man pages section 1: User Commands

Exit Print View

Updated: July 2014

mysql (1)


mysql - line tool


mysql [options] db_name


MySQL Database System                                    MYSQL(1)

     mysql - the MySQL command-line tool

     mysql [options] db_name

     mysql is a simple SQL shell with input line editing
     capabilities. It supports interactive and noninteractive
     use. When used interactively, query results are presented in
     an ASCII-table format. When used noninteractively (for
     example, as a filter), the result is presented in
     tab-separated format. The output format can be changed using
     command options.

     If you have problems due to insufficient memory for large
     result sets, use the --quick option. This forces mysql to
     retrieve results from the server a row at a time rather than
     retrieving the entire result set and buffering it in memory
     before displaying it. This is done by returning the result
     set using the mysql_use_result() C API function in the
     client/server library rather than mysql_store_result().

     Using mysql is very easy. Invoke it from the prompt of your
     command interpreter as follows:

         shell> mysql db_name


         shell> mysql --user=user_name --password=your_password db_name

     Then type an SQL statement, end it with ";", \g, or \G and
     press Enter.

     Typing Control+C causes mysql to attempt to kill the current
     statement. If this cannot be done, or Control+C is typed
     again before the statement is killed, mysql exits.
     Previously, Control+C caused mysql to exit in all cases.

     You can execute SQL statements in a script file (batch file)
     like this:

         shell> mysql db_name < script.sql >

     On Unix, the mysql client writes a record of executed
     statements to a history file. See the section called "MYSQL

     mysql supports the following options, which can be specified
     on the command line or in the [mysql] and [client] groups of

MySQL 5.5            Last change: 03/22/2013                    1

MySQL Database System                                    MYSQL(1)

     an option file.  mysql also supports the options for
     processing option files described at Section,
     "Command-Line Options that Affect Option-File Handling".

     o   --help, -?

         Display a help message and exit.

     o   --auto-rehash

         Enable automatic rehashing. This option is on by
         default, which enables database, table, and column name
         completion. Use --disable-auto-rehash to disable
         rehashing. That causes mysql to start faster, but you
         must issue the rehash command if you want to use name

         To complete a name, enter the first part and press Tab.
         If the name is unambiguous, mysql completes it.
         Otherwise, you can press Tab again to see the possible
         names that begin with what you have typed so far.
         Completion does not occur if there is no default

     o   --auto-vertical-output

         Cause result sets to be displayed vertically if they are
         too wide for the current window, and using normal
         tabular format otherwise. (This applies to statements
         terminated by ; or \G.) This option was added in MySQL

     o   --batch, -B

         Print results using tab as the column separator, with
         each row on a new line. With this option, mysql does not
         use the history file.

         Batch mode results in nontabular output format and
         escaping of special characters. Escaping may be disabled
         by using raw mode; see the description for the --raw

     o   --bind-address=ip_address

         On a computer having multiple network interfaces, this
         option can be used to select which interface is employed
         when connecting to the MySQL server.

         This option is supported only in the version of the
         mysql client that is supplied with MySQL Cluster. It is
         not available in standard MySQL Server 5.5 releases.

MySQL 5.5            Last change: 03/22/2013                    2

MySQL Database System                                    MYSQL(1)

     o   --character-sets-dir=path

         The directory where character sets are installed. See
         Section 10.5, "Character Set Configuration".

     o   --column-names

         Write column names in results.

     o   --column-type-info, -m

         Display result set metadata.

     o   --comments, -c

         Whether to preserve comments in statements sent to the
         server. The default is --skip-comments (discard
         comments), enable with --comments (preserve comments).

     o   --compress, -C

         Compress all information sent between the client and the
         server if both support compression.

     o   --database=db_name, -D db_name

         The database to use. This is useful primarily in an
         option file.

     o   --debug[=debug_options], -# [debug_options]

         Write a debugging log. A typical debug_options string is
         'd:t:o,file_name'. The default is

     o   --debug-check

         Print some debugging information when the program exits.

     o   --debug-info, -T

         Print debugging information and memory and CPU usage
         statistics when the program exits.

     o   --default-auth=plugin

         The client-side authentication plugin to use. See
         Section 6.3.6, "Pluggable Authentication".

         This option was added in MySQL 5.5.7.

     o   --default-character-set=charset_name

MySQL 5.5            Last change: 03/22/2013                    3

MySQL Database System                                    MYSQL(1)

         Use charset_name as the default character set for the
         client and connection.

         A common issue that can occur when the operating system
         uses utf8 or another multi-byte character set is that
         output from the mysql client is formatted incorrectly,
         due to the fact that the MySQL client uses the latin1
         character set by default. You can usually fix such
         issues by using this option to force the client to use
         the system character set instead.

         See Section 10.5, "Character Set Configuration", for
         more information.

     o   --delimiter=str

         Set the statement delimiter. The default is the
         semicolon character (";").

     o   --disable-named-commands

         Disable named commands. Use the \* form only, or use
         named commands only at the beginning of a line ending
         with a semicolon (";").  mysql starts with this option
         enabled by default. However, even with this option,
         long-format commands still work from the first line. See
         the section called "MYSQL COMMANDS".

     o   --enable-cleartext-plugin

         Enable the mysql_clear_password cleartext authentication
         plugin. (See Section, "The Cleartext Client-Side
         Authentication Plugin".) This option was added in MySQL

     o   --execute=statement, -e statement

         Execute the statement and quit. The default output
         format is like that produced with --batch. See
         Section, "Using Options on the Command Line",
         for some examples. With this option, mysql does not use
         the history file.

     o   --force, -f

         Continue even if an SQL error occurs.

     o   --host=host_name, -h host_name

         Connect to the MySQL server on the given host.

     o   --html, -H

MySQL 5.5            Last change: 03/22/2013                    4

MySQL Database System                                    MYSQL(1)

         Produce HTML output.

     o   --ignore-spaces, -i

         Ignore spaces after function names. The effect of this
         is described in the discussion for the IGNORE_SPACE SQL
         mode (see Section 5.1.7, "Server SQL Modes").

     o   --init-command=str

         SQL statement to execute after connecting to the server.
         If auto-reconnect is enabled, the statement is executed
         again after reconnection occurs.

     o   --line-numbers

         Write line numbers for errors. Disable this with

     o   --local-infile[={0|1}]

         Enable or disable LOCAL capability for LOAD DATA INFILE.
         With no value, the option enables LOCAL. The option may
         be given as --local-infile=0 or --local-infile=1 to
         explicitly disable or enable LOCAL. Enabling LOCAL has
         no effect if the server does not also support it.

     o   --named-commands, -G

         Enable named mysql commands. Long-format commands are
         permitted, not just short-format commands. For example,
         quit and \q both are recognized. Use
         --skip-named-commands to disable named commands. See the
         section called "MYSQL COMMANDS".

     o   --no-auto-rehash, -A

         This has the same effect as -skip-auto-rehash. See the
         description for --auto-rehash.

     o   --no-beep, -b

         Do not beep when errors occur.

     o   --no-named-commands, -g

         Deprecated, use --disable-named-commands instead.
         --no-named-commands was removed in MySQL 5.5.3.

     o   --no-pager

         Deprecated form of --skip-pager. See the --pager option.

MySQL 5.5            Last change: 03/22/2013                    5

MySQL Database System                                    MYSQL(1)

         --no-pager was removed in MySQL 5.5.3.

     o   --no-tee

         Deprecated form of --skip-tee. See the --tee option.
         --no-tee is removed in MySQL 5.5.3.

     o   --one-database, -o

         Ignore statements except those that occur while the
         default database is the one named on the command line.
         This option is rudimentary and should be used with care.
         Statement filtering is based only on USE statements.

         Initially, mysql executes statements in the input
         because specifying a database db_name on the command
         line is equivalent to inserting USE db_name at the
         beginning of the input. Then, for each USE statement
         encountered, mysql accepts or rejects following
         statements depending on whether the database named is
         the one on the command line. The content of the
         statements is immaterial.

         Suppose that mysql is invoked to process this set of

             DELETE FROM db2.t2;
             USE db2;
             DROP TABLE db1.t1;
             CREATE TABLE db1.t1 (i INT);
             USE db1;
             INSERT INTO t1 (i) VALUES(1);
             CREATE TABLE db2.t1 (j INT);

         If the command line is mysql --force --one-database db1,
         mysql handles the input as follows:

         o   The DELETE statement is executed because the default
             database is db1, even though the statement names a
             table in a different database.

         o   The DROP TABLE and CREATE TABLE statements are not
             executed because the default database is not db1,
             even though the statements name a table in db1.

         o   The INSERT and CREATE TABLE statements are executed
             because the default database is db1, even though the
             CREATE TABLE statement names a table in a different

     o   --pager[=command]

MySQL 5.5            Last change: 03/22/2013                    6

MySQL Database System                                    MYSQL(1)

         Use the given command for paging query output. If the
         command is omitted, the default pager is the value of
         your PAGER environment variable. Valid pagers are less,
         more, cat [> filename], and so forth. This option works
         only on Unix and only in interactive mode. To disable
         paging, use --skip-pager.  the section called "MYSQL
         COMMANDS", discusses output paging further.

     o   --password[=password], -p[password]

         The password to use when connecting to the server. If
         you use the short option form (-p), you cannot have a
         space between the option and the password. If you omit
         the password value following the --password or -p option
         on the command line, mysql prompts for one.

         Specifying a password on the command line should be
         considered insecure. See Section, "End-User
         Guidelines for Password Security". You can use an option
         file to avoid giving the password on the command line.

     o   --pipe, -W

         On Windows, connect to the server using a named pipe.
         This option applies only if the server supports
         named-pipe connections.

     o   --plugin-dir=path

         The directory in which to look for plugins. It may be
         necessary to specify this option if the --default-auth
         option is used to specify an authentication plugin but
         mysql does not find it. See Section 6.3.6, "Pluggable

         This option was added in MySQL 5.5.7.

     o   --port=port_num, -P port_num

         The TCP/IP port number to use for the connection.

     o   --prompt=format_str

         Set the prompt to the specified format. The default is
         mysql>. The special sequences that the prompt can
         contain are described in the section called "MYSQL

     o   --protocol={TCP|SOCKET|PIPE|MEMORY}

         The connection protocol to use for connecting to the
         server. It is useful when the other connection

MySQL 5.5            Last change: 03/22/2013                    7

MySQL Database System                                    MYSQL(1)

         parameters normally would cause a protocol to be used
         other than the one you want. For details on the
         permissible values, see Section 4.2.2, "Connecting to
         the MySQL Server".

     o   --quick, -q

         Do not cache each query result, print each row as it is
         received. This may slow down the server if the output is
         suspended. With this option, mysql does not use the
         history file.

     o   --raw, -r

         For tabular output, the "boxing" around columns enables
         one column value to be distinguished from another. For
         nontabular output (such as is produced in batch mode or
         when the --batch or --silent option is given), special
         characters are escaped in the output so they can be
         identified easily. Newline, tab, NUL, and backslash are
         written as \n, \t, \0, and \\. The --raw option disables
         this character escaping.

         The following example demonstrates tabular versus
         nontabular output and the use of raw mode to disable

             % mysql
             mysql> SELECT CHAR(92);
             | CHAR(92) |
             | \        |
             % mysql -s
             mysql> SELECT CHAR(92);
             % mysql -s -r
             mysql> SELECT CHAR(92);

     o   --reconnect

         If the connection to the server is lost, automatically
         try to reconnect. A single reconnect attempt is made
         each time the connection is lost. To suppress
         reconnection behavior, use --skip-reconnect.

     o   --safe-updates, --i-am-a-dummy, -U

MySQL 5.5            Last change: 03/22/2013                    8

MySQL Database System                                    MYSQL(1)

         Permit only those UPDATE and DELETE statements that
         specify which rows to modify by using key values. If you
         have set this option in an option file, you can override
         it by using --safe-updates on the command line. See the
         section called "MYSQL TIPS", for more information about
         this option.

     o   --secure-auth

         Do not send passwords to the server in old (pre-4.1.1)
         format. This prevents connections except for servers
         that use the newer password format.

     o   --show-warnings

         Cause warnings to be shown after each statement if there
         are any. This option applies to interactive and batch

     o   --sigint-ignore

         Ignore SIGINT signals (typically the result of typing

     o   --silent, -s

         Silent mode. Produce less output. This option can be
         given multiple times to produce less and less output.

         This option results in nontabular output format and
         escaping of special characters. Escaping may be disabled
         by using raw mode; see the description for the --raw

     o   --skip-column-names, -N

         Do not write column names in results.

     o   --skip-line-numbers, -L

         Do not write line numbers for errors. Useful when you
         want to compare result files that include error

     o   --socket=path, -S path

         For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to
         use, or, on Windows, the name of the named pipe to use.

     o   --ssl*

         Options that begin with --ssl specify whether to connect

MySQL 5.5            Last change: 03/22/2013                    9

MySQL Database System                                    MYSQL(1)

         to the server using SSL and indicate where to find SSL
         keys and certificates. See Section, "SSL Command

     o   --table, -t

         Display output in table format. This is the default for
         interactive use, but can be used to produce table output
         in batch mode.

     o   --tee=file_name

         Append a copy of output to the given file. This option
         works only in interactive mode.  the section called
         "MYSQL COMMANDS", discusses tee files further.

     o   --unbuffered, -n

         Flush the buffer after each query.

     o   --user=user_name, -u user_name

         The MySQL user name to use when connecting to the

     o   --verbose, -v

         Verbose mode. Produce more output about what the program
         does. This option can be given multiple times to produce
         more and more output. (For example, -v -v -v produces
         table output format even in batch mode.)

     o   --version, -V

         Display version information and exit.

     o   --vertical, -E

         Print query output rows vertically (one line per column
         value). Without this option, you can specify vertical
         output for individual statements by terminating them
         with \G.

     o   --wait, -w

         If the connection cannot be established, wait and retry
         instead of aborting.

     o   --xml, -X

         Produce XML output.

MySQL 5.5            Last change: 03/22/2013                   10

MySQL Database System                                    MYSQL(1)

             <field name="column_name">NULL</field>

         The output when --xml is used with mysql matches that of
         mysqldump --xml. See mysqldump(1) for details.

         The XML output also uses an XML namespace, as shown

             shell> mysql --xml -uroot -e "SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'version%'"
             <?xml version="1.0"?>
             <resultset statement="SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'version%'" xmlns:xsi="">
             <field name="Variable_name">version</field>
             <field name="Value">5.0.40-debug</field>
             <field name="Variable_name">version_comment</field>
             <field name="Value">Source distribution</field>
             <field name="Variable_name">version_compile_machine</field>
             <field name="Value">i686</field>
             <field name="Variable_name">version_compile_os</field>
             <field name="Value">suse-linux-gnu</field>

         (See Bug #25946.)

     You can also set the following variables by using
     --var_name=value. The --set-variable format is deprecated
     and was removed in MySQL 5.5.3.

     o   connect_timeout

         The number of seconds before connection timeout.
         (Default value is 0.)

     o   max_allowed_packet

         The maximum packet length to send to or receive from the
         server. (Default value is 16MB.)

     o   max_join_size

         The automatic limit for rows in a join when using
         --safe-updates. (Default value is 1,000,000.)

     o   net_buffer_length

MySQL 5.5            Last change: 03/22/2013                   11

MySQL Database System                                    MYSQL(1)

         The buffer size for TCP/IP and socket communication.
         (Default value is 16KB.)

     o   select_limit

         The automatic limit for SELECT statements when using
         --safe-updates. (Default value is 1,000.)

     mysql sends each SQL statement that you issue to the server
     to be executed. There is also a set of commands that mysql
     itself interprets. For a list of these commands, type help
     or \h at the mysql> prompt:

         mysql> help
         List of all MySQL commands:
         Note that all text commands must be first on line and end with ';'
         ?         (\?) Synonym for `help'.
         clear     (\c) Clear command.
         connect   (\r) Reconnect to the server. Optional arguments are db and host.
         delimiter (\d) Set statement delimiter.
         edit      (\e) Edit command with $EDITOR.
         ego       (\G) Send command to mysql server, display result vertically.
         exit      (\q) Exit mysql. Same as quit.
         go        (\g) Send command to mysql server.
         help      (\h) Display this help.
         nopager   (\n) Disable pager, print to stdout.
         notee     (\t) Don't write into outfile.
         pager     (\P) Set PAGER [to_pager]. Print the query results via PAGER.
         print     (\p) Print current command.
         prompt    (\R) Change your mysql prompt.
         quit      (\q) Quit mysql.
         rehash    (\#) Rebuild completion hash.
         source    (\.) Execute an SQL script file. Takes a file name as an argument.
         status    (\s) Get status information from the server.
         system    (\!) Execute a system shell command.
         tee       (\T) Set outfile [to_outfile]. Append everything into given
         use       (\u) Use another database. Takes database name as argument.
         charset   (\C) Switch to another charset. Might be needed for processing
                        binlog with multi-byte charsets.
         warnings  (\W) Show warnings after every statement.
         nowarning (\w) Don't show warnings after every statement.
         For server side help, type 'help contents'

     Each command has both a long and short form. The long form
     is not case sensitive; the short form is. The long form can
     be followed by an optional semicolon terminator, but the
     short form should not.

     The use of short-form commands within multi-line /* ... */
     comments is not supported.

MySQL 5.5            Last change: 03/22/2013                   12

MySQL Database System                                    MYSQL(1)

     o   help [arg], \h [arg], \? [arg], ? [arg]

         Display a help message listing the available mysql

         If you provide an argument to the help command, mysql
         uses it as a search string to access server-side help
         from the contents of the MySQL Reference Manual. For
         more information, see the section called "MYSQL SERVER-
         SIDE HELP".

     o   charset charset_name, \C charset_name

         Change the default character set and issue a SET NAMES
         statement. This enables the character set to remain
         synchronized on the client and server if mysql is run
         with auto-reconnect enabled (which is not recommended),
         because the specified character set is used for

     o   clear, \c

         Clear the current input. Use this if you change your
         mind about executing the statement that you are

     o   connect [db_name host_name]], \r [db_name host_name]]

         Reconnect to the server. The optional database name and
         host name arguments may be given to specify the default
         database or the host where the server is running. If
         omitted, the current values are used.

     o   delimiter str, \d str

         Change the string that mysql interprets as the separator
         between SQL statements. The default is the semicolon
         character (";").

         The delimiter string can be specified as an unquoted or
         quoted argument on the delimiter command line. Quoting
         can be done with either single quote ('), double quote
         ("), or backtick (`) characters. To include a quote
         within a quoted string, either quote the string with a
         different quote character or escape the quote with a
         backslash ("\") character. Backslash should be avoided
         outside of quoted strings because it is the escape
         character for MySQL. For an unquoted argument, the
         delimiter is read up to the first space or end of line.
         For a quoted argument, the delimiter is read up to the
         matching quote on the line.

MySQL 5.5            Last change: 03/22/2013                   13

MySQL Database System                                    MYSQL(1)

         mysql interprets instances of the delimiter string as a
         statement delimiter anywhere it occurs, except within
         quoted strings. Be careful about defining a delimiter
         that might occur within other words. For example, if you
         define the delimiter as X, you will be unable to use the
         word INDEX in statements.  mysql interprets this as INDE
         followed by the delimiter X.

         When the delimiter recognized by mysql is set to
         something other than the default of ";", instances of
         that character are sent to the server without
         interpretation. However, the server itself still
         interprets ";" as a statement delimiter and processes
         statements accordingly. This behavior on the server side
         comes into play for multiple-statement execution (see
         Section 22.8.16, "C API Support for Multiple Statement
         Execution"), and for parsing the body of stored
         procedures and functions, triggers, and events (see
         Section 19.1, "Defining Stored Programs").

     o   edit, \e

         Edit the current input statement.  mysql checks the
         values of the EDITOR and VISUAL environment variables to
         determine which editor to use. The default editor is vi
         if neither variable is set.

         The edit command works only in Unix.

     o   ego, \G

         Send the current statement to the server to be executed
         and display the result using vertical format.

     o   exit, \q

         Exit mysql.

     o   go, \g

         Send the current statement to the server to be executed.

     o   nopager, \n

         Disable output paging. See the description for pager.

         The nopager command works only in Unix.

     o   notee, \t

         Disable output copying to the tee file. See the
         description for tee.

MySQL 5.5            Last change: 03/22/2013                   14

MySQL Database System                                    MYSQL(1)

     o   nowarning, \w

         Enable display of warnings after each statement.

     o   pager [command], \P [command]

         Enable output paging. By using the --pager option when
         you invoke mysql, it is possible to browse or search
         query results in interactive mode with Unix programs
         such as less, more, or any other similar program. If you
         specify no value for the option, mysql checks the value
         of the PAGER environment variable and sets the pager to
         that. Pager functionality works only in interactive

         Output paging can be enabled interactively with the
         pager command and disabled with nopager. The command
         takes an optional argument; if given, the paging program
         is set to that. With no argument, the pager is set to
         the pager that was set on the command line, or stdout if
         no pager was specified.

         Output paging works only in Unix because it uses the
         popen() function, which does not exist on Windows. For
         Windows, the tee option can be used instead to save
         query output, although it is not as convenient as pager
         for browsing output in some situations.

     o   print, \p

         Print the current input statement without executing it.

     o   prompt [str], \R [str]

         Reconfigure the mysql prompt to the given string. The
         special character sequences that can be used in the
         prompt are described later in this section.

         If you specify the prompt command with no argument,
         mysql resets the prompt to the default of mysql>.

     o   quit, \q

         Exit mysql.

     o   rehash, \#

         Rebuild the completion hash that enables database,
         table, and column name completion while you are entering
         statements. (See the description for the --auto-rehash

MySQL 5.5            Last change: 03/22/2013                   15

MySQL Database System                                    MYSQL(1)

     o   source file_name, \. file_name

         Read the named file and executes the statements
         contained therein. On Windows, you can specify path name
         separators as / or \\.

     o   status, \s

         Provide status information about the connection and the
         server you are using. If you are running in
         --safe-updates mode, status also prints the values for
         the mysql variables that affect your queries.

     o   system command, \! command

         Execute the given command using your default command

         The system command works only in Unix.

     o   tee [file_name], \T [file_name]

         By using the --tee option when you invoke mysql, you can
         log statements and their output. All the data displayed
         on the screen is appended into a given file. This can be
         very useful for debugging purposes also.  mysql flushes
         results to the file after each statement, just before it
         prints its next prompt. Tee functionality works only in
         interactive mode.

         You can enable this feature interactively with the tee
         command. Without a parameter, the previous file is used.
         The tee file can be disabled with the notee command.
         Executing tee again re-enables logging.

     o   use db_name, \u db_name

         Use db_name as the default database.

     o   warnings, \W

         Enable display of warnings after each statement (if
         there are any).

     Here are a few tips about the pager command:

     o   You can use it to write to a file and the results go
         only to the file:

             mysql> pager cat > /tmp/log.txt

         You can also pass any options for the program that you

MySQL 5.5            Last change: 03/22/2013                   16

MySQL Database System                                    MYSQL(1)

         want to use as your pager:

             mysql> pager less -n -i -S

     o   In the preceding example, note the -S option. You may
         find it very useful for browsing wide query results.
         Sometimes a very wide result set is difficult to read on
         the screen. The -S option to less can make the result
         set much more readable because you can scroll it
         horizontally using the left-arrow and right-arrow keys.
         You can also use -S interactively within less to switch
         the horizontal-browse mode on and off. For more
         information, read the less manual page:

             shell> man less

     o   The -F and -X options may be used with less to cause it
         to exit if output fits on one screen, which is
         convenient when no scrolling is necessary:

             mysql> pager less -n -i -S -F -X

     o   You can specify very complex pager commands for handling
         query output:

             mysql> pager cat | tee /dr1/tmp/res.txt \
                       | tee /dr2/tmp/res2.txt | less -n -i -S

         In this example, the command would send query results to
         two files in two different directories on two different
         file systems mounted on /dr1 and /dr2, yet still display
         the results onscreen using less.

     You can also combine the tee and pager functions. Have a tee
     file enabled and pager set to less, and you are able to
     browse the results using the less program and still have
     everything appended into a file the same time. The
     difference between the Unix tee used with the pager command
     and the mysql built-in tee command is that the built-in tee
     works even if you do not have the Unix tee available. The
     built-in tee also logs everything that is printed on the
     screen, whereas the Unix tee used with pager does not log
     quite that much. Additionally, tee file logging can be
     turned on and off interactively from within mysql. This is
     useful when you want to log some queries to a file, but not

     The prompt command reconfigures the default mysql> prompt.
     The string for defining the prompt can contain the following
     special sequences.

MySQL 5.5            Last change: 03/22/2013                   17

MySQL Database System                                    MYSQL(1)

     You can set the prompt in several ways:

     o   Use an environment variable.  You can set the MYSQL_PS1
         environment variable to a prompt string. For example:

             shell> export MYSQL_PS1="(\u@\h) [\d]> "

     o   Use a command-line option.  You can set the --prompt
         option on the command line to mysql. For example:

             shell> mysql --prompt="(\u@\h) [\d]> "
             (user@host) [database]>

     o   Use an option file.  You can set the prompt option in
         the [mysql] group of any MySQL option file, such as
         /etc/my.cnf or the .my.cnf file in your home directory.
         For example:

             prompt=(\\u@\\h) [\\d]>\\_

         In this example, note that the backslashes are doubled.
         If you set the prompt using the prompt option in an
         option file, it is advisable to double the backslashes
         when using the special prompt options. There is some
         overlap in the set of permissible prompt options and the
         set of special escape sequences that are recognized in
         option files. (The rules for escape sequences in option
         files are listed in Section, "Using Option
         Files".) The overlap may cause you problems if you use
         single backslashes. For example, \s is interpreted as a
         space rather than as the current seconds value. The
         following example shows how to define a prompt within an
         option file to include the current time in HH:MM:SS>

             prompt="\\r:\\m:\\s> "

     o   Set the prompt interactively.  You can change your
         prompt interactively by using the prompt (or \R)
         command. For example:

             mysql> prompt (\u@\h) [\d]>\_
             PROMPT set to '(\u@\h) [\d]>\_'
             (user@host) [database]>
             (user@host) [database]> prompt
             Returning to default PROMPT of mysql>


MySQL 5.5            Last change: 03/22/2013                   18

MySQL Database System                                    MYSQL(1)

     On Unix, the mysql client writes a record of executed
     statements to a history file. By default, this file is named
     .mysql_history and is created in your home directory. To
     specify a different file, set the value of the
     MYSQL_HISTFILE environment variable.

     The .mysql_history should be protected with a restrictive
     access mode because sensitive information might be written
     to it, such as the text of SQL statements that contain
     passwords. See Section, "End-User Guidelines for
     Password Security".

     mysql does not write statements to the history file when
     used noninteractively (for example, when reading input from
     a file or a pipe). It is also possible to explicitly
     suppress logging of statements to the history file by using
     the --batch or --execute option.

     If you do not want to maintain a history file, first remove
     .mysql_history if it exists, and then use either of the
     following techniques:

     o   Set the MYSQL_HISTFILE variable to /dev/null. To cause
         this setting to take effect each time you log in, put
         the setting in one of your shell's startup files.

     o   Create .mysql_history as a symbolic link to /dev/null:

             shell> ln -s /dev/null $HOME/.mysql_history

         You need do this only once.

         mysql> help search_string

     If you provide an argument to the help command, mysql uses
     it as a search string to access server-side help from the
     contents of the MySQL Reference Manual. The proper operation
     of this command requires that the help tables in the mysql
     database be initialized with help topic information (see
     Section 5.1.10, "Server-Side Help").

     If there is no match for the search string, the search

         mysql> help me
         Nothing found
         Please try to run 'help contents' for a list of all accessible topics

     Use help contents to see a list of the help categories:

         mysql> help contents

MySQL 5.5            Last change: 03/22/2013                   19

MySQL Database System                                    MYSQL(1)

         You asked for help about help category: "Contents"
         For more information, type 'help <item>', where <item> is one of the
         following categories:
            Account Management
            Data Definition
            Data Manipulation
            Data Types
            Functions and Modifiers for Use with GROUP BY
            Geographic Features
            Language Structure
            Storage Engines
            Stored Routines
            Table Maintenance

     If the search string matches multiple items, mysql shows a
     list of matching topics:

         mysql> help logs
         Many help items for your request exist.
         To make a more specific request, please type 'help <item>',
         where <item> is one of the following topics:
            SHOW BINARY LOGS
            SHOW ENGINE
            SHOW LOGS

     Use a topic as the search string to see the help entry for
     that topic:

         mysql> help show binary logs
         Name: 'SHOW BINARY LOGS'
         Lists the binary log files on the server. This statement is used as
         part of the procedure described in [purge-binary-logs], that shows how
         to determine which logs can be purged.
         mysql> SHOW BINARY LOGS;
         | Log_name      | File_size |
         | binlog.000015 |    724935 |
         | binlog.000016 |    733481 |

MySQL 5.5            Last change: 03/22/2013                   20

MySQL Database System                                    MYSQL(1)

     The mysql client typically is used interactively, like this:

         shell> mysql db_name

     However, it is also possible to put your SQL statements in a
     file and then tell mysql to read its input from that file.
     To do so, create a text file text_file that contains the
     statements you wish to execute. Then invoke mysql as shown

         shell> mysql db_name < text_file

     If you place a USE db_name statement as the first statement
     in the file, it is unnecessary to specify the database name
     on the command line:

         shell> mysql < text_file

     If you are already running mysql, you can execute an SQL
     script file using the source command or \.  command:

         mysql> source file_name
         mysql> \. file_name

     Sometimes you may want your script to display progress
     information to the user. For this you can insert statements
     like this:

         SELECT '<info_to_display>' AS ' ';

     The statement shown outputs <info_to_display>.

     You can also invoke mysql with the --verbose option, which
     causes each statement to be displayed before the result that
     it produces.

     mysql ignores Unicode byte order mark (BOM) characters at
     the beginning of input files. Previously, it read them and
     sent them to the server, resulting in a syntax error.
     Presence of a BOM does not cause mysql to change its default
     character set. To do that, invoke mysql with an option such
     as --default-character-set=utf8.

     For more information about batch mode, see Section 3.5,
     "Using mysql in Batch Mode".

     This section describes some techniques that can help you use
     mysql more effectively.

MySQL 5.5            Last change: 03/22/2013                   21

MySQL Database System                                    MYSQL(1)

  Displaying Query Results Vertically
     Some query results are much more readable when displayed
     vertically, instead of in the usual horizontal table format.
     Queries can be displayed vertically by terminating the query
     with \G instead of a semicolon. For example, longer text
     values that include newlines often are much easier to read
     with vertical output:

         mysql> SELECT * FROM mails WHERE LENGTH(txt) < 300 LIMIT 300,1\G
         *************************** 1. row ***************************
           msg_nro: 3068
              date: 2000-03-01 23:29:50
         time_zone: +0200
         mail_from: Monty
           mail_to: "Thimble Smith" <>
               sbj: UTF-8
               txt: >>>>> "Thimble" == Thimble Smith writes:
         Thimble> Hi.  I think this is a good idea.  Is anyone familiar
         Thimble> with UTF-8 or Unicode? Otherwise, I'll put this on my
         Thimble> TODO list and see what happens.
         Yes, please do that.
              file: inbox-jani-1
              hash: 190402944
         1 row in set (0.09 sec)

  Using the --safe-updates Option
     For beginners, a useful startup option is --safe-updates (or
     --i-am-a-dummy, which has the same effect). It is helpful
     for cases when you might have issued a DELETE FROM tbl_name
     statement but forgotten the WHERE clause. Normally, such a
     statement deletes all rows from the table. With
     --safe-updates, you can delete rows only by specifying the
     key values that identify them. This helps prevent accidents.

     When you use the --safe-updates option, mysql issues the
     following statement when it connects to the MySQL server:

         SET sql_safe_updates=1, sql_select_limit=1000, sql_max_join_size=1000000;

     See Section 5.1.4, "Server System Variables".

     The SET statement has the following effects:

     o   You are not permitted to execute an UPDATE or DELETE
         statement unless you specify a key constraint in the
         WHERE clause or provide a LIMIT clause (or both). For

             UPDATE tbl_name SET not_key_column=val WHERE key_column=val;

MySQL 5.5            Last change: 03/22/2013                   22

MySQL Database System                                    MYSQL(1)

             UPDATE tbl_name SET not_key_column=val LIMIT 1;

     o   The server limits all large SELECT results to 1,000 rows
         unless the statement includes a LIMIT clause.

     o   The server aborts multiple-table SELECT statements that
         probably need to examine more than 1,000,000 row

     To specify limits different from 1,000 and 1,000,000, you
     can override the defaults by using the --select_limit and
     --max_join_size options:

         shell> mysql --safe-updates --select_limit=500 --max_join_size=10000

  Disabling mysql Auto-Reconnect
     If the mysql client loses its connection to the server while
     sending a statement, it immediately and automatically tries
     to reconnect once to the server and send the statement
     again. However, even if mysql succeeds in reconnecting, your
     first connection has ended and all your previous session
     objects and settings are lost: temporary tables, the
     autocommit mode, and user-defined and session variables.
     Also, any current transaction rolls back. This behavior may
     be dangerous for you, as in the following example where the
     server was shut down and restarted between the first and
     second statements without you knowing it:

         mysql> SET @a=1;
         Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.05 sec)
         mysql> INSERT INTO t VALUES(@a);
         ERROR 2006: MySQL server has gone away
         No connection. Trying to reconnect...
         Connection id:    1
         Current database: test
         Query OK, 1 row affected (1.30 sec)
         mysql> SELECT * FROM t;
         | a    |
         | NULL |
         1 row in set (0.05 sec)

     The @a user variable has been lost with the connection, and
     after the reconnection it is undefined. If it is important
     to have mysql terminate with an error if the connection has
     been lost, you can start the mysql client with the
     --skip-reconnect option.

     For more information about auto-reconnect and its effect on
     state information when a reconnection occurs, see

MySQL 5.5            Last change: 03/22/2013                   23

MySQL Database System                                    MYSQL(1)

     Section 22.8.15, "Controlling Automatic Reconnection

     Copyright (C) 1997, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All
     rights reserved.

     This software and related documentation are provided under a
     license agreement containing restrictions on use and
     disclosure and are protected by intellectual property laws.
     Except as expressly permitted in your license agreement or
     allowed by law, you may not use, copy, reproduce, translate,
     broadcast, modify, license, transmit, distribute, exhibit,
     perform, publish, or display any part, in any form, or by
     any means. Reverse engineering, disassembly, or
     decompilation of this software, unless required by law for
     interoperability, is prohibited.

     The information contained herein is subject to change
     without notice and is not warranted to be error-free. If you
     find any errors, please report them to us in writing.

     If this software or related documentation is delivered to
     the U.S. Government or anyone licensing it on behalf of the
     U.S. Government, the following notice is applicable:

     U.S. GOVERNMENT RIGHTS Programs, software, databases, and
     related documentation and technical data delivered to U.S.
     Government customers are "commercial computer software" or
     "commercial technical data" pursuant to the applicable
     Federal Acquisition Regulation and agency-specific
     supplemental regulations. As such, the use, duplication,
     disclosure, modification, and adaptation shall be subject to
     the restrictions and license terms set forth in the
     applicable Government contract, and, to the extent
     applicable by the terms of the Government contract, the
     additional rights set forth in FAR 52.227-19, Commercial
     Computer Software License (December 2007). Oracle USA, Inc.,
     500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood City, CA 94065.

     This software is developed for general use in a variety of
     information management applications. It is not developed or
     intended for use in any inherently dangerous applications,
     including applications which may create a risk of personal
     injury. If you use this software in dangerous applications,
     then you shall be responsible to take all appropriate fail-
     safe, backup, redundancy, and other measures to ensure the
     safe use of this software. Oracle Corporation and its
     affiliates disclaim any liability for any damages caused by
     use of this software in dangerous applications.

MySQL 5.5            Last change: 03/22/2013                   24

MySQL Database System                                    MYSQL(1)

     Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation
     and/or its affiliates. MySQL is a trademark of Oracle
     Corporation and/or its affiliates, and shall not be used
     without Oracle's express written authorization. Other names
     may be trademarks of their respective owners.

     This software and documentation may provide access to or
     information on content, products, and services from third
     parties. Oracle Corporation and its affiliates are not
     responsible for and expressly disclaim all warranties of any
     kind with respect to third-party content, products, and
     services. Oracle Corporation and its affiliates will not be
     responsible for any loss, costs, or damages incurred due to
     your access to or use of third-party content, products, or

     This document in any form, software or printed matter,
     contains proprietary information that is the exclusive
     property of Oracle. Your access to and use of this material
     is subject to the terms and conditions of your Oracle
     Software License and Service Agreement, which has been
     executed and with which you agree to comply. This document
     and information contained herein may not be disclosed,
     copied, reproduced, or distributed to anyone outside Oracle
     without prior written consent of Oracle or as specifically
     provided below. This document is not part of your license
     agreement nor can it be incorporated into any contractual
     agreement with Oracle or its subsidiaries or affiliates.

     This documentation is NOT distributed under a GPL license.
     Use of this documentation is subject to the following terms:

     You may create a printed copy of this documentation solely
     for your own personal use. Conversion to other formats is
     allowed as long as the actual content is not altered or
     edited in any way. You shall not publish or distribute this
     documentation in any form or on any media, except if you
     distribute the documentation in a manner similar to how
     Oracle disseminates it (that is, electronically for download
     on a Web site with the software) or on a CD-ROM or similar
     medium, provided however that the documentation is
     disseminated together with the software on the same medium.
     Any other use, such as any dissemination of printed copies
     or use of this documentation, in whole or in part, in
     another publication, requires the prior written consent from
     an authorized representative of Oracle. Oracle and/or its
     affiliates reserve any and all rights to this documentation
     not expressly granted above.

     For more information on the terms of this license, or for
     details on how the MySQL documentation is built and
     produced, please visit blue]MySQL Contact & Questions].

MySQL 5.5            Last change: 03/22/2013                   25

MySQL Database System                                    MYSQL(1)

     For additional licensing information, including licenses for
     third-party libraries used by MySQL products, see Preface
     and Legal Notices.

     For help with using MySQL, please visit either the
     blue]MySQL Forums] or blue]MySQL Mailing Lists] where you
     can discuss your issues with other MySQL users.

     For additional documentation on MySQL products, including
     translations of the documentation into other languages, and
     downloadable versions in variety of formats, including HTML
     and PDF formats, see the blue]MySQL Documentation Library].

     See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following

     |Availability   | database/mysql-55/client |
     |Stability      | Uncommitted              |
     For more information, please refer to the MySQL Reference
     Manual, which may already be installed locally and which is
     also available online at

     Oracle Corporation (

     This software was built from source available at  The original
     community source was downloaded from

     Further information about this software can be found on the
     open source community website at

MySQL 5.5            Last change: 03/22/2013                   26