
     line. This file should have the following format:

                 URL: one of the above URL format
                 Push: <refspec>
                 Pull: <refspec>

     Push: lines are used by git push and Pull: lines are used by
     git pull and git fetch. Multiple Push: and Pull: lines may
     be specified for additional branch mappings.

  Named file in $GIT_DIR/branches
     You can choose to provide the name of a file in
     $GIT_DIR/branches. The URL in this file will be used to
     access the repository. This file should have the following


     <url> is required; #<head> is optional.

     Depending on the operation, git will use one of the
     following refspecs, if you don't provide one on the command
     line. <branch> is the name of this file in $GIT_DIR/branches

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     and <head> defaults to master.

     git fetch uses:


     git push uses:


     The output of "git push" depends on the transport method
     used; this section describes the output when pushing over
     the git protocol (either locally or via ssh).

     The status of the push is output in tabular form, with each
     line representing the status of a single ref. Each line is
     of the form:

          <flag> <summary> <from> -> <to> (<reason>)

     If --porcelain is used, then each line of the output is of
     the form:

          <flag> \t <from>:<to> \t <summary> (<reason>)

     The status of up-to-date refs is shown only if --porcelain
     or --verbose option is used.

         A single character indicating the status of the ref:

             for a successfully pushed fast-forward;

             for a successful forced update;

             for a successfully deleted ref;

             for a successfully pushed new ref;

             for a ref that was rejected or failed to push; and

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             for a ref that was up to date and did not need

         For a successfully pushed ref, the summary shows the old
         and new values of the ref in a form suitable for using
         as an argument to git log (this is <old>..<new> in most
         cases, and <old>...<new> for forced non-fast-forward

         For a failed update, more details are given:

             Git did not try to send the ref at all, typically
             because it is not a fast-forward and you did not
             force the update.

         remote rejected
             The remote end refused the update. Usually caused by
             a hook on the remote side, or because the remote
             repository has one of the following safety options
             in effect: receive.denyCurrentBranch (for pushes to
             the checked out branch), receive.denyNonFastForwards
             (for forced non-fast-forward updates),
             receive.denyDeletes or receive.denyDeleteCurrent.
             See git-config(1).

         remote failure
             The remote end did not report the successful update
             of the ref, perhaps because of a temporary error on
             the remote side, a break in the network connection,
             or other transient error.

         The name of the local ref being pushed, minus its
         refs/<type>/ prefix. In the case of deletion, the name
         of the local ref is omitted.

         The name of the remote ref being updated, minus its
         refs/<type>/ prefix.

         A human-readable explanation. In the case of
         successfully pushed refs, no explanation is needed. For
         a failed ref, the reason for failure is described.

     When an update changes a branch (or more in general, a ref)
     that used to point at commit A to point at another commit B,
     it is called a fast-forward update if and only if B is a

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     descendant of A.

     In a fast-forward update from A to B, the set of commits
     that the original commit A built on top of is a subset of
     the commits the new commit B builds on top of. Hence, it
     does not lose any history.

     In contrast, a non-fast-forward update will lose history.
     For example, suppose you and somebody else started at the
     same commit X, and you built a history leading to commit B
     while the other person built a history leading to commit A.
     The history looks like this:


     Further suppose that the other person already pushed changes
     leading to A back to the original repository you two
     obtained the original commit X.

     The push done by the other person updated the branch that
     used to point at commit X to point at commit A. It is a

     But if you try to push, you will attempt to update the
     branch (that now points at A) with commit B. This does not
     fast-forward. If you did so, the changes introduced by
     commit A will be lost, because everybody will now start
     building on top of B.

     The command by default does not allow an update that is not
     a fast-forward to prevent such loss of history.

     If you do not want to lose your work (history from X to B)
     nor the work by the other person (history from X to A), you
     would need to first fetch the history from the repository,
     create a history that contains changes done by both parties,
     and push the result back.

     You can perform "git pull", resolve potential conflicts, and
     "git push" the result. A "git pull" will create a merge
     commit C between commits A and B.

              /   /

     Updating A with the resulting merge commit will fast-forward
     and your push will be accepted.

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     Alternatively, you can rebase your change between X and B on
     top of A, with "git pull --rebase", and push the result
     back. The rebase will create a new commit D that builds the
     change between X and B on top of A.

               B   D
              /   /

     Again, updating A with this commit will fast-forward and
     your push will be accepted.

     There is another common situation where you may encounter
     non-fast-forward rejection when you try to push, and it is
     possible even when you are pushing into a repository nobody
     else pushes into. After you push commit A yourself (in the
     first picture in this section), replace it with "git commit
     --amend" to produce commit B, and you try to push it out,
     because forgot that you have pushed A out already. In such a
     case, and only if you are certain that nobody in the
     meantime fetched your earlier commit A (and started building
     on top of it), you can run "git push --force" to overwrite
     it. In other words, "git push --force" is a method reserved
     for a case where you do mean to lose history.

     git push
         Works like git push <remote>, where <remote> is the
         current branch's remote (or origin, if no remote is
         configured for the current branch).

     git push origin
         Without additional configuration, works like git push
         origin :.

         The default behavior of this command when no <refspec>
         is given can be configured by setting the push option of
         the remote.

         For example, to default to pushing only the current
         branch to origin use git config remote.origin.push HEAD.
         Any valid <refspec> (like the ones in the examples
         below) can be configured as the default for git push

     git push origin :
         Push "matching" branches to origin. See <refspec> in the
         OPTIONS section above for a description of "matching"

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     git push origin master
         Find a ref that matches master in the source repository
         (most likely, it would find refs/heads/master), and
         update the same ref (e.g.  refs/heads/master) in origin
         repository with it. If master did not exist remotely, it
         would be created.

     git push origin HEAD
         A handy way to push the current branch to the same name
         on the remote.

     git push origin master:satellite/master dev:satellite/dev
         Use the source ref that matches master (e.g.
         refs/heads/master) to update the ref that matches
         satellite/master (most probably
         refs/remotes/satellite/master) in the origin repository,
         then do the same for dev and satellite/dev.

     git push origin HEAD:master
         Push the current branch to the remote ref matching
         master in the origin repository. This form is convenient
         to push the current branch without thinking about its
         local name.

     git push origin master:refs/heads/experimental
         Create the branch experimental in the origin repository
         by copying the current master branch. This form is only
         needed to create a new branch or tag in the remote
         repository when the local name and the remote name are
         different; otherwise, the ref name on its own will work.

     git push origin :experimental
         Find a ref that matches experimental in the origin
         repository (e.g.  refs/heads/experimental), and delete

     git push origin +dev:master
         Update the origin repository's master branch with the
         dev branch, allowing non-fast-forward updates.  This can
         leave unreferenced commits dangling in the origin
         repository.  Consider the following situation, where a
         fast-forward is not possible:

                         o---o---o---A---B  origin/master
                                   X---Y---Z  dev

         The above command would change the origin repository to

                                   A---B  (unnamed branch)
                         o---o---o---X---Y---Z  master

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         Commits A and B would no longer belong to a branch with
         a symbolic name, and so would be unreachable. As such,
         these commits would be removed by a git gc command on
         the origin repository.

     Part of the git(1) suite

     See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following

     |Availability   | developer/versioning/git |
     |Stability      | Uncommitted              |
     This software was built from source available at  The original
     community source was downloaded from  http://git-

     Further information about this software can be found on the
     open source community website at

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